Family †Miacidae. genera: Chailicyon, Eosictis, Ictognathus, Miacis, Miocyon, Oodectes, Palaearctonyx, Paramiacis, Paroodectes, Prodaphaenus, Quercygale, Tapocyon, Uintacyon, Vassacyon, Vulpavus, Xinyuictis, Ziphacodon. Family †Viverravidae. genera: Bryanictis, Didymictis, Ictidopappus, Mustelodon, Pristinictis, Protictis, Raphictis, Simpsonictis, Viverravus. Order Carnivora. Suborder Caniformia or Canoidea. Suborder Feliformia or Feloidea. Clade Carnivoramorpha. Family †Viverravidae. genera: Bryanictis, Didymictis, Ictidopappus, Mustelodon, Pristinictis, Protictis, Raphictis, Simpsonictis, Viverravus. Clade Carnivoraformes.
Family †Miacidae. genera: Eosictis, Ictognathus, Miacis, Miocyon, Oodectes, Palaearctonyx, Paramiacis, Paroodectes, Prodaphaenus, Quercygale, Tapocyon, Uintacyon, Vassacyon, Vulpavus, Xinyuictis, Ziphacodon. Family †Viverravidae. genera: Bryanictis, Didymictis, Ictidopappus, Mustelodon, Pristinictis, Protictis, Raphictis, Simpsonictis, Viverravus.
Late EoceneMiddle EoceneEocene Epoch
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era. The Eocene spans the time from the end of the Paleocene Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene Epoch. The start of the Eocene is marked by a brief period in which the concentration of the carbon isotope 13 C in the atmosphere was exceptionally low in comparison with the more common isotope 12 C. The end is set at a major extinction event called the Grande Coupure (the "Great Break" in continuity) or the Eocene–Oligocene extinction event, which may be related to the impact of one or more large bolides in Siberia and in what is now Chesapeake Bay.
Carnivorans evolved from members of the family Miacidae (miacids, now recognized as paraphyletic ). The transition from Miacidae to Carnivora was a general trend in the middle and late Eocene, with taxa from both North America and Eurasia involved. The divergence of carnivorans from other miacids, as well as the divergence of the two clades within Carnivora, Caniformia and Feliformia, is now inferred to have happened in the middle Eocene, about 42 million years ago (mya).
Gracilocyon is an extinct genus of miacid carnivoran which existed in United States, in Belgium and in the United Kingdom during the earliest Eocene. It was first named by Thierry Smith and Richard Smith in 2010 and the type species is Gracilocyon winkleri.
Procynodictis is an extinct genus of Miacidae. It was first named by Jacob Lawson Wortman and William Diller Matthew in 1899, and contains two species: ''P. progressus and P. vulpiceps''. It was identified as an ancestor of Hesperocyon. zipcodezoo.com. paleodb.org. www.pnas.org. www.sdnhm.org. The Terrestrial Eocene-Oligocene Transition in North America By Donald R. Prothero, Robert J. Emry; Published 1996 Cambridge University Press; page 448. ISBN: 0-521-43387-8. Flynn, J.J., 1998. Early Cenozoic Carnivora ("Miacoidea"). pp. 110–123 in C.M. Janis, K.M. Scott, and L.L. Jacobs (eds.) Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN: 0-521-35519-2.
Prodaphaenus is an extinct genus of Miacidae. The genus has at least one known species: Prodaphaenus scotti. * findarticles.com zipcodezoo.com. paleodb.org. findarticles.com.
Miacis cognitusGustafsonia cognita
The type species, Gustafsonia cognita, was described in 1986 by Eric Paul Gustafson, who originally interpreted it as a miacid and named it Miacis cognitus. It was subsequently considered to be the only species of the diverse genus Miacis that belonged to the crown-group Carnivora, within the Caniformia, and it was ultimately assigned to the family Amphicyonidae. The type specimen or holotype was discovered in Reeve's bonebed, western Texas, in the Chambers Tuff Formation in 1986. The University of Texas holds this specimen. It is the only confirmed fossil of this species. The holotype is missing the mandible, upper canines, and zygomatic arch.
Paramiacis is an extinct genus of Miacidae. Christian Mathis has defined to make a difference between the miacids from Europe and the American genus Miacis. There are two species of it, ''P. exilis (Henri Filhol, 1876) and P. teilhardi'' (Mathis, 1987) - which were long believed to be only sexual dimorphism. The Rise of Placental Mammals: Origins and Relationships of the Major Extant Clades edited by Kenneth David Rose and J. David Archibald ISBN: 0-8018-8022-X. Bibliography and Index of Geology by American Geological Institute, Geological Society of America. Flynn, J.J., 1998. Early Cenozoic Carnivora ("Miacoidea"). pp. 110–123 in C.M. Janis, K.M. Scott, and L.L. Jacobs (eds.)
It was originally interpreted as a miacid and named Miacis australis, however recent research has suggested it is an early amphicyonid. Analysis of skeletal morphology suggests it is most closely related to another taxon previously attributed to Miacidae, Miacis cognitus, and the well known New World amphicyonid, Daphoenus.
PalaeoceneLate PaleocenePaleocene epoch
The Paleocene, or Palaeocene, is a geological epoch that lasted from about 66 to 56 million years ago (mya). It is the first epoch of the Paleogene Period in the modern Cenozoic Era. The name is a combination of the Ancient Greek palæo- meaning "old" and the Eocene Epoch (which succeeds the Paleocene), translating to "the old part of the Eocene".
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor (or more precisely ancestral population). Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies), which distinguish organisms in the clade from other organisms. The arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a monophyly.
Mammals (from Latin mamma "breast") are vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females (and sometimes males ) produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young, a neocortex (a region of the brain), fur or hair, and three middle ear bones. These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles and birds, from which they diverged in the late Triassic, 201–227 million years ago. There are around 5,450 species of mammals. The largest orders are the rodents, bats and Soricomorpha (shrews and others).
Birds, also known as Aves or avian dinosaurs, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m ostrich. They rank as the world's most numerically successful class of tetrapods, with approximately ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerine, or "perching" birds. Birds have whose development varies according to species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds.
Miacis cognitus was probably an early caniform. Like many other early carnivorans, it was well suited for tree climbing with needle-sharp claws, and had limbs and joints that resemble those of modern carnivorans. M. cognitus was probably a very agile forest dweller that preyed on smaller animals, such as small mammals, reptiles, and birds. Debate continues on the origin of pinnipeds. Recent molecular evidence suggests pinnipeds evolved from a bear-like ancestor about 23 million years ago during the late Oligocene or early Miocene epochs, a transitional period between the warmer Paleogene and cooler Neogene periods.
CopeCope EDCope, E.D.
Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840 – April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist. He was a founder of the Neo-Lamarckism school of thought. Born to a wealthy Quaker family, Cope distinguished himself as a child prodigy interested in science; he published his first scientific paper at the age of 19. Though his father tried to raise Cope as a gentleman farmer, he eventually acquiesced to his son's scientific aspirations. Cope married his cousin and had one child; the family moved from Philadelphia to Haddonfield, New Jersey, although Cope would maintain a residence and museum in Philadelphia in his later years.
In the miacids (as with the modern Carnivora), the last upper premolar and the first lower molar are the carnassials, allowing grinding teeth to be retained behind for feeding on non-meat foods (the Canidae are the closest modern analog to miacid dentition). In creodonts, the carnassials were further back—either the first upper and second lower molars, or the second upper and third lower molars. This committed them to eating meat almost exclusively. These limits may have created important disadvantages over millions of years. *
This article records new taxa of fossil mammals of every kind that have been described during the year 2009, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to paleontology of mammals that occurred in the year 2009.
This article records new taxa of fossil mammals of every kind that have been described during the year 2010, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to paleontology of mammals that occurred in the year 2010.
Prehistoric mammalfossil mammalAdapisoricidae
Family Miacidae. Genus Miacis. Family Felidae (Felids). Subfamily Proailurinae. Genus Proailurus. Proailurus lemanensis. Genus Pseudaelurus. Subfamily Machairodontinae (Sabre-toothed cats). Genus Tchadailurus. Tchadailurus adei. Tribe Metailurini. Genus Metailurus. Metailurus major. Metailurus mongonliensis. Metailurus boodon. Metailurus ultimus. Genus Adelphailurus. Adelphailurus kansensis. Genus Stenailurus. Stenailurus teilhardi. Genus Dinofelis. ''Dinofelis cristata. Dinofelis diastemata. Dinofelis paleoonca. Dinofelis barlowi. Dinofelis piveteaui. Dinofelis aronoki. Dinofelis darti. Dinofelis petteri. Genus Yoshi. Yoshi minor. Yoshi garevskii. Tribe Smilodontini. Genus Smilodon.
Paroodectes is a miacid animal that lived during the early Eocene (ca. 50 million years ago) in the rain forests and swamps of the present-day Germany. It was a prehistoric predator that had the size and the appearance of a cat and was well adapted to climbing, as is apparent from its limbs, joints and shoulder bones. Its long tail gave balance for tree climbing and jumping from branch to branch. Paroodectes probably hunted in the tree tops on insects, rodents and small monkeys. Only one species of Paroodectes (''P. feisti'') has been found, and this was at the Messel Pit located southeast of Frankfurt, Germany.
The Bridger Formation is a geologic formation in southwestern Wyoming. It preserves fossils dating back to the Ypresian Epoch of the Paleogene Period. The formation was named by American geologist Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden for Fort Bridger, which had itself been named for mountain man Jim Bridger. The Bridger Wilderness covers much of the Bridger Formation's area.
Quercygale is an extinct genus of Miacidae, primitive carnivores that lived during the Eocene. The genus contains four species: ''Q. angustidens, Q. hastingsae, Q. helvetica, and Q. smithi''. Phylogenetic analysis of the basicranial morphology of miacid carnivoramorphans suggests Quercygale is the most advanced miacid and sister to crown group Carnivora, predating the split between Feliformia and Caniformia., although another recent study places them as a stem group within Feliformia. *
Messelogale is an extinct genus of Miacidae. Its fossils have been found in Europe. There is one assigned species: ''M. kessleri''. findarticles.com. www.senckenberg.de. The Rise of Placental Mammals: Origins and Relationships of the Major Extant Clades edited by Kenneth David Rose, and J. David Archibald; page 193. Published 2005; ISBN: 0-8018-8022-X.