Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the northwest African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War. It roughly comprised the territory of present-day Tunisia, the northeast of Algeria, and the coast of western Libya along the Gulf of Sirte. The territory was originally inhabited by Berber people, known in Latin as Mauri (English: Moor; Spanish: Moro) indigenous to all of North Africa west of Egypt; in the 9th century BC, Phoenicians built settlements along the Mediterranean Sea to facilitate shipping, of which Carthage rose to dominance in the 8th century until its conquest by the Roman Republic.
AfricaAfrica ProconsularisRoman Africa
GibbonGibbon, EdwardGibbon, E.
Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 1737 – 16 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament. His most important work, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, was published in six volumes between 1776 and 1788 and is known for the quality and irony of its prose, its use of primary sources, and its polemical criticism of organised religion.
Chronicle of HydatiusIdaciusIdatius
Hydatius, also spelled Idacius (c. 400 – c. 469), bishop of Aquae Flaviae in the Roman province of Gallaecia (almost certainly the modern Chaves, Portugal, in the modern district of Vila Real) was the author of a chronicle of his own times that provides us with our best evidence for the history of Hispania (that is, the Iberian Peninsula in Roman times) in the 5th century.
Marcellinus Comes (died c. 534) was a Latin chronicler of the Eastern Roman Empire. An Illyrian by birth, he spent most of his life at the court of Constantinople, which is the focus of his surviving work.
Priscus of PaniumPriscus of PanionPriscus the Rhetor
Priscus of Panium (Greek: Πρίσκος) was a 5th-century Roman diplomat and Greek historian and rhetorician (or sophist).
John of AntiochJohn Antiochenus
John of Antioch was a 7th-century chronicler, who wrote in Greek. He was a monk, apparently contemporary with Emperor Heraclius (610–41). Gelzer (Sextus Julius Africanus, 41) identifies the author with the Monophysite Syrian Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch John of the Sedre, who ruled from 630 to 648.
A panegyric ( or ) is a formal public speech, or (in later use) written verse, delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally highly studied and undiscriminating eulogy, not expected to be critical.
AlaricAlaric II, King of the Visigoths
Alaric II (*Alareiks, "ruler of all"; c. 458/466August 507), also known as Alarik, Alarich, and Alarico in Spanish and Portuguese or Alaricus in Latin — succeeded his father Euric as king of the Visigoths in Toulouse on December 28, 484; he was the great-grandson of the more famous Alaric I, who sacked Rome in 410. He established his capital at Aire-sur-l'Adour (Vicus Julii) in Aquitaine. His dominions included not only the majority of Hispania (excluding its northwestern corner) but also Gallia Aquitania and the greater part of an as-yet undivided Gallia Narbonensis.
magistri militummagister peditummagister militum per Orientem
Magister militum (Latin for "Master of the Soldiers", plural magistri militum) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine the Great. Used alone, the term referred to the senior military officer (equivalent to a war theatre commander, the emperor remaining the supreme commander) of the Empire. In Greek sources, the term is translated either as strategos or as stratelates.
TheodosiusTheodosius the GreatTheodosian
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was a Roman Emperor from 379 to 395, and the last emperor to rule over both the Eastern and the Western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the Empire. His resources were not sufficient to destroy them or drive them out, which had been Roman policy for centuries in dealing with invaders. By treaty, which followed his indecisive victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the Empire's borders.
Sirmium was a city in the Roman province of Pannonia. First mentioned in the 4th century BC and originally inhabited by Illyrians and Celts, it was conquered by the Romans in the 1st century BC and subsequently became the capital of the Roman province of Pannonia Inferior. In 294 AD, Sirmium was proclaimed one of four capitals of the Roman Empire. It was also the capital of the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum and of Pannonia Secunda. Sirmium was located on the Sava river, on the site of modern Sremska Mitrovica in northern Serbia. The site is protected as an Archaeological Site of Exceptional Importance. The modern region of Syrmia (Srem) was named after the city.
Tours is a city in the centre-west of France. It is the administrative centre of the Indre-et-Loire department and the largest city in the Centre-Val de Loire region of France (although it is not the capital, which is the region's second-largest city, Orléans). In 2012, the city of Tours had 134,978 inhabitants, and the population of the whole metropolitan area was 483,744.
ValentinianEmperor Valentinian IIIPlacidus Valentinianus Caesar
Valentinian III (Flavius Placidius Valentinianus Augustus; 2 July 41916 March 455) was Western Roman Emperor from 425 to 455. His reign was marked by the ongoing dismemberment of the Western Empire.
Huneric or Hunneric or Honeric (died December 23, 484) was King of the (North African) Vandal Kingdom (477–484) and the oldest son of Genseric. He abandoned the imperial politics of his father and concentrated mainly on internal affairs. He was married to Eudocia, daughter of western Roman Emperor Valentinian III (419–455) and Licinia Eudoxia. The couple had one child, a son named Hilderic.
Attila the HunEtzelAtli
Attila (fl. c. 406–453), frequently called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453. He was also the leader of a tribal empire consisting of Huns, Ostrogoths, and Alans among others, in Central and Eastern Europe.
Gaudentius (c. 440 in Rome – after 455) was the son of Flavius Aetius. F. M. Clover has persuasively argued that his mother was Pelagia, a Gothic noblewoman and the widow of Bonifacius.
The origins of the word domesticus can be traced to the late 3rd century of the Late Roman army. It stems from the term “Protectores Domestici”, a guard unit serving as the staff to the Roman Emperor. It is said that they originated from being “comes”, which were companions, or counts in various offices and the emperor, in this case a guard unit. They often held high ranks in various fields, whether it was the servants of a noble house on the civilian side, or a high ranking military position. After serving under the emperor for a certain duration, the Domestici would be able to become leaders themselves and potentially command their own regiment of legionnaires in the military.
Sack of Romesacked Romecaptured the city
The '''sack of 455 was the third of four ancient sacks of Rome; it was conducted by the Vandals, who were then at war with the usurping Western Roman Emperor Petronius Maximus.
Remistus (died in Ravenna, September 17, 456) was a general of the Western Roman Empire, commander-in-chief of the army under Emperor Avitus.
Ravenna (, also ; ) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. It was the capital city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476. It then served as the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom until it was re-conquered in 540 by the Byzantine Empire. Afterwards, the city formed the centre of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna until the invasion of the Lombards in 751, after which it became the seat of the Kingdom of the Lombards.
Piacenza ( ; Placentia) is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy, the capital of the eponymous province. The etymology is long-standing, tracing an origin from the Latin verb, "to please." In French, and occasionally in English, it is called Plaisance. The name means a "pleasant abode", or as James Boswell reported some of the etymologists of his time to have translated it, "comely". This was a name "of good omen."
Flavius MarcianByzantine emperor of that nameEmperor Marcianus
Marcian (Flavius Marcianus Augustus; ; c. undefined 392 – 26 January 457) was the Eastern Roman Emperor from 450 to 457. Very little of his life before becoming emperor is known, other than that he was a domesticus (personal assistant) who served under Ardabur and his son Aspar for fifteen years. Marcian reversed the actions of his predecessor, Emperor Theodosius II, refusing to pay tribute to the Huns, under Attila. Although infuriated by this refusal, Attila continued his plans to invade the Western Roman Empire, until his sudden death left his tribal confederation to fracture.