Annapolis Royal

Annapolis, Nova ScotiaTown of AnnapolisAnnapolis
During the American Revolution, the 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants) were stationed at Annapolis Royal to guard Nova Scotia against American Privateers. On 2 October 1778 the 84th Regiment was involved in the defeat of an American privateer at Annapolis Royal. Captain MacDonald sailed into the town only to find a large privateer ship raiding the port. He destroyed the privateer vessel, which had mounted ten carriage-guns. Two months later, in December 1778, Captain Campbell of the 84th Regiment took seven men with him to retrieve an American privateer ship that had been abandoned on Partridge Island, New Brunswick. They brought the ship safely back to Annapolis Royal.

United Empire Loyalist

LoyalistLoyalistsloyalist refugees
Loyalist (American Revolution). Canadian honorifics. Daughters of the American Revolution. Expulsion of the Loyalists. Society of the Cincinnati. Sons of the American Revolution. Sons of the Revolution. Acheson, T.W. "A Study in the Historical Demography of a Loyalist County", Social History, 1 (April 1968), pp. 53–65. Compeau, Timothy J. "Dishonoured Americans: Loyalist Manhood and Political Death in Revolutionary America." (PhD Diss. The University of Western Ontario, 2015); online. Jasanoff, Maya. Liberty's Exiles: American Loyalists in the Revolutionary World. (Knopf, 2011) Ranlet (2014) [below] argues her estimate of the number of Loyalists is too high. Jodon, Michael.

Battle of Fort Cumberland

Fort Cumberlandattempt to capture Fort CumberlandAmerican Revolutionary
Raddall, "His Majesty's Yankees" Doubleday & Company Inc. 1942 (historical fiction by NovaScotia's most famous writer). * Royal Fencible Americans at the On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies [[Military history of Nova Scotia#American Revolution|]]. List of American Revolutionary War battles. This book also contains Eddy's report of January 1777 as well as additional documents and reports. This book contains Colonel Goreham's reports on the action, as well as orders issued by others with respect to this event. D. C. Harvey, "Machias and the invasion of Nova Scotia", CHA Report, 1932: 17–28. On line. Acadia in the Revolution 1882.

Nova Scotia in the American Revolution

raided Nova Scotia communities
There are many Loyalists buried in the Old Burying Ground (Halifax, Nova Scotia), including a number of Black Loyalists who have unmarked graves. *Military history of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia on the road to the Revolution. ( book).

King's Orange Rangers

Their first uniforms arrived in early 1777, green coats faced white, with white smallclothes, in common with most other Loyalist corps of the American command at that time. In keeping with their name, the regiment was issued with red coats faced orange from 1780 to their disbandment. As Rangers, their coats were most likely unlaced. Military history of Nova Scotia. 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants). On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies. Various period papers and other records of the King's Orange Rangers. John Leefe. King's Orange Rangers. Re-enactment Regiment. Cairn to the King's Orange Rangers in Liverpool, Nova Scotia.


MEState of MaineM'''ain'''E
Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. During the War of 1812, the largely-undefended eastern region of Maine was occupied by British forces, but returned to the United States after the war following major defeats in New York, Maryland and Louisiana, as part of a peace treaty that was to include dedicated land on the Michigan peninsula for Native American peoples. Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820, when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become a separate state. On March 15, 1820, under the Missouri Compromise, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state.

Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge

decisively defeateddefeated at Moore's Creek Bridge
His petition to London to recruit 1,000 men had been rejected, but he continued efforts to rally Loyalist support. At about the same time, Scotsman Allan Maclean successfully lobbied King George III for permission to recruit Loyalist Scots throughout North America. In April, he received royal permission to raise a regiment known as the Royal Highland Emigrants by recruiting retired Scottish soldiers living in North America. One battalion was to be recruited in the northern provinces, including New York, Quebec and Nova Scotia, while a second battalion was to be raised in North Carolina and other southern provinces, where a large number of these soldiers had been given land.

Siege of Fort St. Jean

besieging Fort Saint-Jeanbattle of St. Johnsbesiege Fort Saint-Jean
He sent word to Colonel Allan Maclean at Quebec to bring more of his Royal Highland Emigrants and some militia forces to Sorel, from where they would move up the Richelieu toward St. Jean, while Carleton would lead a force across the Saint Lawrence at Longueuil. Maclean raised a force of about 180 Emigrants, and a number of militia. By the time he reached Sorel on October 14, he had raised, in addition to the Emigrants, about 400 militia men, sometimes using threatening tactics to gain recruits.

Battle of Quebec (1775)

Battle of QuebecQuebecsiege of Quebec
To provide more manpower, Carleton raised the Royal Highland Emigrants Regiment, whom he recruited from the Scots immigrants in Quebec. The commander of the Royal Highland Emigrants, Allan Maclean, was a Highlander who may or may not have fought for the Jacobites in the rebellion of 1745, but turned out to be Carleton's most aggressive subordinate in the campaign of 1775–76. On 26 July 1775, Carleton met Guy Johnson, the superintendent of the northern district of the Indian Department together with an Indian Department official, Daniel Claus, and a Mohawk war chief Joseph Brant.

Fort Anne

Fort Anne National Historic SiteAnnapolis RoyalFort Anne National Park
It was however still used as an outpost during the American Revolution, where the 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants) was stationed, and the War of 1812 in defence of the town from American privateers. The fort acquired the name Fort Anne in the 19th century. In 1917, Fort Anne was acquired by the Dominion Parks Branch, the predecessor of Parks Canada, and designated the second national historic park, bearing the name Fort Anne National Park (Fort Howe in Saint John, New Brunswick had been the first historical park).

Fort Edward (Nova Scotia)

Fort EdwardFort Edward National Historic SiteFort Edward in Windsor, Nova Scotia
During the American Revolution the 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants), 2nd Battalion were stationed at Forts throughout Atlantic Canada. Fort Edward was the headquarters for the 84th Regiment in Atlantic Canada. The 84th Regiment moved from Halifax to Fort Edward to guard against a land assault on Halifax. Throughout the war, Fort Edward housed prisoners taken from American Privateering ships. The Jacobite heroine Flora MacDonald spent the winter of 1778 - 1779 at the Fort with her husband, Alan Macdonald, before she returned alone to Scotland. Fort Edward was also active during the War of 1812.

Nova Scotia

NSProvince of Nova ScotiaNova Scotia, Canada
However the migration also caused political tensions between Loyalist leaders and the leaders of the existing New England Planters settlement. The Loyalist influx also pushed Nova Scotia's Mi'kmaq People to the margins as Loyalist land grants encroached on ill-defined native lands. As part of the Loyalist migration, about 3,000 Black Loyalists arrived; they founded the largest free Black settlement in North America at Birchtown, near Shelburne. However, unfair treatment and harsh conditions caused about one-third of the Black Loyalists to resettle in Sierra Leone in 1792, where they founded Freetown and became known in Africa as the Nova Scotian Settlers.

New Brunswick

NBProvince of New BrunswickNew Brunswick, Canada
After the American Revolution, about 10,000 loyalist refugees settled along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit ("hope restored"). The number of immigrants reached almost 14,000 by 1784. Perhaps 10% of the refugees to New Brunswick returned to the States as did an unknown number from Nova Scotia. The same year New Brunswick was partitioned from Nova Scotia and that year saw its first elected assembly. The election of 1786 was bitterly contested and pitted two concepts of loyalty to the Empire against one another: loyalty to the King and his appointed governors, and loyalty to the King with local affairs handled by the locals.

Invasion of Quebec (1775)

Invasion of Canadainvasion of Quebec1775 invasion of Canada
Forster had recruited them on the recommendation of a Loyalist who had escaped from Montreal. Furthermore, while General Wooster, much to the annoyance of both Patriot and Loyalist merchants, had refused to permit trade with the Indians upriver out of fear that supplies sent in that direction would be used by the British forces there, the congressional delegation reversed his decision and supplies began flowing out of the city up the river.

New York City

New YorkNew York, New YorkNew York City, New York
The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees and escaped slaves who joined the British lines for freedom newly promised by the Crown for all fighters. As many as 10,000 escaped slaves crowded into the city during the British occupation. When the British forces evacuated at the close of the war in 1783, they transported 3,000 freedmen for resettlement in Nova Scotia. They resettled other freedmen in England and the Caribbean. The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates, including Benjamin Franklin, and British general Lord Howe on September 11, 1776.

Shelburne, Nova Scotia

ShelburneTownship of ShelburneTown of Shelburne
These settlers were Loyalists (referred to later in Canada as United Empire Loyalists), British-American colonists who had opposed the Revolution and remained loyal to Britain. The Crown offered them free land, tools, and provisions as compensation to lure them to settle in this relatively undeveloped area. Four hundred families associated to form a town at Port Roseway, which Governor Parr renamed Shelburne later that year, after Lord Shelburne, the British prime minister. This group was led by the Port Roseway Associates, who had formed while still in New York and petitioned Governor Parr for the land.

North Carolina

Most of the soldiers fighting for the British side in this battle were Carolinians who had remained loyal to the Crown (they were called "Tories" or Loyalists). The American victory at Kings Mountain gave the advantage to colonists who favored American independence, and it prevented the British Army from recruiting new soldiers from the Tories. The road to Yorktown and America's independence from Great Britain led through North Carolina. As the British Army moved north from victories in Charleston and Camden, South Carolina, the Southern Division of the Continental Army and local militia prepared to meet them.

Province of Quebec (1763–1791)

Province of QuebecQuebecBritish Province of Quebec
Owing to an influx of Loyalist refugees from the American Revolutionary War, the demographics of Quebec came to shift and now included a substantial English-speaking Protestant element from the former Thirteen Colonies. These United Empire Loyalists settled mainly in the Eastern Townships, Montreal, and what was known then as the pays d'en haut (high country) west of the Ottawa River. The Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the colony in two at the Ottawa River, so that the western part (Upper Canada) could be under the English legal system, with English speakers in the majority. The eastern part was named Lower Canada.

American Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary WarRevolutionary
Loyalists were alienated when the Patriots resorted to violence, such as burning houses and tarring and feathering. Loyalists wanted to take a centrist position and resisted the Patriots' demand to declare their opposition to the Crown. Many Loyalists, especially merchants in the port cities, had maintained strong and long-standing relations with Britain (often with business and family links to other parts of the British Empire). Many Loyalists realized that independence was bound to come eventually, but they were fearful that revolution might lead to anarchy, tyranny or mob rule.