Castle Air Museum

Castle Air Museum is a military aviation museum located in Atwater, California, United States adjacent to Castle Airport, a former United States Air Force Strategic Air Command base which was closed in 1995, after the end of the Cold War. It is one of the largest aerospace museums displaying vintage aircraft in the western United States.

Tyndall Air Force Base

Tyndall AFBTyndall FieldTyndall Air Force Base, Florida
In the late 1950s into the 1960s, the base transitioned into the North American F-100 Super Sabre, F-101B, F-102A and TF-102B, F-104 Starfighter, and the F-106A and B aircraft, training interceptor pilots for ADC assignments. The base served as a stopover and refueling point for ADC aircraft deployed to Florida during the Cuban Missile Crisis, to be redeployed to other bases in the southeast shortly thereafter. The base maintained an alert facility from which the F-101 Voodoo and F-102 Delta Dagger interceptors were scrambled to intercept unknown aircraft. Tyndall shared training for the F-102 aircraft with Perrin AFB, Texas until Perrin AFB's closure in mid-1971.

M61 Vulcan

Vulcan cannonM61A1Vulcan
It was also adopted as standard in the "teen"-series air superiority fighters, the Grumman F-14 Tomcat, the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon and McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet. Other aircraft include the Italian/Brazilian AMX International AMX (on Italian aircraft only), and the F-22 Raptor. It was fitted in a side-firing installation on the Fairchild AC-119 and some marks of the Lockheed AC-130 gunships, and was used in the tail turrets of both the Convair B-58 Hustler and Boeing B-52H Stratofortress bombers. Japan's Mitsubishi F-1 carried one internally mounted JM61A1 Vulcan with 750 rounds.

Turkish Air Force

Air ForceTurkishTurkey
In 1984 Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI) was established and Turkey started to produce fighter aircraft locally under license, including a total of 232 F-16 Fighting Falcon (Block 30/40/50) aircraft for the air force. The air force had previously received 8 F-16s that were purchased directly from the United States, bringing the total number of F-16s received by the air force to 240. TAI is currently building 30 new F-16 Block 50+ aircraft for the TuAF and is applying a CCIP upgrade on the existing fleet of Block 30/40/50 F-16s, which will bring all of them to the Block 50+ standard. Dozens of TAI-built F-16s were also exported to other countries, particularly in the Middle East.

Douglas A-4 Skyhawk

A-4 SkyhawkA-4Skyhawk
The A-4's nimble performance also made it suitable to replace the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II when the Navy downsized its aircraft for the Blue Angels demonstration team, until McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornets were available in the 1980s. The last U.S. Navy Skyhawks, TA-4J models belonging to the composite squadron VC-8, remained in military use for target towing, and as adversary aircraft, for combat training at Naval Station Roosevelt Roads. These aircraft were officially retired on 3 May 2003. Skyhawks were well loved by their crews for being tough and agile.


dog fightair-to-air combatair-to-air
Of the 39 victories, 36 were taken by F-15 Eagles. During the Balkans conflict, in 1999 (the Kosovo War), five MiG-29s of the Yugoslav Air Force were shot down in dogfights with NATO aircraft. The first was on March 24, by a Dutch F-16AM Falcon, and two were downed on the same night by U.S. F-15s. A day later two more MiG-29's were shot down by an F-16 and F-15. A dogfight between India and Pakistan occurred on 27 February 2019. At least one Indian MIG-21 aircraft was shot down. India said that it shot down a Pakistani F-16, while Pakistan denied this.

4477th Test and Evaluation Squadron

Constant Peg4477th Tactical Evaluation Squadron4477th Test & Evaluation Squadron
In 2014, it is believed that Air Combat Command (ACC) shares access to Mikoyan MiG-29s and Su-27 aircraft somewhere in Nevada (most likely Groom Lake) flying against Fighter Weapons School instructors, 422d Test and Evaluation Squadron aircrews and F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon "Aggressor" aircraft flying from Nellis AFB. As an operations security measure, the Soviet aircraft had their own US aircraft US aircraft designations in order to avoid using the actual Soviet designations. * Northrop T-38/F-5E/F Tiger II Used as a chase/DACT training planes * Established by Tactical Air Command as 4477th Test and Evaluation Flight and activated, 1 April 1977.

General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon variants

F-16C/D Fighting FalconF-16IF-16C/D
Building on its licensed manufacture of KF-16s, in 1992 Samsung Aerospace began work on designing a tandem-seat, supersonic, combat-capable jet trainer to replace the BAE Hawk 67, Northrop T-38 Talon, A-37 Dragonfly, and eventually F-4 Phantom II and F-5E/F Tiger II operated by the Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF). Samsung worked closely with Lockheed and the basic KTX-2 design had been laid out by 1995. At this point the aerospace units of Samsung, Daewoo and Hyundai were combined to form Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) to ensure sufficient industrial "critical mass" existed to successfully develop the KTX-2.

Chuck Yeager

Charles E. YeagerCharles "Chuck" YeagerCharles E. "Chuck" Yeager
The chase plane for the flight was an F-16 Fighting Falcon piloted by Bob Hoover, a longtime test, fighter and aerobatic pilot who had been Yeager's wingman for the first supersonic flight. This was Yeager's last official flight with the U.S. Air Force. At the end of his speech to the crowd, Yeager concluded, "All that I am ... I owe to the Air Force." Later that month, he was the recipient of the Tony Jannus Award for his achievements. On October 14, 2012, on the 65th anniversary of breaking the sound barrier, Yeager did it again at the age of 89, riding in a McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle piloted by Captain David Vincent out of Nellis Air Force Base.

Dissimilar air combat training

DACTaggressordissimilar air combat tactics
For example, pilots of F-8s would seldom train against F-4 Phantom IIs, and almost never against A-4 Skyhawks and never as part of a formal syllabus. From 1965 to 1968, US pilots found themselves over the skies of North Vietnam pitted against the smaller, more nimble subsonic Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 and the supersonic Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21. US pilots in USAF Republic F-105 Thunderchiefs were barely able to exceed parity and pilots in Phantoms and Crusaders were not able to achieve the hugely lopsided win/loss ratio achieved over Korea and in World War II. In fact, Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) was not practised by all fighter squadrons for a variety of reasons.

Aircraft in fiction

fictional likeness
The film's protagonist, Shunichi Maki, is a prestigious pilot of the F-15, and encounters the enigmatic Ultraman 'The Next' while flying the aircraft. The F-15 has appeared in numerous video games, including the 1985 Microprose title F-15 Strike Eagle and its two sequels, F-15 Strike Eagle II (1989) and F-15 Strike Eagle III (1992). The Transformers Aerialbot Skydive and Decepticon Dreadwind disguise themselves as F-16 Fighting Falcons. The Transformers character Needlenose disguises himself as an F-16XL. The Falcon was one of the stars of the 1986 film Iron Eagle.

Dassault Mirage F1

Mirage F1Mirage F-1Mirage F.1
In August 1981, a large group of 70 Libyan aircraft, including Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23s, MiG-25s, Sukhoi Su-20s, Su-22Ms and Mirage F1s, approached a US Navy carrier battle group as a show of strength, they were escorted until their withdrawal from its vicinity by 14 McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom IIs and Grumman F-14 Tomcats. When operating in Chad, the Mirage F1.ADs a typical combat configuration consisted of a pair 1.300 litre drop tanks and a pair of Belouga CBUs. Operations were performed almost exclusively during daylight hours and from high altitudes, which resulted in limited effectiveness.

Landing gear

undercarriagemonowheelmonowheel gear
The Martin-Marietta X-24 lifting body used the nose/main gear from the North American T-39 / Northrop T-38 and the Grumman X-29 from the Northrop F-5 / General Dynamics F-16. When an airplane needs to land on surfaces covered by snow, the landing gear usually consists of skis or a combination of wheels and skis. Some aircraft use wheels for takeoff and jettison them when airborne for improved streamlining without the complexity, weight and space requirements of a retraction mechanism. The wheels are sometimes mounted onto axles that are part of a separate "dolly" (for main wheels only) or "trolley" (for a three-wheel set with a nosewheel) chassis.

Nellis Air Force Base

Nellis AFBNellis Air Force Base, NevadaLas Vegas Army Airfield
The F-4 Phantom II Instructor Course began in mid-1965 and during the Vietnam War, experienced combat pilots were used as Fighter Weapons instructors at Nellis. On 1 January 1966 the USAF Fighter Weapons School was activated at Nellis with F-100, F-4, and F-105 divisions and on 1 September 1966, Fighter Weapons School elements and the 4520th CCTW merged to activate the 4525th Fighter Weapons Wing. The USAF Tactical Fighter Weapons Center activated at Nellis AFB on 1 January 1966 (USAF Warfare Center after 15 November 2005) is the USAF authority for employment of tactical fighter weapons.

Vietnam War

Vietnamwar in VietnamSecond Indochina War
Ground forces also had access to B-52 and F-4 Phantom II and other aircraft to launch napalm, white phosphorus, tear gas, chemical weapons, precision-guided munition and cluster bombs. The Vietnam War was the first conflict where U.S. forces had secure voice communication equipment available at the tactical level. The National Security Agency ran a crash program to provide U.S. forces with a family of security equipment, codenamed NESTOR, fielding 17,000 units initially; eventually 30,000 units were produced. However, limitations of the units, including poor voice quality, reduced range, annoying time delays and logistical support issues, led to only one unit in ten being used.

General Electric J79

J79GE J79J-79
Aeritalia F-104S; also retrofitted to F-104A's of the 319th FIS. J79-GE-J1E. License-built in Israel by Beit Shemesh Engines Ltd. (BSEL) with 18,750 lbf afterburning thrust for the IAI Kfir. J79-GE-119. F-16/79. Aircraft. Convair B-58 Hustler. General Dynamics F-16/79. Grumman F11F-1F Super Tiger. IAI Kfir. Lockheed F-104 Starfighter. McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II. North American A-5 Vigilante. Northrop X-21. SSM-N-9/RGM-15 Regulus II. Land speed record cars. Art Arfons' "Green Monster". Craig Breedlove's "Spirit of America - Sonic 1". North American Eagle Project. Pace, Steve. Lockheed F-104 Starfighter. Osceola, Wisconsin: Motorbooks International, 1992. ISBN: 0-87938-608-8.

Air Force Armament Museum

Last operated by the 170th Tactical Fighter Squadron, 183rd Tactical Fighter Group, Illinois Air National Guard, Springfield, Illinois, and flown to Eglin in early 1972 in Vietnam-era camouflage with 25–30 of the squadron airframes to serve as live fire range targets when that unit became the first Air National Guard group to reequip with F-4 Phantom IIs. Signs of corrosion were discovered in wings of the 55 F-84Fs remaining in the ANG inventory following a fatal crash on 16 November 1971, in which a Thunderstreak shed a wing over a gunnery range when the "milkbottle" joint failed.

Mach number

MachMach 2Mach 1
In fluid dynamics, the Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound. :

United States Navy

U.S. NavyUS NavyNavy
Navy aircraft also played a significant role in conflicts during the following Cold War years, with the F-4 Phantom II and the F-14 Tomcat becoming military icons of the era. The navy's current primary fighter and attack airplanes are the multi-mission F/A-18C/D Hornet and its newer cousin, the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. The F-35 Lightning II is presently under development and was scheduled to replace the C and D versions of the Hornet beginning in 2012. Initial operational capability of the F-35C is now expected to be February 2019. The Navy is also looking to eventually replace its F/A-18E/F Super Hornets with the F/A-XX program.

World Aircraft Information Files

World Aircraft Information Files (WAIF) is a weekly partwork magazine published by Bright Star Publications (part of Midsummer Books) in the United Kingdom. Each issue was priced at £1.70 for issues 1–163, and £1.80 for issues 164–218. Altogether, there were 218 issues in the complete set, which completed in 2002. Originally advertised as having 200 issues, the run was extended to 218 issues when approximately 576 pages were missing from the collection. An index to the complete series was given in the final issue.

Jet fighter generations

generationjet fighter classification
, semi-active guided and infrared missiles, radar warning receivers, supersonic level flight : F-104, F-5, MiG-19, MiG-21. 3. early 1960s to 1970. multi-role fighters, look-down/shoot-down, off-bore-sight targeting, Semi-active radar homing missiles, beyond visual range : MiG-23, F-4, Mirage III. 4. 1970 to late 1980s. head-up displays, fly-by-wire, Swing-role fighters : MiG-29, Su-27, F/A-18, F-15, F-16, Mirage 2000. 4.5. late 1980s into the 90s.

Wings (1988 TV program)

WingsWings of the Red StarWings'' (1988 TV program)
General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon. General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark. Grumman F-14 Tomcat. Grumman F4F Wildcat/F6F Hellcat. Lockheed Constellation. Lockheed C-130 Hercules. Lockheed F-104 Starfighter. Lockheed P-38 Lightning. Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird. Martin B-26 Marauder. Martin B-57 Canberra. McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II. McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle. McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet. North American B-25 Mitchell. North American F-86 Sabre. North American F-100 Super Sabre. North American P-51 Mustang. North American XB-70 Valkyrie. Northrop F-5 Freedom Fighter. Republic F-84 Thunderjet. Republic F-105 Thunderchief. Republic P-47 Thunderbolt. Rockwell B-1 Lancer.


North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationNorth Atlantic Treaty OrganisationNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
On 10 and 11 April 1994, the United Nations Protection Force called in air strikes to protect the Goražde safe area, resulting in the bombing of a Bosnian Serb military command outpost near Goražde by two US F-16 jets acting under NATO direction. In retaliation, Serbs took 150 U.N. personnel hostage on 14 April. On 16 April a British Sea Harrier was shot down over Goražde by Serb forces. In August 1995, a two-week NATO bombing campaign, Operation Deliberate Force, began against the Army of the Republika Srpska, after the Srebrenica massacre. Further NATO air strikes helped bring the Yugoslav wars to an end, resulting in the Dayton Agreement in November 1995.

Monogram (company)

MonogramMonogram modelsTom Daniel
, Grumman F4F Wildcat, Grumman F6F Hellcat, Grumman F-14 Tomcat, Lockheed P-38J/L Lightning, Lockheed P-80C Shooting Star, Lockheed F-104C Starfighter, LTV A-7 Corsair II, Martin B-26 Marauder, McDonnell F-101B Voodoo, McDonnell-Douglas F-4C/D Phantom II, McDonnell F-4E Phantom II, McDonnell F-4J Phantom II, McDonnell-Douglas AV-8B Harrier II, McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A Hornet, North American AT-6 Texan, North American T-28 Trojan, North American B-25 Mitchell, North American P-51 Mustang B and D variants, North American F-86E/F Sabre, North American F-100D Super Sabre, Northrop P-61 Black Widow, Northrop F-5E Tiger II, Northrop F-20 Tigershark, Northrop F-89J Scorpion

Beyond-visual-range missile

beyond visual rangebeyond-visual-rangeBVR
AIM-7 Sparrow. AIM-54 Phoenix. AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Missile. Astra (missile). Bozdoğan (missile). Derby. Meteor (missile). MICA (missile). Novator KS-172. PL-12 (SD-10). PL-21. Python (missile). R-27 (air-to-air missile). R-33 (missile). R-37 (missile). R-40 (missile). R-77. R-Darter. Sky Sword. Skyflash.