Thirteen Colonies

American coloniescoloniescolonial
Delaware Colony (before 1776, the Lower Counties on Delaware), a proprietary colony established 1664. Province of Maryland, a proprietary colony established 1632. Colony and Dominion of Virginia, proprietary colony established 1607, a crown colony from 1624. Province of Carolina, a proprietary colony established 1663. Divided into the Province of North-Carolina and Province of South Carolina in 1712, each became a crown colony in 1729. Province of Georgia, proprietary colony established 1732, crown colony from 1752. The Atlantic history view places North American events in a broader context, including the French Revolution and Haitian Revolution.

United States Constitution

ConstitutionU.S. Constitutionconstitutional
The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States. It was drafted by the Second Continental Congress from mid-1776 through late 1777, and ratification by all 13 states was completed by early 1781. The Articles of Confederation gave little power to the central government. The Confederation Congress could make decisions, but lacked enforcement powers. Implementation of most decisions, including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures.

Province of Maryland

MarylandMaryland colonycolonial Maryland
Maryland declared independence from Britain in 1776, with Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, and Charles Carroll of Carrollton signing the Declaration of Independence for the colony. In the 1776–77 debates over the Articles of Confederation, Maryland delegates led the party that insisted that states with western land claims cede them to the Confederation government, and in 1781 Maryland became the last state to ratify the Articles of Confederation. It accepted the United States Constitution more readily, ratifying it on 28 April 1788. Maryland also gave up some territory to create the new District of Columbia after the American Revolution.


PACommonwealth of PennsylvaniaPa.
There they and its primary author, John Dickinson, drew up the Articles of Confederation that formed 13 independent colonies into a new nation. Later, the Constitution was written, and Philadelphia was once again chosen to be cradle to the new American Nation. The Constitution was drafted and signed at the Pennsylvania State House, now known as Independence Hall, and the same building where the Declaration of Independence was signed. Pennsylvania became the first large state, and the second state to ratify the U.S. Constitution on December 12, 1787, five days after Delaware became the first. At the time it was the most ethnically and religiously diverse of the Thirteen Colonies.

History of the United States Constitution

ratificationratification of the United States ConstitutionConstitutional Convention
With Maryland's agreement, on January 21, 1786, Virginia invited all the states to attend another interstate meeting later that year in Annapolis, Maryland, to discuss the trade barriers between the various states. The Articles Congress received a report on August 7, 1786 from a twelve-member "Grand Committee", appointed to develop and present "such amendments to the Confederation, and such resolutions as it may be necessary to recommend to the several states, for the purpose of obtaining from them such powers as will render the federal government adequate to" its declared purposes. Seven amendments to the Articles of Confederation were proposed.

List of capitals in the United States

state capitalcapitalState capital city
The original purpose of the Conference was to coordinate relations with the Indians and common defensive measures against the French threat from Canada (see French and Indian War#Albany Conference). At that meeting the major topic of discussion, however, was the Albany Plan, presented by Benjamin Franklin, delegate from Pennsylvania, setting up a unified (though not independent) government for the colonies. Although the delegates approved the plan (after modifications) unanimously, it was not approved by any of the territorial governments, or by the British government. It was used later in the drafting of the Articles of Confederation.

Timeline of United States history

This is a timeline of United States history, comprising important legal and territorial changes as well as political, social, and economic events in the United States and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of the United States.

Delaware River

DelawareRiverDelaware Valley
The name of barony (later an earldom) is pronounced as in the current spelling form "Delaware" and is thought to derive from French de la Guerre. It has often been reported that the river and bay received the name "Delaware" after English forces under Richard Nicolls expelled the Dutch and took control of the New Netherland colony in 1664. However, the river and bay were known by the name Delaware as early as 1641. The state of Delaware was originally part of the William Penn's Pennsylvania colony.

Chesapeake Bay

ChesapeakeChesapeake Bay WatershedC'''hesapeake
The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in the U.S. states of Maryland and Virginia. The Bay is located in the Mid-Atlantic region and is primarily separated from the Atlantic Ocean by the Delmarva Peninsula with its mouth located between Cape Henry and Cape Charles. With its northern portion in Maryland and the southern part in Virginia, the Chesapeake Bay is a very important feature for the ecology and economy of those two states, as well as others. More than 150 major rivers and streams flow into the Bay's 64299 sqmi drainage basin, which covers parts of six states (New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) and all of Washington, D.C.

New Jersey

NJState of New JerseyJersey
The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, the Delaware River Port Authority (with Pennsylvania), the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission (with Pennsylvania), and the Delaware River and Bay Authority (with Delaware) operate most of the major transportation routes in and out of the state. Bridge tolls are collected only from traffic exiting the state, with the exception of the private Dingman's Ferry Bridge over the Delaware River, which charges a toll in both directions. It is unlawful for a customer to serve themselves gasoline in New Jersey.

Native Americans in the United States

Native AmericanNative AmericansAmerican Indian
Delaware – 0.5% 4,181. Florida – 0.4% 71,458. Virginia – 0.4% 29,225. Maryland – 0.4% 20,420. South Carolina – 0.4% 19,524. Iowa – 0.4% 11,084. Vermont – 0.4% 2,207. Illinois – 0.3% 43,963. Georgia – 0.3% 32,151. New Jersey – 0.3% 29,026. Tennessee – 0.3% 19,994. Massachusetts – 0.3% 18,850. Indiana – 0.3% 18,462. Connecticut – 0.3% 11,256. Hawaii – 0.3% 4,164. District of Columbia – 0.3% 2,079. Pennsylvania – 0.2% 26,843. Ohio – 0.2% 25,292. Kentucky – 0.2% 10,120. West Virginia – 0.2% 3,787. New Hampshire – 0.2% 3,150. Hawaii – 8.7. Utah – 0.7. Alaska – 0.6. California – 0.4. Nevada – 0.4. Washington – 0.4. Arizona – 0.2. Oregon – 0.2. Alabama – 0.1. Arkansas – 0.1. Colorado – 0.1.

American Civil War

Civil WarU.S. Civil Warthe Civil War
In his inaugural address, he argued that the Constitution was a more perfect union than the earlier Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, that it was a binding contract, and called any secession "legally void". He had no intent to invade Southern states, nor did he intend to end slavery where it existed, but said that he would use force to maintain possession of Federal property. The government would make no move to recover post offices, and if resisted, mail delivery would end at state lines. Where popular conditions did not allow peaceful enforcement of Federal law, U.S. marshals and judges would be withdrawn.

United States Declaration of Independence

Declaration of IndependenceindependenceAmerican Declaration of Independence
John Dickinson made one last effort to delay the decision, arguing that Congress should not declare independence without first securing a foreign alliance and finalizing the Articles of Confederation. John Adams gave a speech in reply to Dickinson, restating the case for an immediate declaration. A vote was taken after a long day of speeches, each colony casting a single vote, as always. The delegation for each colony numbered from two to seven members, and each delegation voted amongst themselves to determine the colony's vote. Pennsylvania and South Carolina voted against declaring independence. The New York delegation abstained, lacking permission to vote for independence.

Benjamin Franklin

FranklinBen FranklinFranklin, Benjamin
In 1754, he headed the Pennsylvania delegation to the Albany Congress. This meeting of several colonies had been requested by the Board of Trade in England to improve relations with the Indians and defense against the French. Franklin proposed a broad Plan of Union for the colonies. While the plan was not adopted, elements of it found their way into the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. In 1756, Franklin received an honorary master of arts degree from the College of William and Mary.

United States

., to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort. The first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the 'United States of America.


VACommonwealth of VirginiaVa.
Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.C. to the north and east; by the Atlantic Ocean to the east; by North Carolina to the south; by Tennessee to the southwest; by Kentucky to the west; and by West Virginia to the north and west. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D.C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes. The border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U.S. Supreme Court.

U.S. state

The 50 U.S. states, in alphabetical order, along with each state's flag: Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia (U.S. state) Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming As sovereign entities, each of the 50 states reserves the right to organize its individual government in any way (within the broad parameters set


Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia, PACity of Philadelphia
Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina (present-day Wilmington, Delaware) and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland.

Annapolis, Maryland

AnnapolisAnnapolis, MDAnnapolis, Md.
. 🇧🇷 Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Music of Annapolis. WNAV. WRNR-FM. Annapolis official website. United States Naval Academy. St.Johns College.

Appalachian Mountains

AppalachianAppalachiansAppalachian Highlands Division
While exploring inland along the northern coast of Florida in 1528, the members of the Narváez expedition, including Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, found a Native American village near present-day Tallahassee, Florida whose name they transcribed as Apalchen or Apalachen . The name was soon altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe and region spreading well inland to the north. Pánfilo de Narváez's expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15, 1528, and applied the name. Now spelled "Appalachian," it is the fourth-oldest surviving European place-name in the US.


Six NationsIroquois ConfederacyFive Nations
Consensus has not been reached on how influential the Iroquois model was to the development of United States' documents such as the Articles of Confederation and the U.S. Constitution. The influence thesis has been discussed by historians such as Donald Grinde and Bruce Johansen. In 1988, the United States Congress passed a resolution to recognize the influence of the Iroquois League upon the Constitution and Bill of Rights. In 1987, Cornell University held a conference on the link between the Iroquois' government and the U.S. Constitution. Scholars such as Jack N. Rakove challenge this thesis.

American Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary WarRevolutionary
Before the Revolution, the Southern Colonies and three of the New England Colonies had established churches, either Congregational (Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and New Hampshire) or Anglican (Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia), while the Middle Colonies (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware) and the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations had no established churches.

Constitutional Convention (United States)

Constitutional ConventionPhiladelphia Convention1787 Constitutional Convention
Before the Constitution was drafted, the nearly 4 million inhabitants of the 13 newly independent states were governed under the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, created by the Second Continental Congress, first proposed in 1776, adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1778 and only finally unanimously ratified by the Original Thirteen States by 1781. It soon became evident to nearly all that the chronically underfunded Confederation government, as originally organized, was inadequate for managing the various conflicts that arose among the states.

Annapolis Convention (1786)

Annapolis Convention1786 Annapolis ConventionAnnapolis
The Annapolis Convention, formally titled as a Meeting of Commissioners to Remedy Defects of the Federal Government, was a national political convention held September 11–14, 1786 at Mann's Tavern in Annapolis, Maryland, in which twelve delegates from five states—New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia—gathered to discuss and develop a consensus about reversing the protectionist trade barriers that each state had erected. At the time, under the Articles of Confederation, each state was largely independent from the others, and the national government had no authority to regulate trade between and among the states.

Catholic Church in the United States

CatholicRoman CatholicCatholic Church
Jean de Lalande. Damien De Veuster. Katharine Drexel. Rose Philippine Duchesne. René Goupil. Mother Théodore Guérin. Isaac Jogues. John Neumann. Junípero Serra. Elizabeth Ann Seton. Kateri Tekakwitha. National Shrine of the North American Martyrs (Auriesville, New York). Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Baltimore, Maryland). El Santuario de Chimayo (Chimayo, New Mexico; north of Santa Fe). Basilica of the National Shrine of St. Elizabeth Ann Seton (Emmitsburg, Maryland). Shrine of the Most Blessed Sacrament of Our Lady of the Angels (Hanceville, Alabama). Basilica of Our Lady of Victory (Lackawanna, New York).