Loyalist recruiting had been more successful: Williamson had learned that Captain Patrick Cuningham and Major Joseph Robinson were leading a large Loyalist force (estimated to number about 1,900) toward Ninety Six. In a war council that day, the Patriot leaders decided against marching out to face the Loyalists. The Loyalists arrived the next day, and surrounded the Patriot camp. The leaders of the two factions were in the midst of negotiating an end to the standoff when two Patriot militiamen were seized by Loyalists outside the stockade. This set off a gunfight that lasted for about two hours, with modest casualties on both sides.
driven out of the colonymajor Patriot expedition
Despite this, many of the German settlers were loyalists during the Revolution, possibly because they feared their royal land grants would be taken away by a new republican government, or because of loyalty to a British German monarchy who had provided the opportunity to live in a liberal society. The Germans, comprising Lutherans, Reformed, Mennonites, Amish, and other sects, developed a rich religious life with a strong musical culture. Collectively, they came to be known as the Pennsylvania Dutch (from Deutsch).
Long Island, New YorkLong Island, NYL. I.
After the British victory on Long Island, many Patriots fled, leaving mostly Loyalists behind. The island remained a British stronghold until the end of the war in 1783. General Washington based his espionage activities on Long Island, due to the western part of the island's proximity to the British military headquarters in New York City. The Culper Spy Ring included agents operating between Setauket and Manhattan. This ring alerted Washington to valuable British secrets, including the treason of Benedict Arnold and a plan to use counterfeiting to induce economic sabotage. Long Island's colonists served both Loyalist and Patriot causes, with many prominent families divided among both sides.
Allan MacleanAllen Maclean
He is best known for leading the 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants) in the Battle of Quebec. Allan was the third son of Donald Maclean, 5th Laird of Torloisk and Mary (Campbell) Maclean, daughter of Archibald Campbell of Sunderland. His other siblings were Hector, Lachlan, Archibald, Mary, Anna, Alicia, Christiana, Betty, and Elizabeth. His family, though titled, was quite poor, the Maclean of Torloisk's property valued at £671 6s. Maclaine begun his military training with the clan as a 17-year-old lieutenant in the Scots Brigade of the Royal Dutch Republic after a brief service as an adjutant.
the first race riots
The Shelburne riots were a series of mob attacks in July 1784 by landless British Loyalist veterans of the American Revolution against Black Loyalists and government officials in the town of Shelburne, Nova Scotia, Canada and the nearby village of Birchtown. They are considered the first race riots in Canada and one of the first recorded race riots in North America. The town of Shelburne was created in 1783 as a settlement for United Empire Loyalists, British soldiers, supporters and families who fought for the British in the American Revolution.
Some Loyalists, according to Labaree, were "procrastinators" who believed that independence was bound to come some day, but wanted to "postpone the moment", while the Patriots wanted to "seize the moment". Loyalists were cautious and afraid of anarchy or tyranny that might come from mob rule; Patriots made a systematic effort to take a stand against the British. Finally, Labaree argues that Loyalists were pessimists who lacked the Patriots' confidence that independence lay ahead. The Patriots rejected taxes imposed by legislatures in which the taxpayer was not represented.
Great Bridgeat Great Bridgedecisively repulsed
A small British fleet then took shape at Norfolk, a port town whose merchants had significant Loyalist (Tory) tendencies. The threat posed by the British fleet may also have played a role in minimizing Whig activity in the town. Incidents continued between rebels on one side and loyalists (Tories) on the other until October, when Dunmore had acquired enough military support to begin operations against the rebellious colonists. General Thomas Gage, the British commander-in-chief for North America, had ordered small detachments of the 14th Regiment of Foot to Virginia in response to pleas by Dunmore for military help.
Ninety SixNinety-SixFort Ninety Six
From May 22 to June 18, 1781, Major General Nathanael Greene, with 1,000 Continental Army troops, besieged 550 American Loyalists who were defending Ninety Six. General Greene's chief engineer at the siege was the world-renowned Polish hero Colonel Tadeusz Kościuszko, who was wounded at the siege. The Loyalists survived the siege and relocated after the war to Rawdon, Nova Scotia, Canada, with support from the Crown for resettlement. The Kinard House, Moore-Kinard House, Ninety Six National Historic Site, and Southern Railway Depot (Ninety Six, South Carolina) are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
issued a proclamationissuing a proclamationproclamation
Black Loyalist. Emancipation Proclamation. Gilbert, Alan. Black Patriots and Loyalists: Fighting for Emancipation in the War for Independence (University of Chicago Press, 2012). Piecuch, Jim. Three Peoples, One King: Loyalists, Indians, and Slaves in the Revolutionary South, 1775–1782 (Univ of South Carolina Press, 2008). Quarles, Benjamin. "Lord Dunmore as Liberator," William and Mary Quarterly (1958) 15#4 pp. 494–507 in JSTOR. Photograph of the proclamation. Proclamation text. Proclamation of Earl of Dunmore from PBS. Summary of Dunmore's Proclamation. Dunmore's Proclamation:A Time to Choose. Reactions of blacks to Dunmore's Proclamation.
SaratogaBemis HeightsBattle of Saratoga
The army was growing in size because of increased militia turnout following calls by state governors, the success at Bennington, and widespread outrage over the slaying of Jane McCrea, the fiancée of a Loyalist in Burgoyne's army by Indians under Burgoyne's command. General George Washington's strategic decisions also improved the situation for Gates' army. Washington was most concerned about the movements of General Howe. He was aware that Burgoyne was also moving, and he took some risks in July.
After US independence, the British resettled some 7,300 Loyalists with their slaves in the Bahamas, including two thousand from New York and at least 1,033 whites, 2,214 blacks and a few Creeks from East Florida. Most of the refugees resettled from New York had fled from other colonies, including West Florida, which the Spanish captured during the war. The government granted land to the planters to help compensate for losses on the continent. These Loyalists, who included Deveaux, established plantations on several islands and became a political force in the capital.
Camdendefeated at Camdenrouting of a second Continental Army at Camden
Cornwallis had roughly 2,239 men, including Loyalist militia and Volunteers of Ireland. Cornwallis also had the infamous and highly experienced Tarleton's Legion, who were formidable in a pursuit situation. Cornwallis formed his army into two brigades. On the right was Lt. Col James Webster, facing the inexperienced militia with the 23rd Royal Welch Fusiliers and the 33rd Regiment of Foot. Lord Rawdon was in command of the left, facing the Continental Infantry with the Irish Volunteers, Banastre Tarleton's infantry and the Loyalist troops. In reserve, Cornwallis had two battalions of the 71st Regiment of Foot and Tarleton's cavalry force. He also placed four guns in the British center.
Bishop Samuel SeaburyBishop Seaburyfirst Episcopal bishop in America
Seabury's "Farmer's Letters" rank him as the most vigorous American loyalist controversialist and, along with his prayers and devotional writings, one of the greatest masters of style of his period. His printed sermons and essays enjoyed wide readership well after his death. Samuel Seabury was the first bishop consecrated for the Episcopal Church (United States). His brother David Seabury was a Loyalist who moved to Nova Scotia. He returned to the United States in 1806. His son Charles (1770–1844) was rector in various Long Island churches. A nephew, Seabury Tredwell, was the owner of the Old Merchant's House in Manhattan, now a museum.
John SmallMajor-General John SmallColonel John Small
Small was commander of the 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants), 2nd Battalion. At the end of the war, the Crown aided many of its soldiers with land grants to settle in Nova Scotia and Upper Canada (current Ontario) in lieu of pay to encourage British colonization of the area. They often settled together as units, and the 84th Regiment of Foot settled in the Douglas Township in Hants County, Nova Scotia. (Some members had lived there before the war.) Small also lived there for a time, constructing a manor house called "Selmah Hall"; the community of Selma, Nova Scotia, was named for his property.
Dr. Samuel Adamshis fatherSamuel Adams
Biographical sketches of Loyalists in the American Revolution. Westport, CT: Meckler Publishing, 1984.
North CarolinaNorthNorth Carolina 1781
The result was fierce guerrilla warfare between units of Patriots and Loyalists. Often the opportunity was seized to settle private grudges and feuds. A major American victory took place at King's Mountain along the North Carolina– South Carolina border. On October 7, 1780, a force of 1000 mountain men from western North Carolina (including what is today part of Tennessee) overwhelmed a force of some 1000 Loyalist and British troops led by Major Patrick Ferguson. The victory essentially ended British efforts to recruit more Loyalists. The road to the American victory at Yorktown led by North Carolina.