Jorge Eliécer Gaitán

Jorge Eliecer GaitánJorge Eliecer GaitanJorge Eliécer Gaitán Ayala
Gaitán's alleged murderer, Juan Roa Sierra, was killed by an enraged mob and his motivations were never known. Many different entities and individuals have been held responsible as the alleged plotters, including his different critics, but so far no definite information has come forward and a number of theories persist. Among them, there are versions which, sometimes conflictingly, implicate the government of Mariano Ospina Pérez, sectors of the Liberal party, the USSR the Colombian Communist Party, the CIA and others in the crime.


El BogotazoBogotáEvents of
A bystander, Gabriel Restrepo, collected the remains of his clothes and found some personal documents, which identified him as 26-year-old Juan Roa Sierra. There have been a number of theories concerning Gaitán's murder, some claiming that the assassination was planned and undertaken by other persons in addition to Juan Roa Sierra; or that the latter was not the real killer. Sierra was born into a poor family. There was a history of mental illness amongst Sierra's brothers, and he may himself have been unstable. He was seen often in Gaitán's office asking for a job, since he was unemployed, but Gaitán had never received him.

La Violencia

ColombiaThe Violencecivil and political crisis
In the 1946 election, Mariano Ospina Pérez of the Conservative party won the presidency, largely because the Liberal votes were split between two Liberal candidates. Some consider La Violencia having started at this point because the Conservative government began increasing the backlash against Liberal protests and small rebel groups. There were an estimated 14,000 deaths in 1947 due to this violence. On April 9, 1948 Liberal Party leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán was assassinated by Juan Roa Sierra on the street in Bogotá, via three shots from a revolver. Gaitán was a popular candidate and would have been the likely winner of the 1950 election.

Colombian Liberal Party

Liberal PartyLiberalLiberals
The Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano; PLC) is a social democratic and social liberal political party in Colombia. It was founded as a classical liberal party but later developed a more social-democratic tradition, joining the Socialist International in 1999.


BogotaBogotá, ColombiaBogotá, D.C.
Bogotá (, also,, ), officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santa Fe de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, as well as the capital of the department of Cundinamarca. Bogotá is a territorial entity of the first order, with the same administrative status as the departments of Colombia. It is the political, economic, administrative and industrial center of the country.

1946 Colombian presidential election

1946election of 1946elections of 1946
The Liberals received more votes combined, but due to their division the result was a victory for Mariano Ospina Pérez of the Conservative Party, who received 41.4% of the vote. One of the Liberal candidates, Gabriel Turbay, was also supported by the Social Democratic Party. Two years after the election, the second Liberal Party candidate, Jorge Eliécer Gaitán Ayala, was assassinated. This in turn sparked a ten-year civil war known as La Violencia.

Communism in Colombia

ColombiaColombian communismLiberal Republic
The angry mob killed his murderer Juan Roa Sierra and dragged his body in the streets to the front of the presidential palace where they hanged it publicly. The rioters took control of all national radio stations in the city of Bogotá, and announcements were delivered against the Conservative government of Mariano Ospina Pérez. Bridges were blown up, and this caused a lack of food in the city. The airfields at Honda, Cartago, Barrancabermeja and Turbo were also taken by the people. The rioters' slogan was Yankee imperialism wants to convert us into military and economic colonies, and we must fight in defense of Colombian society.

Colombian Conservative Party

Conservative PartyConservativeConservatives
Rojas was close to Mariano Ospina Pérez and his faction of the Conservative Party as well as to some moderate liberals. Rojas began his government with the support of prominent politicians of both parties, yet he decided to make his own political party in 1955, the Popular Action Movement. Rojas censored and closed important newspapers and began the process for a reelection. Fearing a possible dictatorship, members of the Conservative and Liberal parties created an alliance called the National Front (Frente Nacional) that avoided Rojas from staying more time as president.

Pedro Nel Ospina Vázquez

Pedro Nel OspinaPedro Nel Ospina Váquez
Although some, such as Ospina and his nephew Mariano Ospina Pérez, became highly successful in national politics, antioqueño engineers continued to nurture the self-image of the apolitical, economically practical, hardworking paisa. Since 1910, successful businessmen and engineers emerged from the business community of Medellín, as did Ospina, who was a Berkeley-trained mining engineer and an industrial entrepreneur as well as a large-scale agriculturalist. Ospina was elected MP to the Camara de Representantes (House of Representatives) in 1892 and 1894 for the province of Antioquia.

Mariano Ospina Rodríguez

Mariano Ospina Rodriguez
They relocated in the town of Fredonia, Antioquia, where they continued with their coffee business, enterprise and plantations. * Colombian Conservative Party; Biographies: Mariano Ospina Rodríguez Ospina was the father of Colombian president Pedro Nel Ospina, and grand father of president Mariano Ospina Pérez.

National Federation of Coffee Growers of Colombia

Federación Nacional de Cafeteros de ColombiaNational Federation of Coffee GrowersColombian coffee
Mariano Ospina Pérez was its first President, and the first registered member of the association. The first Board of Directors of the newly organized Federación Nacional de Cafeteros de Colombia assembled in Bogotá, on August 3, 1929. Its first members were Mariano Ospina Vásquez, Alberto Camilo Suárez, Gabriel Ortiz Williamson, Carlos Caballero, Jesús del Corral and Mariano Ospina Pérez, for whom the organization of the national coffee industry was one of his most serious and ambitious concerns. In December 1930, the Fourth National Congress of Coffee Growers convened in Bogotá.

National Front (Colombia)

National FrontBenidorm covenantFrente Nacional
Years later, in 1946 the "Union Nacional" was offered by the then Conservative presidential candidate Mariano Ospina Pérez and put in practice as he was elected president. Ospina shared ministries and provincial governors with the Liberal Party in equal halves. On February 29, 1948 the Liberal Party led by Jorge Eliecer Gaitan decided to leave "Union Nacional" and retreated Liberal members from the governments cabinet. On March 21, 1948 President Ospina then appointed replacements all from his Conservative party. With the assassination of Gaitan on April 9, 1948 tensions between the two parties escalated to physical confrontations.

Bertha Hernández Fernández

She married Mariano Ospina Pérez on 18 July 1926 at the Christian Brothers Chapel in Medellíin. Mariano and Bertha had five children: Mariano, Rodrigo, Fernando, Gonzalo, and María Clara. * Carolina Vásquez Uribe

Gustavo Rojas Pinilla

Gustavo RojasRojas PinillaPresident Gustavo Rojas Pinilla
There, he gained major recognition in the country for having managed to appease the rebellion that happened in this region as a consequence of the assassination of the popular leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán on April 9, 1948, for which he was honoured by the incumbent Conservative President Mariano Ospina Pérez. On October 11, 1949, he was promoted to General and on October 19 assigned to the Central Command of the Army. On December 3, 1949, Rojas was appointed as Minister of Posts and Telegraphs in the government of President Mariano Ospina Pérez.

Laureano Gómez

Laureano Gómez CastroLaureano GomezLaureano Eleuterio Gomez
Three events in the late 1940s strengthened his commitment to blunting majoritarian democracy in Colombia: the mass uprising known as the Bogotazo following the assassination of Jorge Eliécer Gaitán in 1948, Congress’ failed attempt to impeach Conservative president Mariano Ospina Pérez in 1949, and Ospina Perez’s subsequent suspension of Congress in retaliation. For Gómez, the bogotazo was not only a demonstration of the pitfalls of popular rule, but also a sign that Colombia would succumb to communist revolution if nothing was done to stem the tide of increased popular political participation.

Alfonso López Pumarejo

Alfonso Lopez PumarejoAlfonso Lopez
Alfonso López Pumarejo (31 January 1886 – 20 November 1959) was a Colombian political figure, who twice served as President of Colombia, as a member of the Colombian Liberal Party. He served as President of Colombia for the first time between 1934 and 1938 and again between 1942 and 1945.

List of presidents of Colombia

President of ColombiaPresidentcomplete list
"Presidents of Colombia", "Presidents of the New Granada", "Presidents of the Granadine Confederation", and "Colombian presidents" redirect here.


COLRepublic of ColombiaColombian
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country largely situated in the north of South America, with land and territories in North America. Colombia is bounded on the north by the Caribbean Sea, the northwest by Panama, the south by both Ecuador and Peru, the east by Venezuela, the southeast by Brazil, and the west by the Pacific. It comprises thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogotá.


MedellinMedellín, ColombiaMedellin, Colombia
Medellín ( or ), officially the Municipality of Medellín (Municipio de Medellín), is the second-largest city in Colombia, after Bogotá, and the capital of the department of Antioquia. It is located in the Aburrá Valley, a central region of the Andes Mountains in South America. According to the National Administrative Department of Statistics, the city has an estimated population of 2.5 million. With its surrounding area that includes nine other cities, the metropolitan area of Medellín is the second-largest urban agglomeration in Colombia in terms of population and economy, with more than 3.7 million people.

Antioquia Department

AntioquiaDepartment of AntioquiaAntioquia, Colombia
The Department of Antioquia is one of the 32 departments of Colombia, located in the central northwestern part of Colombia with a narrow section that borders the Caribbean Sea. Most of its territory is mountainous with some valleys, much of which is part of the Andes mountain range. Antioquia has been part of many territorial divisions of former countries created over the present day territory of Colombia, and prior to the Colombian Constitution of 1886, Antioquia State had its own sovereign government.

President of Colombia

PresidentColombian PresidentPresident of the Republic
The President of Colombia (Presidente de Colombia), officially known as the President of the Republic of Colombia (Presidente de la República de Colombia) is the head of state and head of government of Colombia. The office of president was established upon the ratification of the Constitution of 1819, by the Congress of Angostura, convened in December 1819, when Colombia was the "Gran Colombia". The first president, General Simón Bolívar, took office in 1819. His position, initially self-proclaimed, was subsequently ratified by Congress.

Mining engineering

mining engineermineral explorationexploration
A mining engineer is somebody who is academically accomplished in the engineering discipline of extraction of minerals from underneath the ground, above the ground or on it. Mining engineering is associated with many other disciplines, such as mineral processing, exploration, excavation, geology, and metallurgy, geotechnical engineering and surveying. A mining engineer may manage any phase of mining operations – from exploration and discovery of the mineral resource, through feasibility study, mine design, development of plans, production and operations to mine closure.


LAState of LouisianaLouisiana, USA
Louisiana is a state in the Deep South region of the South Central United States. It is the 31st most extensive and the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Louisiana is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, and the Gulf of Mexico to the south. A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. Louisiana is the only U.S. state with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are equivalent to counties. The state's capital is Baton Rouge, and its largest city is New Orleans.


London, EnglandLondon, United KingdomLondon, UK
London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50 mi estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 sqmi and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.


Paris, FranceParísParisian
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 km2 and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts. The City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €709 billion ($808 billion) in 2017.