St. John River expedition

Siege of Saint John (1777)Siege of Saint Johna rebel expedition
Allan's intention of establishing a permanent post was cut short when British authorities in Halifax learned of his operation from a Loyalist who escaped Allan's men. The Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, Admiral Marriott Arbuthnot, sent several British war vessels to the mouth of the river. On Monday, June 23, under command of Brigade Major Gilfred Studholme and Colonel Michael Francklin, the British sloop-of-war HMS Vulture arrived, and a few days later she was joined by the frigates Milford and Ambuscade, with a strong detachment of the Royal Fencible Americans and the 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants) on board.

Upper Canada

UpperProvince of Upper CanadaUpper Canadian
After an initial group of about 7,000 United Empire Loyalists were thinly settled across the province in the mid-1780s, a far larger number of "late-Loyalists" arrived in the late 1790s and were required to take an oath of allegiance to the Crown to obtain land if they came from the US. Their fundamental political allegiances were always considered dubious. By 1812, this had become acutely problematic since the American settlers outnumbered the original Loyalists by more than ten to one. Following the War of 1812, the colonial government under Lt. Governor Gore took active steps to prevent Americans from swearing allegiance, thereby making them ineligible to obtain land grants.

William Franklin

WilliamAssociated LoyalistsFranklin, William
In 1782 Franklin was implicated in the Loyalist officer Richard Lippincott's hanging of Joshua Huddy. During a raid, Loyalist troops under Franklin's general oversight captured Joshua Huddy, an officer of the New Jersey militia. The Loyalist soldiers hanged Huddy in revenge for similar killings of Loyalists, particularly Phillip White. Huddy was a member of the Association of Retaliation, a vigilante body with a history of attacking and killing Loyalists and Neutrals in New Jersey. At the time, some alleged that Franklin had sanctioned the killing of Huddy. This claim was theoretically substantiated by a note left on Huddy's body, which read, "Up goes Huddy for Philip White."

Daniel Dulany the Younger

Daniel DulanyDaniel Dulaney the YoungerDaniel Dulaney
Daniel Dulany the Younger (June 28, 1722 – March 17, 1797) was a Maryland Loyalist politician, Mayor of Annapolis, and an influential American lawyer in the period immediately before the American Revolution. His pamphlet Considerations on the Propriety of Imposing Taxes in the British Colonies. which argued against taxation without representation, has been described as "the ablest effort of this kind produced in America". Daniel Dulany was born on June 28, 1722 in Annapolis, Maryland, into a family steeped in law and politics. His father was the wealthy lawyer and public official Daniel Dulany the Elder (1685–1753). His brother Walter Dulany would also go on to be Mayor of Annapolis.


The term Tory or "Loyalist" was used in the American Revolution for those who remained loyal to the British Crown. Since early in the 18th century, Tory had described those upholding the right of the King over Parliament. During the war of independence, particularly after the Declaration of Independence in 1776, this use was extended to cover anyone who remained loyal to the British Crown. About 80% of the Loyalists remained in the United States after the war. The 60,000 or so Loyalists who settled in Nova Scotia, Quebec, the Bahamas, or returned to Great Britain after the American War of Independence are known as United Empire Loyalists.

Siege of Savage's Old Fields

and surrounded the Patriot campBattle of Ninety-SixBattle of Ninety-Six Court-House
Loyalist recruiting had been more successful: Williamson had learned that Captain Patrick Cuningham and Major Joseph Robinson were leading a large Loyalist force (estimated to number about 1,900) toward Ninety Six. In a war council that day, the Patriot leaders decided against marching out to face the Loyalists. The Loyalists arrived the next day, and surrounded the Patriot camp. The leaders of the two factions were in the midst of negotiating an end to the standoff when two Patriot militiamen were seized by Loyalists outside the stockade. This set off a gunfight that lasted for about two hours. The next morning the two sides resumed firing at each other at long range.

Snow Campaign

driven out of the colonymajor Patriot expedition
Loyalist recruiting had been more successful: Williamson had learned that Captain Patrick Cuningham and Major Joseph Robinson were leading a large Loyalist force (estimated to number about 1,900) toward Ninety Six. In a war council that day, the Patriot leaders decided against marching out to face the Loyalists. The Loyalists arrived the next day, and surrounded the Patriot camp. The leaders of the two factions were in the midst of negotiating an end to the standoff when two Patriot militiamen were seized by Loyalists outside the stockade. This set off a gunfight that lasted for about two hours, with modest casualties on both sides.

Benjamin Franklin

Ben FranklinFranklinFranklin, Benjamin
Benjamin and William Franklin: Father and Son, Patriot and Loyalist (1994) – Ben's son was a leading Loyalist. Sletcher, Michael. 'Domesticity: The Human Side of Benjamin Franklin', Magazine of History, XXI (2006). Waldstreicher, David. Runaway America: Benjamin Franklin, Slavery, and the American Revolution. Hill and Wang, 2004. 315 pp. Walters, Kerry S. Benjamin Franklin and His Gods. (1999). 213 pp.

German Americans

GermanGerman-AmericanGerman American
Despite this, many of the German settlers were loyalists during the Revolution, possibly because they feared their royal land grants would be taken away by a new republican government, or because of loyalty to a British German monarchy who had provided the opportunity to live in a liberal society. The Germans, comprising Lutherans, Reformed, Mennonites, Amish, and other sects, developed a rich religious life with a strong musical culture. Collectively, they came to be known as the Pennsylvania Dutch (from Deutsch).

Allan Maclean of Torloisk

Allan MacleanAllen Maclean
He is best known for leading the 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants) in the Battle of Quebec. Allan was the third son of Donald Maclean, 5th Laird of Torloisk and Mary (Campbell) Maclean, daughter of Archibald Campbell of Sunderland. His other siblings were Hector, Lachlan, Archibald, Mary, Anna, Alicia, Christiana, Betty, and Elizabeth. His family, though titled, was quite poor, the Maclean of Torloisk's property valued at £671 6s. Maclaine begun his military training with the clan as a 17-year-old lieutenant in the Scots Brigade of the Royal Dutch Republic after a brief service as an adjutant.

Long Island

Long Island, New YorkLong Island, NYEastern Long Island
After the British victory on Long Island, many Patriots fled, leaving mostly Loyalists behind. The island was a British stronghold until the end of the war in 1783. General Washington based his espionage activities on Long Island, due to the western part of the island's proximity to the British military headquarters in New York City. The Culper Spy Ring included agents operating between Setauket and Manhattan. This ring alerted Washington to valuable British secrets, including the treason of Benedict Arnold and a plan to use counterfeiting to induce economic sabotage. Long Island's colonists served both Loyalist and Patriot causes, with many prominent families divided among both sides.

Shelburne riots

the first race riots
:Black Loyalists: Our History, Our People, section "Shelburne Riot". : "David George", at Black Loyalist. The Shelburne Race Riots at The Canadian Encyclopedia.

Norfolk, Virginia

NorfolkNorfolk, VANorfolk City
In part because of its merchants' numerous trading ties with other parts of the British Empire, Norfolk served as a strong base of Loyalist support during the early part of the American Revolution. After fleeing the colonial capital of Williamsburg, the Royal Governor of Virginia, John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, tried to reestablish control of the colony from Norfolk. Dunmore secured small victories at Norfolk but was soon driven into exile by the Virginia militia, commanded by Colonel Woodford. His departure brought an end to more than 168 years of British colonial rule in Virginia.

British Empire

The war to the south influenced British policy in Canada, where between 40,000 and 100,000 defeated Loyalists had migrated from the new United States following independence. The 14,000 Loyalists who went to the Saint John and Saint Croix river valleys, then part of Nova Scotia, felt too far removed from the provincial government in Halifax, so London split off New Brunswick as a separate colony in 1784.

Grace Growden Galloway

Grace Growden Galloway (1727–1782) was the wife of loyalist Joseph Galloway. She nearly lost everything in the aftermath of the American Revolution. Grace Galloway's property was confiscated because of the political position of her husband. This loss of property led to the loss of her social standing and pride. Grace Galloway notably left a detailed diary documenting her daily life and her fight to regain her property. This diary has been a strong source for historians to learn from and grasp what it was like to be a female loyalist. Galloway's diary provides a fresh perspective into a side of the Revolutionary War that was previously often omitted from history.

Patriot (American Revolution)

Most of the individuals listed below served the American Revolution in multiple capacities. * Loyalist (American Revolution) John Adams. John Dickinson. Benjamin Franklin. Alexander Hamilton. John Hancock. John Jay. Thomas Jefferson. Richard Henry Lee. James Madison. William Paca. Jonathan Shipley. Samuel Adams. Alexander Hamilton. Patrick Henry. Timothy Matlack. Philip Mazzei. William Molineux. James Otis Jr. Thomas Paine. Molly Pitcher. Samuel Prescott. Paul Revere. Roger Sherman. Elkanah Watson. Nathanael Greene. Nathan Hale. Elijah Isaacs. John Paul Jones. Charles Lee. Francis Marion. Daniel Morgan. Andrew Pickens. Daniel Shays. Thomas Sumter. James Mitchell Varnum.

Battle of Great Bridge

Great Bridgea decisive defeat of British forces at Great Bridge in Decemberdecisively repulsed
A small British fleet then took shape at Norfolk, a port town whose merchants had significant Loyalist (Tory) tendencies. The threat posed by the British fleet may also have played a role in minimizing Whig activity in the town. Incidents continued between rebels on one side and loyalists (Tories) on the other until October, when Dunmore had acquired enough military support to begin operations against the rebellious colonists. General Thomas Gage, the British commander-in-chief for North America, had ordered small detachments of the 14th Regiment of Foot to Virginia in response to pleas by Dunmore for military help.

Ninety Six, South Carolina

Ninety SixNinety-SixNinety-Six, South Carolina
From May 22 to June 18, 1781, Major General Nathanael Greene, with 1,000 Continental Army troops, besieged 550 American Loyalists who were defending Ninety Six. General Greene's chief engineer at the siege was the world-renowned Polish hero Colonel Tadeusz Kościuszko, who was wounded at the siege. The Loyalists survived the siege and relocated after the war to Rawdon, Nova Scotia, Canada, with support from the Crown for resettlement. The Kinard House, Moore-Kinard House, Ninety Six National Historic Site, and Southern Railway Depot (Ninety Six, South Carolina) are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Dunmore's Proclamation

issued a proclamationLord Dunmore's Proclamationproclamation
Black Loyalist. Emancipation Proclamation. Gilbert, Alan. Black Patriots and Loyalists: Fighting for Emancipation in the War for Independence (University of Chicago Press, 2012). Piecuch, Jim. Three Peoples, One King: Loyalists, Indians, and Slaves in the Revolutionary South, 1775–1782 (Univ of South Carolina Press, 2008). Quarles, Benjamin. "Lord Dunmore as Liberator," William and Mary Quarterly (1958) 15#4 pp. 494–507 in JSTOR. Photograph of the proclamation. Proclamation text. Proclamation of Earl of Dunmore from PBS. Summary of Dunmore's Proclamation. Dunmore's Proclamation:A Time to Choose. Reactions of blacks to Dunmore's Proclamation.

First Continental Congress

FirstContinental Congress1st Continental Congress
Loyalist sentiments outweighed Patriot views in Georgia, and that colony did not join the cause until the following year. Peyton Randolph was elected as president of the Congress on the opening day, and he served through October 22 when ill health forced him to retire, and Henry Middleton was elected in his place for the balance of the session. Charles Thomson, leader of the Philadelphia Committee of Correspondence, was selected as the congressional secretary. The rules adopted by the delegates were designed to guard the equality of participants and to promote free-flowing debate.

Scottish Americans

ScottishScottish AmericanScottish-American
The Scottish Highland communities of upstate New York and the Cape Fear valley of North Carolina were centers of Loyalist resistance. A small force of Loyalist Highlanders fell at the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge in 1776. Scotch-Irish Patriots defeated Scottish American Loyalists in the Battle of Kings Mountain in 1780. Many Scottish American Loyalists, particularly Highlanders, emigrated to Canada after the war. Uncle Sam is the national personification of the United States, and sometimes more specifically of the American government, with the first usage of the term dating from the War of 1812.

Battles of Saratoga

Battle of SaratogaSaratogaBattle of Bemis Heights
The army was growing in size because of increased militia turnout following calls by state governors, the success at Bennington, and widespread outrage over the slaying of Jane McCrea, the fiancée of a Loyalist in Burgoyne's army by Indians under Burgoyne's command. General George Washington's strategic decisions also improved the situation for Gates' army. Washington was most concerned about the movements of General Howe. He was aware that Burgoyne was also moving, and he took some risks in July.

Joseph Brant

ThayendanegeaBrantBrant, Joseph
Few Onoquaga villagers joined him, but in May he was successful in recruiting Loyalists who wished to retaliate against the rebels. This group became known as Brant's Volunteers. Brant's Volunteers consisted of a few Mohawk and Tuscarora warriors and 80 white Loyalists. Paxton commented it was a mark of Brant's charisma and renown that white Loyalists preferred to fight under the command of a Mohawk chief who was unable to pay or arm them while at the same time that only a few Iroquois joined him reflected the generally neutralist leanings of most of the Six Nations. The majority of the men in Brant's Volunteers were white. In June, he led them to Unadilla to obtain supplies.

The Bahamas

BahamasBahamianBahama Islands
After US independence, the British resettled some 7,300 Loyalists with their African slaves in the Bahamas, including 2,000 from New York and at least 1,033 whites, 2,214 blacks and a few Native American Creeks from East Florida. Most of the refugees resettled from New York had fled from other colonies, including West Florida, which the Spanish captured during the war. The government granted land to the planters to help compensate for losses on the continent. These Loyalists, who included Deveaux and also Lord Dunmore, established plantations on several islands and became a political force in the capital.

Battle of Camden

Camdendefeated at Camdenrouting of a second Continental Army at Camden
Cornwallis had roughly 2,239 men, including Loyalist militia and Volunteers of Ireland. Cornwallis also had the infamous and highly experienced Tarleton's Legion, who were formidable in a pursuit situation. Cornwallis formed his army into two brigades. On the right was Lt. Col James Webster, facing the inexperienced militia with the 23rd Royal Welch Fusiliers and the 33rd Regiment of Foot. Lord Rawdon was in command of the left, facing the Continental Infantry with the Irish Volunteers, Banastre Tarleton's infantry and the Loyalist troops. In reserve, Cornwallis had two battalions of the 71st Regiment of Foot and Tarleton's cavalry force. He also placed four guns in the British center.