onlinethe Internetweb
Social networking websites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Myspace have created new ways to socialize and interact. Users of these sites are able to add a wide variety of information to pages, to pursue common interests, and to connect with others. It is also possible to find existing acquaintances, to allow communication among existing groups of people. Sites like LinkedIn foster commercial and business connections. YouTube and Flickr specialize in users' videos and photographs.


Facebook LiveFacebook, Inc.Facebook page
The media often compares Facebook to Myspace, but one significant difference between the two Web sites is the level of customization. Another difference is Facebook's requirement that users give their true identity, a demand that MySpace does not make. MySpace allows users to decorate their profiles using HTML and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), while Facebook allows only plain text. Facebook has a number of features with which users may interact.


Trending topics are sometimes the result of concerted efforts and manipulations by preteen and teenaged fans of certain celebrities or cultural phenomena, particularly musicians like Lady Gaga (known as Little Monsters), Justin Bieber (Beliebers), Rihanna (Rih Navy) and One Direction (Directioners), and novel series Twilight (Twihards) and Harry Potter (Potterheads). Twitter has altered the trend algorithm in the past to prevent manipulation of this type with limited success. The Twitter web interface displays a list of trending topics on a sidebar on the home page, along with sponsored content (see image). Twitter often censors trending hashtags that are claimed to be abusive or offensive.


The term was coined by Christopher diCarlo. Baldwin effect. Biosemiotics. Cultural selection theory. Dual inheritance theory. Egregore. Evolutionary epistemology. Evolutionary psychology. Folkloristics. General semantics. Generative anthropology. Internet meme. Knowledge ecosystem. Meme pool. Mentifact. Mimesis. Seme (semantics). Social constructionism. Social osmosis. Sociofact. Sociocultural evolution. Sociotype. Spime. The Electronic Revolution. Universal Darwinism. Viral marketing. Boyd, Robert & Richerson, Peter J. (1985). Culture and the Evolutionary Process. Chicago University Press. ISBN: 978-0-226-06933-3. Boyd, Rob & Richerson, Peter J. (2005).


/b/4chan.orgthe "random" board on 4chan
Later the same year, 4chan made numerous disruptive pranks directed at singer Justin Bieber. In September 2010, in retaliation against the Bollywood film industry's hiring of Aiplex Software to launch cyberattacks against The Pirate Bay, Anonymous members, recruited through posts on 4chan boards, subsequently initiated their own attacks, dubbed Operation Payback, targeting the website of the Motion Picture Association of America and the Recording Industry Association of America. The targeted websites usually went offline for a short period of time due to the attacks, before recovering.

Social networking service

social networkingsocial network servicesocial networking site
That is, they track the websites a user uses outside of Facebook through a program called Facebook Beacon. There has been a trend for social networking sites to send out only "positive" notifications to users. For example, sites such as Bebo, Facebook, and MySpace will not send notifications to users when they are removed from a person's friends list. Likewise, Bebo will send out a notification if a user is moved to the top of another user's friends list but no notification is sent if they are moved down the list.


youtube.comYouTube channelYouTuber
In 2013, YouTube teamed up with satirical newspaper company The Onion to claim that the video sharing website was launched as a contest which had finally come to an end, and would announce a winner of the contest when the site went back up in 2023. In 2014, YouTube announced that it was responsible for the creation of all viral video trends, and revealed previews of upcoming internet memes, such as "Clocking", "Kissing Dad", and "Glub Glub Water Dance". The next year, YouTube added a music button to the video bar that played samples from "Sandstorm" by Darude. In 2016, YouTube introduced an option to watch every video on the platform in 360-degree mode with Snoop Dogg.

Internet forum

forumforumsmessage board
See also: Block (Internet), IP address blocking, and Internet censorship. Offending content is usually deleted. Sometimes if the topic is considered the source of the problem, it is locked; often a poster may request a topic expected to draw problems to be locked as well, although the moderators decide whether to grant it. In a locked thread, members cannot post anymore. In cases where the topic is considered a breach of rules it – with all of its posts – may be deleted.


The Australian Netguide magazine maintained the Daily Net News on their web site from 1996. Daily Net News ran links and daily reviews of new websites, mostly in Australia. Another early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam, an online shared diary of a person's personal life combining text, digital video, and digital pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site in 1994. This practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as sousveillance, and such journals were also used as evidence in legal matters.

Web search engine

search enginesearch enginessearch
There are two remaining reasons to submit a web site or web page to a search engine: to add an entirely new web site without waiting for a search engine to discover it, and to have a web site's record updated after a substantial redesign. Some search engine submission software not only submits websites to multiple search engines, but also add links to websites from their own pages. This could appear helpful in increasing a website's ranking, because external links are one of the most important factors determining a website's ranking.


e-mailelectronic maile-mails
For example, in comparison to 75% of those consumers in the US who used it, only 17% in India did., the number of Americans visiting email web sites had fallen 6 percent after peaking in November 2009. For persons 12 to 17, the number was down 18 percent. Young people preferred instant messaging, texting and social media. Technology writer Matt Richtel said in The New York Times that email was like the VCR, vinyl records and film cameras—no longer cool and something older people do. A 2015 survey of Android users showed that persons 13 to 24 used messaging apps 3.5 times as much as those over 45, and were far less likely to use email.

List of Internet phenomena

Internet phenomenoninternet sensationInternet phenomena
Distracted boyfriend meme – A stock photograph taken in 2015 which went viral as an Internet meme in August 2017. Dog shaming – Originating on Tumblr, these images feature images of dogs photographed with signs explaining what antics they recently got up to. Doge – Images of dogs, typically of the Shiba Inus, overlaid with simple but poor grammatical expressions, typically in the Comic Sans MS font, though have since been applied to any picture as a form of commentary. The meme has also spawned Dogecoin.


Google Inc.Google, Inc.Googling
Google adhered to the Internet censorship policies of China, enforced by means of filters colloquially known as "The Great Firewall of China". The Intercept reported in August 2018 that Google is developing for the people's Republic of China a censored version of its search engine (known as Dragonfly) "that will blacklist websites and search terms about human rights, democracy, religion, and peaceful protest".


In July 2009, Yahoo agrees to use Microsoft as exclusive technology provider for its search services, and Microsoft will provide contextual advertising to Yahoo! on a non-exclusive basis. Yahoo! will be the exclusive worldwide relationship sales force for Yahoo!'s and Microsoft's premium search advertisers. In September 2011, Yahoo formed an ad selling strategic partnership with 2 of its top competitors, AOL and Microsoft. But by 2013 this was found to be underperforming in market share and revenue, as Microsoft simply skimmed off four percent of the search market from Yahoo, without growing their combined share.

Richard Dawkins

DawkinsDawkins, RichardDawkins, R.
In his book The Selfish Gene, Dawkins coined the word meme (the behavioural equivalent of a gene) as a way to encourage readers to think about how Darwinian principles might be extended beyond the realm of genes. It was intended as an extension of his "replicators" argument, but it took on a life of its own in the hands of other authors, such as Daniel Dennett and Susan Blackmore. These popularisations then led to the emergence of memetics, a field from which Dawkins has distanced himself. Dawkins's meme refers to any cultural entity that an observer might consider a replicator of a certain idea or set of ideas.

World Wide Web

Webthe webweb-based
Lists of websites. Prestel. Streaming media. Web 2.0. Web development tools. Web literacy. Webgraph. World Wide Telecom Web. The first website. Early archive of the first Web site. Internet Statistics: Growth and Usage of the Web and the Internet. Living Internet A comprehensive history of the Internet, including the World Wide Web. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). W3C Recommendations Reduce "World Wide Wait". World Wide Web Size Daily estimated size of the World Wide Web. Antonio A. Casilli, Some Elements for a Sociology of Online Interactions. The Erdős Webgraph Server offers weekly updated graph representation of a constantly increasing fraction of the WWW.

Viral video

viralwent viralviral hit
Pop stars such as Justin Bieber and Esmée Denters also started their careers via YouTube videos which ultimately went viral. By 2014, pop stars such as Miley Cyrus, Eminem, and Katy Perry were regularly obtaining web traffic in the order of 120 to 150 million hits a month, numbers far in excess of what many viral videos receive. Companies also use viral videos as a type of marketing strategy. The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty is considered to have been one of the first viral marketing strategies to hit the world when Dove released their Evolution video in 2006.

The New York Times

New York TimesNY TimesTimes
The website had 555million pageviews in March 2005. The domain attracted at least 146million visitors annually by 2008 according to a study. In March 2009, The New York Times Web site ranked 59th by number of unique visitors, with over 20million unique visitors, making it the most visited newspaper site with more than twice the number of unique visitors as the next most popular site., produced 22 of the 50 most popular newspaper blogs. was ranked 118 in the world, and 32 in the U.S. by Alexa on June 4, 2017.

Online video platform

video sharingvideo-sharingvideo hosting service
Some websites prefer use open source video formats such as Ogg or WebM. The compression formats used for open source video formats are Theora (with Ogg) and VP8 (with WebM). In particular, the Wikipedia community advocates the Ogg format and some web sites now support searching specifically for WebM videos. On some websites, users share entire films by breaking them up into segments that are about the size of the video length limit imposed by the site (e.g. a 15-minute video length limit). An emerging practice is for users to obfuscate the titles of feature-length films that they share by providing a title that is recognizable by humans but will not match on standard search engines.

Remix culture

remixingremixablefreely re-edited
Internet memes are Internet-specific creative content which are created, filtered and transformed by the viral spreading process made possible by the web and its users. As a response to a more restrictive copyright system (Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension, DMCA), which started to limit the blooming sharing and remixing activities of the web, Lawrence Lessig founded the Creative Commons in 2001. In 2002 the Creative Commons released a set of licenses as tools to enable remix culture, by allowing a balanced, fair enabling release of creative works, "some rights reserved" instead of the usual "all rights reserved".


spear phishingspear-phishinganti-phishing
A Profitless Endeavor: Phishing as Tragedy of the Commons – Microsoft Corporation. Database for information on phishing sites reported by the public – PhishTank. The Impact of Incentives on Notice and Take-down − Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge (PDF, 344 kB).

List of viral music videos

viral music video
In late 2016, the song went viral after Stefánsson was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Internet meme. List of Internet phenomena. List of viral videos. Viral marketing.

Web browser

browserweb browsersbrowsers
For a user, a search engine is just a website, such as, that stores searchable data about other websites. But to connect to a website's server and display its pages, a user needs to have a web browser installed on their device. The most popular browsers are Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer, and Edge. The first web browser, called WorldWideWeb, was invented in 1990 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee. He then recruited Nicola Pellow to write the Line Mode Browser, which displayed web pages on dumb terminals; it was released in 1991. 1993 was a landmark year with the release of Mosaic, credited as "the world's first popular browser".

The Selfish Gene

replicatorsselfish gene theorythe "selfish" gene
With the addition of Dawkins's book to the country's consciousness, the term "meme" entered popular culture. Yuzuru Tanaka of Hokkaido University wrote a book, Meme Media and Meme Market Architectures, while the psychologist Susan Blackmore wrote The Meme Machine (2000), with a foreword by Dawkins. The information scientist Osamu Sakura has published a book in Japanese and several papers in English on the topic. Nippon Animation produced an educational television program titled The Many Journeys of Meme.

Bing (search engine)

BingBing search engineMicrosoft Bing
According to the website the service was decommissioned on June 1, 2009, having donated over $500,000 to charity and schools. Club Bing – a promotional website where users can win prizes by playing word games that generate search queries on Microsoft's then search service Live Search. This website began in April 2007 as Live Search Club. Big Snap Search – a promotional website similar to Live Search Club. This website began in February 2008, but was discontinued shortly after. Live Search SearchPerks! - a promotional website which allowed users to redeem tickets for prizes while using Microsoft's search engine. This website began on October 1, 2008 and was decommissioned on April 15, 2009.