Miocyon

Miocyon vallisrubrae
Miocyon is an extinct genus of Miacidae, primitive carnivores which lived during the Paleocene and Eocene Epoch. * Flynn, J.J., 1998. Early Cenozoic Carnivora ("Miacoidea"). pp. 110–123 in C.M. Janis, K.M. Scott, and L.L. Jacobs (eds.) ''Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America. Volume 1: Terrestrial Carnivores, Ungulates, and Ungulatelike Mammals.'' Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN: 0-521-35519-2 *The Terrestrial Eocene-Oligocene Transition in North America ISBN: 0-521-43387-8

Palaearctonyx

Palaearctonyx is an extinct genus of omnivorous Miacidae which inhabited North America during the Eocene living from 50.3—46.2 Ma and existed for approximately. Palaearctonyx was named by Matthew (1909). Its type is Palaearctonyx meadi. It was assigned to Caniformia by Flynn and Galiano (1982); and to Miacidae by Matthew (1909) and Flynn (1998). * Flynn, J.J., 1998. Early Cenozoic Carnivora ("Miacoidea"). pp. 110–123 in C.M. Janis, K.M. Scott, and L.L. Jacobs (eds.) ''Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America. Volume 1: Terrestrial Carnivores, Ungulates, and Ungulatelike Mammals.'' Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN: 0-521-35519-2

Tapocyon

Tapocyon is an extinct genus of Miacidae, a family of primitive carnivores. Tapocyon was first discovered in Ventura County, when part of a jaw was found in the 1930s. A representative fossil of Tapocyon robustus was found in Oceanside, California. The animal was about the size of a coyote and is believed to have been a good climber that spent a lot of time in trees. Gittleman, J. A., ed. 1996. Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution. Ithaca, NY: Comstock Publishing. Halls, Kelly M. 2005. Wild Dogs: Past & Present. Plain City, OH: Darby Creek Publishing. The Terrestrial Eocene-Oligocene Transition in North America by Donald R. Prothero and Robert J. Emry; 1996 ISBN: 0-521-43387-8.

Dormaalocyon

Dormaalocyon latouri
Dormaalocyon latouri (previously known as 'Miacis' latouri), was a species of carnivorous mammal that was active over fifty-six million years ago. This species is one of the oldest carnivorous mammals that can be traced all the way to present day Carnivora. The species was discovered when fossils were unearthed in the village of Dormaal, near Zoutleeuw, in the Belgian province of Flemish Brabant. The discovery was first published in January 2014 in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. *Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences

Eosictis

Eosictis is an extinct genus of Miacidae. It was first named by Scott in 1945, and contains one species, Eosictis avinoffi. taxonomicon.taxonomy.nl. paleodb.org.

Uintacyon

Uintacyon hookeri
Uintacyon is an extinct genus of Miacidae. There are at least two species in the genus; Uintacyon rudis and Uintacyon gingerichi, the latter being recently discovered. * Flynn, J.J., 1998. Early Cenozoic Carnivora ("Miacoidea"). pp. 110–123 in C.M. Janis, K.M. Scott, and L.L. Jacobs (eds.) Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America. Volume 1: Terrestrial Carnivores, Ungulates, and Ungulatelike Mammals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN: 0-521-35519-2. findarticles.com. www.taxonomy.nl. www.jstor.org.

Vulpavus

Vulpavus ovatus
Vulpavus ("fox grandfather") is an extinct genus of Miacidae. It measured 60–90 cm in length and had an estimated weight over 1.19 kg (in ''V. palustris''). Alexander, J. 1992. Alas poor Notharctus. Natural History 9:54-59. Flynn, J.J., 1998. Early Cenozoic Carnivora ("Miacoidea"). pp. 110–123 in C.M. Janis, K.M. Scott, and L.L. Jacobs (eds.) Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America. Volume 1: Terrestrial Carnivores, Ungulates, and Ungulatelike Mammals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN: 0-521-35519-2.

Vassacyon

Vassacyon prieuriVassacyon taxidiotis
Vassacyon is an extinct genus of Miacidae. It contains two species; Vassacyon promicrodon and Vassacyon bowni. It is considered the largest of the early Eocene mammals. * findarticles.com Flynn, J.J., 1998. Early Cenozoic Carnivora ("Miacoidea"). pp. 110–123 in C.M. Janis, K.M. Scott, and L.L. Jacobs (eds.) Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America. Volume 1: Terrestrial Carnivores, Ungulates, and Ungulatelike Mammals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN: 0-521-35519-2. zipcodezoo.com. findarticles.com.

Ziphacodon

Ziphacodon is an extinct genus of Miacidae. The species Ziphacodon rugatus was first described by Marsh in 1872. It is probably a junior synonym of Viverravus gracilis. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level: Above the Species by Malcolm C. McKenna, Susan K. Bell, and George Gaylord Simpson ISBN: 0-231-11013-8. paleodb.org. taxonomicon.taxonomy.nl. uio.mbl.edu.

Oodectes

Oodectes is an extinct genus of Miacidae. findarticles.com. Fossil Mammalia of the Huerfano Formation, Eocene, of Colorado by Peter Robinson. nmnaturalhistory.org. paleobackup.nceas.ucsb.edu:8110.

Chailicyon

Chailicyon is an extinct genus in the basal Carnivoramorph family Miacidae that lived in Asia during the Middle to Late Eocene. Chailicyon was named by Chow (1975). It was assigned to Miacidae by Carroll (1988). museum03.museumwww.naturekundmuseum-berlin.de. The Terrestrial Eocene-Oligocene Transition in North America by Donald R. Prothero and Robert J. Emry ISBN: 0-521-43387-8.

Primitive (phylogenetics)

primitivebasaladvanced
In phylogenetics, a primitive (or ancestral) character, trait, or feature of a lineage or taxon is one that is inherited from the common ancestor of a clade (or clade group) and has undergone little change since. Conversely, a trait that appears within the clade group (that is, is present in any subgroup within the clade but not all) is called advanced or derived. A clade is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants.

Genus

generageneric namegeneric
A genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.

Marten

MartesmartensHimalayan yellow-throated marten
The martens constitute the genus Martes within the subfamily Guloninae, in the family Mustelidae. They have bushy tails and large paws with partially retractile claws. The fur varies from yellowish to dark brown, depending on the species, and is valued by trappers for the fur trade. Martens are slender, agile animals, adapted to living in the taiga, and inhabit coniferous and northern deciduous forests across the Northern Hemisphere.

Civet

civet catcivetscivet cats
A civet is a small, lithe-bodied, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests. The term civet applies to over a dozen different mammal species. Most of the species diversity is found in southeast Asia. The best-known civet species is the African civet, Civettictis civetta, which historically has been the main species from which was obtained a musky scent used in perfumery. The word civet may also refer to the distinctive musky scent produced by the animals.

Crown group

stem groupstemcrown
In phylogenetics, the crown group or crown assemblage of a collection of species consists of the living representatives of the collection together with their ancestors back to their most recent common ancestor as well as all of that ancestor's descendants. It is thus a clade, a group consisting of a species and all its descendants.

Arboreal locomotion

arborealscansorialarboreally
Arboreal locomotion is the locomotion of animals in trees. In habitats in which trees are present, animals have evolved to move in them. Some animals may scale trees only occasionally, but others are exclusively arboreal. The habitats pose numerous mechanical challenges to animals moving through them and lead to a variety of anatomical, behavioral and ecological consequences as well as variations throughout different species. Furthermore, many of these same principles may be applied to climbing without trees, such as on rock piles or mountains.

Terrestrial animal

terrestrialterrestrial animalsland animal
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, spiders), as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e.g., fish, lobsters, octopuses), or amphibians, which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats (e.g., frogs, or newts). Terrestrial invertebrates include ants, flies, crickets, grasshoppers and spiders.

Lizard

lizardsLacertiliaLacertilia indet.
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains. The group is paraphyletic as it excludes the snakes and Amphisbaenia; some lizards are more closely related to these two excluded groups than they are to other lizards. Lizards range in size from chameleons and geckos a few centimeters long to the 3 meter long Komodo dragon.

Shrew

Soricidaeshrewsshrewlike
The shrew (family Soricidae) is a small mole-like mammal classified in the order Eulipotyphla. True shrews are not to be confused with treeshrews, otter shrews, elephant shrews, or the West Indies shrews, which belong to different families or orders.

Opossum

DidelphidaeDidelphimorphiaopossums
The opossum ( or ) is a marsupial of the order Didelphimorphia endemic to the Americas. The largest order of marsupials in the Western Hemisphere, it comprises 103 or more species in 19 genera. Opossums originated in South America and entered North America in the Great American Interchange following the connection of the two continents. Their unspecialized biology, flexible diet, and reproductive habits make them successful colonizers and survivors in diverse locations and conditions.

Tooth

teethdentalmaxillary teeth
A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food. Some animals, particularly carnivores, also use teeth for hunting or for defensive purposes. The roots of teeth are covered by gums. Teeth are not made of bone, but rather of multiple tissues of varying density and hardness. The cellular tissues that ultimately become teeth originate from the embryonic germ layer, the ectoderm.

Weasel

Mustelaweaselspolecat
A weasel is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae. The genus Mustela includes the least weasels, polecats, stoats, ferrets, and mink. Members of this genus are small, active predators, with long and slender bodies and short legs. The family Mustelidae (which also includes badgers, otters, and wolverines) is often referred to as the "weasel family". In the UK, the term "weasel" usually refers to the smallest species, the least weasel (''M. nivalis'').

Skull

craniumcranialhuman skull
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates. It supports the structures of the face and provides a protective cavity for the brain. The skull is composed of two parts: the cranium and the mandible. In humans, these two parts are the neurocranium and the viscerocranium or facial skeleton that includes the mandible as its largest bone. The skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation—housing the brain, and several sensory structures such as the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth. In humans these sensory structures are part of the facial skeleton.