Lunenburg, Nova Scotia

LunenburgOld Town LunenburgTown of Lunenburg
Lunenburg is a port town on the South Shore of Nova Scotia, Canada. Founded in 1753, the town was one of the first British attempts to settle Protestants in Nova Scotia intended to displace Mi'kmaqs and Acadians.


Commonwealth of VirginiaVAState of Virginia
Virginia, officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealth's estimated population is over 8.5 million.

British North America

BritishNorth AmericaBritish North American
British North America refers to the former territories of the British Empire in North America, not including the Caribbean. The term was first used informally in 1783, but it was uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report. These territories today form modern-day Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

Halifax, Nova Scotia

HalifaxHalifax Regional MunicipalityHalifax, NS
Halifax, officially known as the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It had a population of 403,131 in 2016, with 316,701 in the urban area centred on Halifax Harbour. The regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996: Halifax, Dartmouth, Bedford, and Halifax County.


During the American Revolutionary War, the Continental Congress, and some state governments (on their own initiative), issued privateering licenses, authorizing "legal piracy", to merchant captains in an effort to take prizes from the British Navy and Tory (Loyalist) privateers. This was done due to the relatively small number of commissioned American naval vessels and the pressing need for prisoner exchange. About 55,000 American seamen served aboard the privateers. They quickly sold their prizes, dividing their profits with the financier (persons or company) and the state (colony).

Liverpool, Nova Scotia

LiverpoolTown of LiverpoolTownship of Liverpool
The town grew following the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) with the arrival of American colonial refugees known as Loyalists. During the American Revolution, the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812, Liverpool financed and manned many privateer vessels which primarily targeted French vessels in the West Indies and American shipping off the Nova Scotia and New England coasts. The port was notable for such privateer vessels as the brig Rover and the schooner Liverpool Packet, mariners such as Joseph Barss, and ships' chandlers and merchants such as Enos Collins and Simeon Perkins.

Cape Breton Island

Cape BretonCape Breton, Nova ScotiaC'''ape Breton Island
A number of United Empire Loyalists emigrated to the Canadian colonies, including Cape Breton. David Mathews, the former Mayor of New York City during the American Revolution, emigrated with his family to Cape Breton in 1783. He succeeded Macarmick as head of the colony and served from 1795 to 1798. From 1799 to 1807, the military commandant was John Despard, brother of Edward. An order forbidding the granting of land in Cape Breton, issued in 1763, was removed in 1784. The mineral rights to the island were given over to the Duke of York by an order-in-council.

Prince Edward Island

During and after the American Revolutionary War, from 1776 to 1783, the colony's efforts to attract exiled Loyalist refugees from the rebellious American colonies met with some success. Walter Patterson's brother, John Patterson, one of the original grantees of land on the island, was a temporarily exiled Loyalist and led efforts to persuade others to come. Governor Patterson dismissal in 1787, and his recall to London in 1789 dampened his brother's efforts, leading John to focus on his interests in the United States. Edmund Fanning, also a Loyalist exiled by the Revolution, took over as the second governor, serving until 1804. His tenure was more successful than Patterson's.

Province of New York

New Yorkcolony of New YorkNew York Colony
The American Revolution saw the departure of many leading lawyers who were Loyalists; their clientele was often tied to royal authority or British merchants and financiers. They were not allowed to practice law unless they took a loyalty oath to the new United States of America. Many went to Britain or Canada after losing the war. The Supreme Court of Judicature of the Province of New York was established by the New York Assembly on 6 May 1691. Jurisdiction was based on the English Courts of King's Bench, Common Pleas and Exchequer but excluded cases of equity which were dealt with by the Court of Chancery.

78th (Highlanders) Regiment of Foot

78th Highlanders78th Regiment of Foot78th Foot
The 78th (Highlanders) Regiment of Foot was a Highland Infantry Regiment of the Line, raised in 1793. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with 72nd Regiment, Duke of Albany's Own Highlanders to form the Seaforth Highlanders in 1881.

Birchtown, Nova Scotia

A seasonal museum complex commemorating the Black Loyalists was opened in that year by the Black Loyalist Heritage Society; it included the historic Birchtown school and church. The offices and archives of the museum were largely destroyed by an arson attack in 2006. The remaining archives were moved to temporary quarters on the site. A new facility, the Black Loyalist Heritage Centre, opened its doors in June 2015; it tells the story of the Black Loyalists in America, Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone through their staff and interactive digital displays.

Book of Negroes

The Book of Negroes3,000 former slavesa historical document of the same name
"Book of Negroes", Remembering Black Loyalists, Black Communities in Nova Scotia, 2001, Noval Scotia Museum. Book of Negroes. Black Loyalists: Our History, Our People, Canadian Digital Collections, website includes link to Book of Negroe.

Machias, Maine

MachiasMachias, MEMacchias
Machias is a town in and the county seat of Washington County in downeast Maine, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town population was 2,221. It is home to the University of Maine at Machias and Machias Valley Airport, a small public airport owned by the town. The word Machias roughly translates in Passamaquoddy as "bad little falls", a reference to the Machias River. Machias is best known as the site of the first naval battle of the American Revolution.

Castine, Maine

CastineMajabigwaduceNautilus Island and the Majabagaduce peninsula
At the end of the Revolutionary War, many American Loyalists in the area migrated eastward to the Canadian Maritimes, some towing their houses behind their boats. Subsequently, known as United Empire Loyalists, they crossed the newly established international boundary line of the St. Croix River and established St. Andrews, one of the oldest towns in New Brunswick. In addition, many soldiers of the 74th chose to be disbanded in St. Andrews (last muster May 24, 1784), and took up land grants there along with the Loyalists, rather than return to Britain.

Saint John, New Brunswick

Saint JohnSt. John, New BrunswickSt. John
Loyalist House. New Brunswick Museum. Saint John Jewish Historical Museum. Carleton Martello Tower. Fort Charnisay (also sometimes called Fort Menagoueche). Fort Howe. Imperial Theatre. Loyalist House. Saint John City Market. The Quebec Major Junior Hockey League's Saint John Sea Dogs. The National Basketball League of Canada's Saint John Riptide. The New Brunswick Rugby Union's Saint John Irish. The New Brunswick Rugby Union's Saint John Trojans. The New Brunswick Senior Baseball League's Saint John Alpines. 2010 Canadian Senior Little League Championships. 2010 Jeux de l’Acadie. 2009 Canadian Senior Little League Championships.

Englishtown, Nova Scotia

At the time the first Loyalist settlers arrived, the area was known as Mohagadecek by the Miꞌkmaq, though the meaning of the name does not seem to have been recorded. In the 1820’s Englishtown received its present name, translated from the name Scottish settlers in the area had given it: "Bhal no Ghaul" or "the Town of the English". This was a reference to the fact that the English language had become the town's common tongue (Gaelic being the mother tongue of some settlers), and not a reference to all the settlers originating from England. Englishtown is one of the oldest settlements in North America, having been established as a French fishing port in 1597.

The Maritimes

MaritimesMaritime ProvincesCanadian Maritimes
The most significant impact from this war was the settling of large numbers of Loyalist refugees in the region (34,000 to the 17,000 settlers already there), especially in Shelburne and Parrtown (Saint John). Following the Treaty of Paris in 1783, Loyalist settlers in what would become New Brunswick persuaded British administrators to split the Colony of Nova Scotia to create the new colony of New Brunswick in 1784. At the same time, another part of the Colony of Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, was split off to become the Colony of Cape Breton Island. The Colony of St. John's Island was renamed to Prince Edward Island on November 29, 1798.

Lake Champlain

ChamplainChamplain Lakelake
Benedict Arnold shared the command with Allen, and in early May 1775, they captured Fort Ticonderoga, Crown Point, and the southern Loyalist settlement of Skenesborough. As a result of Allen’s offensive attack on the Champlain Valley in 1775, the American forces controlled the Lake Champlain waterway. The Continental Army realized the strategic advantage of controlling Lake Champlain, as it leads directly to the heart of Quebec. Immediately after taking Forts Ticonderoga and Crown Point, the Americans began planning an attack on British Canada. The American siege of Quebec was a two-pronged assault and occurred throughout the winter of 1775–1776.

Windsor, Nova Scotia

WindsorTown of WindsorTownship of Windsor
Fort Edward was the headquarters in Atlantic Canada for 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants). A relief force was mustered at Windsor to crush the American-led siege at the Battle of Fort Cumberland in 1776. Following the American Revolution, Windsor was settled by United Empire Loyalists. Windsor developed its gypsum deposits, usually selling it to American markets at Passamaquoddy Bay. Often this trade was illegal; in 1820, an effort to stop this smuggling trade resulted in the "Plaster War," in which local smugglers resoundingly defeated the efforts of New Brunswick officials to bring the trade under their control.


SorelSorel, QuebecSorel-Tracy, Quebec
The purchase was eventually made in 1781 and Sorel became a clearing house for the steady stream of Loyalist refugees from the south. A certain number of them settled in Sorel, forming the nucleus of the English population. Another addition was Sorel being selected as one of the stations for "Military Invalids", or “Outside Chelsea Pensioners" as they were also called. These old soldiers and their dependents, numbering several hundreds, were sent to Sorel under the medical care of Dr. Christopher Carter. The earliest efforts for the propagation of the Protestant religion in Canada were made in Sorel.

Miramichi, New Brunswick

MiramichiMiddle IslandMiramichi, NB
Following the American Revolution some loyalist families moved to Miramichi. Davidson's original grant was revoked, and competition for the best lands escalated tensions between the early Scottish and new loyalist settlers. In 1825, a large forest fire, among the worst in recorded history of North America, devastated a number of communities in northern New Brunswick. The Irish began arriving in Miramichi in numbers after 1815 at the end of the Napoleonic War and with a few exceptions ceased coming to the area before the great Irish famine of 1847. They came to the area voluntarily to better their lives.

Black Nova Scotians

Black Nova ScotianAfrican Nova ScotianBlack
The community was the largest settlement of Black Loyalists and was the largest free settlement of Africans in North America in the 18th century. The community was named after British Brigadier General Samuel Birch, an official who assisted in the evacuation of Black Loyalists from New York. (Also named after the general was a much smaller settlement of Black Loyalists in Guysborough County, Nova Scotia called Birchtown. ) The two other significant Black Loyalist communities established in Nova Scotia were Brindley town (present-day Jordantown) and Tracadie. Birchtown was located near the larger town of Shelburne, with a majority white population.

Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War

southern theatersouthern strategySouthern Campaign
The seizure by Loyalists of a shipment of gunpowder and ammunition intended for the Cherokee caused an escalation in tensions that led to the First Siege of Ninety Six in western South Carolina late November. Patriot recruiting was by then outstripping that of the Loyalists, and a major campaign (called the Snow Campaign due to unusually heavy snowfall) involving as many as 5,000 Patriots led by Colonel Richard Richardson succeeded in capturing or driving away most of the Loyalist leadership. Loyalists fled, either to East Florida or to the Cherokee lands. A faction of the Cherokee, known as the Chickamauga, rose up in support of the British and Loyalists in 1776.

Siege of Ninety-Six

Siege of Ninety Sixassaulted Ninety SixBattle of Ninety-Six
The Loyalists who were saved by Rawdon in the siege were resettled by the Crown in Nova Scotia. They named the township Rawdon, Nova Scotia, after Lord Rawdon to commemorate his having rescued them. The entire De Lancey's Brigade, who protected the Loyalists until Rawdon's arrival, was disbanded in Woodstock, New Brunswick, Canada in 1783. *

Thomas Gage

General Thomas GageGeneral GageGage
He supported the efforts of Loyalists to recover losses incurred when they were forced to leave the colonies, notably confirming the activities of Benjamin Church to further his widow's claims for compensation. He received visitors at Portland Place and at Firle, including Frederick Haldimand and Thomas Hutchinson. His health began to decline early in the 1780s. Gage died at Portland Place on 2 April 1787, and was buried in the family plot at Firle. His wife survived him by almost 37 years. His son Henry inherited the family title upon the death of Gage's brother William, and became one of the wealthiest men in England.