Siege of Boston

besieged Bostonevacuation of Bostonbesieged in Boston
Many Loyalists who lived outside the city of Boston left their homes and fled into the city. Most of them felt that it was not safe to live outside of the city, because the Patriots were now in control of the countryside. Some of the men, after arriving in Boston, joined Loyalist regiments attached to the British army. Because the siege did not blockade the harbor, the city remained open for the Royal Navy, under Vice Admiral Samuel Graves, to bring in supplies from Nova Scotia and other places. Colonial forces could do little to stop these shipments due to the naval supremacy of the British fleet.

Cape Sable Island

Cape SableSiege of Fort St. LouisCap de Sable
During the American Revolution, on September 4, 1778, the light infantry company of the 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants), under the command of Cpt. Ranald MacKinnon, was in the Raid of Cape Sable Island. American Privateers were threatening Cape Sable Island when the 84th Regiment arrived; they surprised the ship in the night and destroyed it. For his aggressive action, MacKinnon was praised highly by Brigadier General Eyre Massey. In response, one of his friends, Cpt. MacDonald, wrote to Major John Small, "McKinnon was embarrassed by the praise of the General and requested it not be inserted in the record since he only did his duty."

Georges Island (Nova Scotia)

Georges IslandGeorge's IslandFort Charlotte
During the American Revolution the 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants) were stationed at the fort to protect the harbour from American Privateers. Georges Island was part of the "Halifax Defence Complex" from the mid-18th century to the Second World War, with Citadel Hill and Fort Charlotte on the island being restored by Parks Canada. For nearly two hundred years Georges Island was the scene of constant military activity. Tales of executions, forts and hidden tunnels surround the folklore associated with the mysterious island. It had an Island Prison Camp, a Look Out Point, an Acadian Prison camp, and a Quarantine Station.

Sir John Wentworth, 1st Baronet

John WentworthSir John WentworthGovernor John Wentworth
During the previous decade hostility between the Planters and the newly arrived Loyalists nearly crippled the government. As well, the cost of settling the Loyalists had plunged the colony into debt. As a Loyalist himself, Wentworth favored them for higher offices, while being more even-handed with the distribution of lower offices. This began a Loyalist ascendancy that continued well into the 19th century. He stabilized the colony's finances by introducing an excise duty on all imports; by the end of 1793 even some of the principal of the debt had been paid off. In April, 1793, news arrived that war had broken out between Britain and revolutionary France.

Loyal American Regiment

*Thomas Henry Barclay *Military history of Nova Scotia The Loyal American Regiment. Index to Loyal American Regiment History - The On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies.

Benedict Arnold's expedition to Quebec

expedition to Quebecan expeditioninvasion of Canada
The city of Quebec was then defended by about 150 men of the Royal Highland Emigrants under Lieutenant Colonel Allen Maclean, supported by about 500 poorly organized local militia and 400 marines from the two warships. When Arnold and his troops finally reached the Plains of Abraham on November 14, Arnold sent a negotiator with a white flag to demand their surrender, to no avail. The Americans, with no cannons or other field artillery, and barely fit for action, faced a fortified city. After hearing rumors of a planned sortie from the city, Arnold decided on November 19 to withdraw to Pointe-aux-Trembles to wait for Montgomery, who had recently captured Montreal.

Jacob Bailey (author)

Jacob Bailey
"The Reverend Jacob Bailey, Maine Loyalist": "For God, King, Country, and for Self" - A lively biography of a loyalist caught in the upheaval of the American Revolution. University of Mass. Press. 2012. The Frontier Missionary: A Memoir of Rev. Jacob Bailey. 1853. Rev. Jacob Bailey: His Character and Works By Charles Edwin Allen. Kent Thompson. The Man Who Said No: Reading Jacob Bailey, Loyalist. Gaspereau Press. 2008. Ray Palmer Baker, "The Poetry of Jacob Bailey, Loyalist," NEQ, 2:58–92 (Jan. 1929). Taunya J. Dawson.

History of Nova Scotia

Nova ScotiaNova Scotia colonyNova Scotia, Canada
To guard against repeated American privateer attacks, the 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants) was garrisoned at forts around the Atlantic Canada to strengthen the small and ill-equipped militia companies of the colony. Fort Edward (Nova Scotia) in Windsor, Nova Scotia was the Regiment's headquarters to prevent a possible American land assault on Halifax from the Bay of Fundy.

Georgia (U.S. state)

GeorgiaGAState of Georgia
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which later split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819.

South Carolina

SCState of South CarolinaS.C.
Inhabitants of the state endured being invaded by English forces and an ongoing civil war between loyalists and partisans that devastated the backcountry. It is estimated 25,000 slaves (30% of those in South Carolina) fled, migrated or died during the war. America's first census in 1790 put the state's population at nearly 250,000. By the 1800 census the population had increased 38 per cent to nearly 340,000 of which 146,000 were slaves. At that time South Carolina had the largest population of Jews in the 16 United States, mostly based in Savannah and Charleston, the latter being the country's fifth largest city.

New England

southern New EnglandNew EnglanderNew England region
New England is a geographical region composed of six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and north, respectively. The Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, and Long Island Sound is to the south. Boston is New England's largest city as well as the capital of Massachusetts.

Continental Army

The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the ex-British colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Congress on June 14, 1775, it was created to coordinate the military efforts of the Thirteen Colonies in their revolt against the rule of Great Britain. The Continental Army was supplemented by local militias and volunteer troops that remained under control of the individual states or were otherwise independent. General George Washington was the commander-in-chief of the army throughout the war.

Canso, Nova Scotia

CansoRaid on CansoCanso Harbor
For the headland, see Cape Canso.

George Washington

WashingtonGeneral WashingtonPresident Washington
Washington was disappointed that many New Jersey residents were Loyalists or skeptical about the prospect of independence. Howe had split up his British Army and posted a Hessian garrison at Trenton, to hold western New Jersey and the east shore of the Delaware. Howe's army showed some complacency and Washington met with his generals on Christmas Eve to devise a surprise attack on the Hessian garrison at Trenton.

Quebec City

QuebecQuébecQuebec City, Quebec
Quebec City (pronounced or ; Québec ; Ville de Québec, Abenaki language: Kephek ), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016 (an increase of 3.0% from 2011), and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016 (an increase of 4.3% from 2011), making it the second largest city in Quebec after Montreal, and the seventh largest metropolitan area and eleventh largest city in the country.

Benedict Arnold

ArnoldGeneral Benedict ArnoldGen. Benedict Arnold
Richard Arnold (1769–1847) (Lieutenant, Loyalist American Legion cavalry). Henry Arnold (1772–1826) (Lieutenant, Loyalist American Legion cavalry). Edward Shippen Arnold (1780–1813) (Lieutenant, British Army in India – see Bengal Army). James Robertson Arnold (1781–1854) (Lieutenant General, Royal Engineers). George Arnold (1787–1828) (Lieutenant Colonel, 2nd (or 7th) Bengal Cavalry). Sophia Matilda Arnold (1785–1828) (married Colonel Pownall Phipps). William Fitch Arnold (1794–1846) (Captain, 9th Queen's Royal Lancers). Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor, a 2003 TV film directed by Mikael Salomon. John Champe (soldier). Intelligence in the American Revolutionary War.

Seven Years' War

French and Indian WarSeven Year WarThird Silesian or Seven Years' War
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain (including the Kingdom of Prussia, the Kingdom of Portugal, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and other small German states) on one side and the Kingdom of France (including the Austrian-led Holy Roman Empire), the Russian Empire (until 1762), the Kingdom of Spain, and the Swedish Empire on the other.


VACommonwealth of VirginiaVa.
Virginia, officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U.S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna.

British North America

BritishNorth AmericaCanada
The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire in North America, not including the Caribbean. The term was first used informally in 1783, but it was uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report. These territories today form modern-day Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

Halifax, Nova Scotia

HalifaxHalifax Regional MunicipalityHalifax, NS
Halifax, also known as the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. The municipality had a population of 403,131 in 2016, with 316,701 in the urban area centred on Halifax Harbour. The regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996: Halifax, Dartmouth, Bedford, and Halifax County.