American Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary WarRevolutionary
In the mid-20th century, historian Leonard Woods Labaree identified eight characteristics of the Loyalists that made them essentially conservative, opposite to the characteristics of the Patriots. Loyalists tended to feel that resistance to the Crown was morally wrong, while the Patriots thought that morality was on their side. Loyalists were alienated when the Patriots resorted to violence, such as burning houses and tarring and feathering. Loyalists wanted to take a centrist position and resisted the Patriots' demand to declare their opposition to the Crown.

North Carolina

NCNorthState of North Carolina
A majority of the colonists generally supported the American Revolution, and a smaller number of Loyalists than in some other colonies such as Georgia, South Carolina, Delaware, New York. During colonial times, Edenton served as the state capital beginning in 1722, and New Bern was selected as the capital in 1766. Construction of Tryon Palace, which served as the residence and offices of the provincial governor William Tryon, began in 1767 and was completed in 1771. In 1788 Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital, as its central location protected it from coastal attacks.

Richard Montgomery

MontgomeryGeneral MontgomeryGeneral Richard Montgomery
Janet remained interested in politics for the rest of the war and was always a harsh critic of Loyalists. After the war, former Continental Army general Horatio Gates proposed marriage to her, but she declined. In 1789, Janet stopped in New York City on her way to visit some of Montgomery's relatives in Ireland. She attended Washington's inaugural ball that followed his swearing as president, and also visited Washington and his family several times more. She sailed for Ireland soon after, and returned to America in 1790 after she had a falling out with her sister-in-law over British-American politics.

Siege of Boston

besieged Bostonevacuation of Bostonbesieged in Boston
Many Loyalists who lived outside the city of Boston left their homes and fled into the city. Most of them felt that it was not safe to live outside of the city, because the Patriots were now in control of the countryside. Some of the men, after arriving in Boston, joined Loyalist regiments attached to the British army. Because the siege did not blockade the harbor, the city remained open for the Royal Navy, under Vice Admiral Samuel Graves, to bring in supplies from Nova Scotia and other places. Colonial forces could do little to stop these shipments due to the naval supremacy of the British fleet.

Saratoga campaign

Saratogacampaigncampaign to the Hudson
He had about 300 regulars, supported by 650 Canadian and Loyalist militia, and they were joined by 1,000 Indians led by John Butler and the Iroquois war chiefs Joseph Brant, Sayenqueraghta and Cornplanter. Leaving Oswego on July 25, they marched to Fort Stanwix on the Mohawk River, and began besieging it on August 2. About 800 members of the Tryon County militia and their Indian allies marched to relieve the siege, but some of St. Leger's British and Indians ambushed them on August 6 at the bloody Battle of Oriskany.

Beverley Robinson

Colonel Beverley Robinson
Like many loyalists who moved to England, Robinson reportedly felt out of place and unappreciated. He resided at Thornbury, near Bristol, and died there on April 9, 1792, at the age of seventy. * Loyal American Regiment: Beverley Robinson: Text for this article has been copied from this source, with permission. Virtually all this source's text concerning Robinson was in turn adapted from Sabine's Loyalists in the American Revolution, an 1848 text that is most definitely in the public domain. * The Loyal American Regiment

Cape Sable Island

Cape SableCape Sable, Nova ScotiaCape Sable Island, Nova Scotia
During the American Revolution, on September 4, 1778, the light infantry company of the 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants), under the command of Cpt. Ranald MacKinnon, was in the Raid of Cape Sable Island. American Privateers were threatening Cape Sable Island when the 84th Regiment arrived; they surprised the ship in the night and destroyed it. For his aggressive action, MacKinnon was praised highly by Brigadier General Eyre Massey. In response, one of his friends, Cpt. MacDonald, wrote to Major John Small, "McKinnon was embarrassed by the praise of the General and requested it not be inserted in the record since he only did his duty."

Georges Island (Nova Scotia)

Georges IslandGeorge's IslandFort Charlotte
During the American Revolution the 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants) were stationed at the fort to protect the harbour from American Privateers. Georges Island was part of the "Halifax Defence Complex" from the mid-18th century to the Second World War, with Citadel Hill and Fort Charlotte on the island being restored by Parks Canada. For nearly two hundred years Georges Island was the scene of constant military activity. Tales of executions, forts and hidden tunnels surround the folklore associated with the mysterious island. It had an Island Prison Camp, a Look Out Point, an Acadian Prison camp, and a Quarantine Station.

Sir John Wentworth, 1st Baronet

John WentworthSir John WentworthJohn Wentworth (governor)
During the previous decade hostility between the Planters and the newly arrived Loyalists nearly crippled the government. As well, the cost of settling the Loyalists had plunged the colony into debt. As a Loyalist himself, Wentworth favored them for higher offices, while being more even-handed with the distribution of lower offices. This began a Loyalist ascendancy that continued well into the 19th century. He stabilized the colony's finances by introducing an excise duty on all imports; by the end of 1793 even some of the principal of the debt had been paid off. In April, 1793, news arrived that war had broken out between Britain and revolutionary France.

Loyal American Regiment

Military history of Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia in the American Revolution. The Loyal American Regiment. Index to Loyal American Regiment History - The On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies.

Benedict Arnold's expedition to Quebec

Arnold's expedition to Quebecexpedition to Quebecan expedition
The city of Quebec was then defended by about 150 men of the Royal Highland Emigrants under Lieutenant Colonel Allen Maclean, supported by about 500 poorly organized local militia and 400 marines from the two warships. When Arnold and his troops finally reached the Plains of Abraham on November 14, Arnold sent a negotiator with a white flag to demand their surrender, to no avail. The Americans, with no cannons or other field artillery, and barely fit for action, faced a fortified city. After hearing rumors of a planned sortie from the city, Arnold decided on November 19 to withdraw to Pointe-aux-Trembles to wait for Montgomery, who had recently captured Montreal.

Timothy Ruggles

Military history of Nova Scotia. Catherine Cottreau-Robins. Timothy Ruggles - A Loyalist Plantation in Nova Scotia, 1784-1800. Doctorate Thesis. Dalhousie University.2012. (partial source).

Hants County, Nova Scotia

Hants CountyHantsCounty of Hants
During the American Revolution, Fort Edward played a pivotal role defending Halifax from a possible land attack and serving as the headquarters in Atlantic Canada for 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants). After the American Revolution, the Rawdon Township and Douglas Township were created for American Loyalists (1884). The Douglas Township (Kennetcook and area) was settled by the 84th Regiment of Foot. The Rawdon Township was settled by loyalists from South Carolina whose lives had been saved in the Siege of Ninety-Six by Lord Rawdon and the 84th Regiment of Foot. Windsor developed its gypsum deposits, usually selling it to American markets at Passamaquoddy Bay.

Jacob Bailey (author)

Jacob Bailey
"The Reverend Jacob Bailey, Maine Loyalist": "For God, King, Country, and for Self" - A lively biography of a loyalist caught in the upheaval of the American Revolution. University of Mass. Press. 2012. The Frontier Missionary: A Memoir of Rev. Jacob Bailey. 1853. Rev. Jacob Bailey: His Character and Works By Charles Edwin Allen. Kent Thompson. The Man Who Said No: Reading Jacob Bailey, Loyalist. Gaspereau Press. 2008. Ray Palmer Baker, "The Poetry of Jacob Bailey, Loyalist," NEQ, 2:58–92 (Jan. 1929). Taunya J. Dawson.

History of Nova Scotia

Nova ScotiaNova Scotia HistoryDemocracy 250
To guard against repeated American privateer attacks, the 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants) was garrisoned at forts around the Atlantic Canada to strengthen the small and ill-equipped militia companies of the colony. Fort Edward (Nova Scotia) in Windsor, Nova Scotia, was the Regiment's headquarters to prevent a possible American land assault on Halifax from the Bay of Fundy.

Seven Years' War

Seven Years’ WarSeven Years WarThe Seven Years' War
The Seven Years' War was a global war fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved all five European great powers of the time plus many of the middle powers and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines.

Georgia (U.S. state)

GeorgiaGAState of Georgia
Georgia is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Georgia is the 24th largest in area and 8th-most populous of the 50 United States. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, and to the west by Alabama. Atlanta, a "beta" global city, is both the state's capital and largest city. The Atlanta metropolitan area, with an estimated population of 5,949,951 in 2018, is the 9th most populous metropolitan area in the United States and contains about 60% of the entire state population.

South Carolina

SCState of South CarolinaS.C.
Inhabitants of the state endured being invaded by English forces and an ongoing civil war between loyalists and partisans that devastated the backcountry. It is estimated 25,000 slaves (30% of those in South Carolina) fled, migrated or died during the war. America's first census in 1790 put the state's population at nearly 250,000. By the 1800 census the population had increased 38 per cent to nearly 340,000 of which 146,000 were slaves. At that time South Carolina had the largest population of Jews in the 16 United States, mostly based in Savannah and Charleston, the latter being the country's fifth largest city.

War of 1812

The War of 1812American War of 1812war
Upper Canada (southern Ontario) had been settled mostly by Revolution-era exiles from the United States (United Empire Loyalists) or postwar American immigrants. The Loyalists were hostile to union with the United States, while the immigrant settlers were generally uninterested in politics and remained neutral or supported the British during the war. The Canadian colonies were thinly populated and only lightly defended by the British Army. Americans believed that many men in Upper Canada would rise up and greet an American army as liberators. One reason that American forces retreated after one successful battle inside Canada was that they could not obtain supplies from the locals.


Ontario, CanadaONProvince of Ontario
The southerly route, which was driven by growth in settlements originated by the United Empire Loyalists and later other European immigrants, travels southwest from Montreal along the St. Lawrence River, Lake Ontario, and Lake Erie before entering the United States in Michigan. Major cities on or near the route include Kingston, Belleville, Peterborough, Oshawa, Toronto, Mississauga, Kitchener-Waterloo, Hamilton, London, Sarnia, and Windsor.

New England

Southern New EnglandNorthern New EnglandNew England region
New England is a region composed of six states in the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick to the northeast and Quebec to the north. The Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, and Long Island Sound is to the southwest. Boston is New England's largest city, as well as the capital of Massachusetts.

Canso, Nova Scotia

CansoRaid on CansoCanso Harbor
Canso is a community in Guysborough County, on the north-eastern tip of mainland Nova Scotia, Canada, next to Chedabucto Bay. In January 2012, it ceased to be a separate town and as of July 2012 was amalgamated into the Municipality of the District of Guysborough.

Continental Army

ContinentalContinental soldiersContinentals
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the ex-British colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Congress on June 14, 1775, it was created to coordinate the military efforts of the Thirteen Colonies in their revolt against the rule of Great Britain. The Continental Army was supplemented by local militias and volunteer troops that remained under control of the individual states or were otherwise independent. General George Washington was the commander-in-chief of the army throughout the war.

Quebec City

QuebecQuebec City, QuebecQuébec City
Quebec City ( or ; Québec ; Ville de Québec, ), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city has an estimated population of 531,902 as of July 2016 (an increase of 3.0% from 2011), and the metropolitan area has a population of 800,296 as of July 2016 (an increase of 4.3% from 2011). It is the second largest city in Quebec after Montreal, and the seventh largest metropolitan area and eleventh largest city in Canada.

Benedict Arnold

ArnoldBenedictGen. Benedict Arnold
Peggy came from a loyalist family in Philadelphia; she had many ties to the British. She… was the conduit for information to the British." Early in May 1779, Arnold met with Philadelphia merchant Joseph Stansbury who then "went secretly to New York with a tender of [Arnold's] services to Sir Henry Clinton". Stansbury ignored instructions from Arnold to involve no one else in the plot, and he crossed the British lines and went to see Jonathan Odell in New York. Odell was a Loyalist working with William Franklin, the last colonial governor of New Jersey and the son of Benjamin Franklin. On May 9, Franklin introduced Stansbury to Major André, who had just been named the British spy chief.