Battle of the Ebro

Battle of EbroEbrothe Ebro
. * Golpe de mano (Explosión) (1970) 35th International Division led by Commander Pedro Mateo Merino, including the XI, XIII and XV International Brigades. 3rd Division, led by Commander Esteban Cabezos Morente, including the 31st, 33rd and 60th mixed brigades. 42nd Division, under Commander Manuel Alvarez, including the 226th, 227th and 59th brigades.

42nd Division (Spain)

42nd Division42ndCuenca Autonomous Group
Initially it was the Cuenca Autonomous Group (Agrupación autónoma de Cuenca) led by Infantry Colonel Víctor Lacalle Seminario, which besides the 59th, 59th and 60th Mixed Brigades, had the 49th Mixed Brigade in the reserve. In June the division was made part of the Teruel Operations Army (Ejército de Operaciones de Teruel), which was formed by the 39th, 40th, 41st and 42nd divisions under the command of Colonel Jesús Velasco Echave. Between 5 July and 11 August 1937, the 42nd Division was involved in the Battle of Albarracín, which was an operation launched by the Republican high command in the Albarracín and the Montes Universales area of the rugged Iberian System.

Spanish Republican Army

Republican ArmyArmyPeople's Republican Army
Faced with a war situation the Republican Army based its organization in the mixed brigades (brigadas mixtas). Each of these was composed of four battalions. Every battalion included a number of companies. A regular brigada mixta would not exceed 3,000 men. As the war unfolded, the Spanish Republican Army would include regiments, divisions, corps and field armies. Most of the foreign volunteer combatants would be part of the International Brigades' (Brigadas internacionales) own sections until they were asked to withdraw in order to satisfy the demands of the Non-Intervention Committee in the fall of 1938.

Spanish Civil War

Civil WarSpaincivil war in Spain
The Republican government allowed for the possibility of self-government for the two regions, whose forces were gathered under the People's Republican Army (Ejército Popular Republicano, or EPR), which was reorganised into mixed brigades after October 1936. A few well-known people fought on the Republican side, such as English novelist George Orwell (who wrote Homage to Catalonia (1938), an account of his experiences in the war) and Canadian thoracic surgeon Norman Bethune, who developed a mobile blood-transfusion service for front-line operations.

226th Mixed Brigade (Spain)

226th
Brigadas Mixtas. Ejército del Ebro - Guerra Civil Española. IV Recreación histórica de la “Batalla del Ebro” 2011. Las Brigadas Mixtas en el Ejército Popular de la República Española.

Battalion

infantry battalionRegimentbattalion commander
A battalion is a military unit. The use of the term "battalion" varies by nationality and branch of service. Typically a battalion consists of 300 to 800 soldiers and is divided into a number of companies. A battalion is typically commanded by a lieutenant colonel. In some countries, the word "battalion" is associated with the infantry.

Catalonia Offensive

fall of CataloniaFall of BarcelonaCatalonia
The Catalonia Offensive (Ofensiva de Catalunya, Ofensiva de Cataluña) was part of the Spanish Civil War. The Nationalist Army started the offensive on December 23, 1938, and rapidly conquered Republican-held Catalonia with Barcelona (the Republic's capital city from October 1937). Barcelona was captured on January 26, 1939. The Republican government headed for the French border. Thousands of people fleeing the Nationalists also crossed the frontier in the following month, to be placed in internment camps. Franco closed the border with France by February 10, 1939.

Spain

SpanishESPKingdom of Spain
Spain (España ), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a European country located in Southwestern Europe with some pockets of Spanish territory across the Strait of Gibraltar and the Atlantic Ocean. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory.

45th Division (Spain)

45th Division45th45th Div.
Engel Masoliver, Carlos (1999); Historia de las Brigadas mixtas del Ejército popular de la República, 1936-1939, Editorial Almena, Madrid, 1999 ISBN: 84-96170-19-5. Salas Larrazábal, Ramón (2006); Historia del Ejército Popular de la República. La Esfera de los Libros S.L. ISBN: 84-9734-465-0. Thomas, Hugh (1976); Historia de la Guerra Civil Española. Círculo de Lectores, Barcelona. ISBN: 84-226-0874-X. SBHAC - El Ejército Popular. Organización militar republicana - 1936 - La Guerra Civil.

1st Mixed Brigade

1st1st Brigada MixtaFirst Mixed Brigade
. * SBHAC - Brigadas Mixtas del Ejército Popular, 1ª Brigada Mixta Commanders in Chief. Enrique Líster. Manuel López Iglesias. Alberto Sánchez. Francisco del Cacho Villarroig. Domingo Hortelano Hortelano. Eduardo Zamora Conde. José Arévalo. José Montalvo. Commissars. All the commissars of the 1st Mixed Brigade belonged to the Communist Party of Spain (PCE). Miguel Puente. Santiago Álvarez Gómez. José Sevil Sevil. Ángel Barcia Galeote. Fifth Regiment. Mixed Brigades.

2nd Mixed Brigade

2nd
The Second Mixed Brigade (2ª Brigada Mixta), was a mixed brigade of the Spanish Republican Army in the Spanish Civil War. It was formed in October 1936 as a result of the reorganization of the Spanish Republican Armed forces. The mouthpiece of the 2nd Mixed Brigade were the "Nuevo Horizonte" and "Victoria" newspapers. The Second Mixed Brigade was established on 13 October 1936 in Ciudad Real with Extremaduran militias and railroad workers as well as standard troops that had been previously garrisoned in Madrid. It was placed under the 7th Division of the II Army Corps. The command of the unit was entrusted to Major Jesús Martínez de Aragón and its commissar was Felipe Gómez Hernando.

3rd Mixed Brigade

3rdThird Mixed Brigade
Las Brigadas Mixtas - Carlos Engels (Historia de las Brigadas Mixtas... - 1.999). Las Primeras Brigadas Mixtas - El Gran Capitán. Contra el Imperio Nazi. Félix Santos, Españoles en la liberación de Francia: 1939-1945.

8th Mixed Brigade

8th
The 8th Mixed Brigade (8.ª Brigada Mixta) was a mixed brigade of the Spanish Republican Army in the Spanish Civil War. It was formed at the beginning of the Defence of Madrid in early spring 1937 with battalions of the Carabineros corps and it remained in Madrid all along the war. Its first commander was Carabineros Lt. Colonel Enrique del Castillo Bravo who was succeeded by Carabineros Commanders Emeterio Jarillo Orgaz and José Casted Sena. This unit should not be confused with the 8th Santander Brigade or 8th Mixed Brigade of the Santander Army Corps (Cuerpo del Ejército de Santander) led by Militia Major Juan Egea Jiménez, which later became the 169th Mixed Brigade.

XV International Brigade

Lincoln BrigadeThe "Abraham Lincoln" XV International BrigadeVeterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade
The Abraham Lincoln Brigade, officially the XV International Brigade, was a mixed brigade (Brigada mixta) that fought for the Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War as a part of the International Brigades. Nicknamed Brigada Abraham Lincoln, it mustered at Albacete in Spain, in January 1937, comprising mainly English-speaking volunteers – arranged into a mostly British Battalion and a mostly North American Lincoln Battalion. It also included two non-English-speaking battalions, the Balkan Dimitrov Battalion and the Franco-Belgian Sixth February Battalion. It fought at Jarama, Brunete, Boadilla, Belchite, Fuentes de Ebro, Teruel and the Ebro River.

Lincoln Battalion

Abraham Lincoln BrigadeAbraham Lincoln BattalionAbraham Lincoln International Brigade
The Lincoln Battalion was the 17th (later the 58th) battalion of the XV International Brigade, a mixed brigade of the International Brigades also known as Abraham Lincoln Brigade (Brigada Abraham Lincoln). It was formed by a group of communist volunteers from the United States who served in the Spanish Civil War as soldiers, technicians, medical personnel and aviators fighting for Spanish Republican forces against the forces of General Francisco Franco and his Nationalist faction. The Lincoln Brigade was a mercenary force integrating white and black volunteers on an equal basis. Of the approximately 3,015 volunteers from the US, 681 were killed in action or died of wounds or sickness.

International Brigades

International BrigadeSpanish Medical Aid CommitteeBrigadists
They were organized into mixed brigades, the basic military unit of the Republican People's Army. Discipline was extreme. For several weeks, the Brigades were locked in their base while their strict military training was under way. The battle of Madrid was a major success for the Republic. It staved off the prospect of a rapid defeat at the hands of Francisco Franco's forces. The role of the International Brigades in this victory was generally recognised, but was exaggerated by Comintern propaganda, so that the outside world heard only of their victories, and not those of Spanish units.

Enrique Líster

ListerEnrique ListerLíster
In October 1936 he led a mixed brigade in the ill-fated Republican counteroffensive at Seseña. As a divisional commander, he helped stall the Nationalist attack along the Jarama and played a significant role in the successful Republican counterattack in the Battle of Guadalajara. Líster is widely regarded as a war hero for the Republican cause. His reputation as a competent military commander is largely based on his role as commander of the "11th Division", which was involved in some of the most important battles in Guadalajara, Brunete, Belchite and Teruel. Those brigades under his control rapidly became special battalions which took care of special operations.

49th Mixed Brigade

49th
The 49th Mixed Brigade (49.ª Brigada Mixta), was a mixed brigade of the Spanish Republican Army in the Spanish Civil War. It was formed in February 1937 at the Guadalajara Front. This ill-fated military unit suffered heavy casualties over and over again during its involvement in different conflicts of the Civil War. It was finally terminated after the bombing of Xàtiva in February 1939. The 49th Mixed Brigade was formed in Guadalajara with four battalions, the "Pablo Iglesias Battalion", the "Triunfo Battalion" and the "Guadalajara nº 1" and "Guadalajara nº 2" Battalions, which became the 193, 194, 195 and 196 battalions respectively. The commander was Infantry Lt.

17th Mixed Brigade

17th
The 17th Mixed Brigade was a unit of the Popular Army of the Republic that participated in the Spanish Civil War. Born in the context of the Battle of Madrid, took part in the Battle of Jarama and the fronts of Guadalajara.(15.ª División) was a division of the Spanish Republican Army in the Spanish Civil War. This unit was involved in the Battle of Jarama —and great part of the Battle of Madrid, suffering grievous losses in both battles. The 17th Mixed Brigade was constituted, at the end of 1936, in Villarrobledo and the command was given to Lieutenant Colonel of Infantry Germán Madroñero López, having as commissar Manuel Simarro Quiles, of the PSOE.

84th Mixed Brigade

84th
The 84th Mixed Brigade (84.ª Brigada Mixta), was a mixed brigade of the Spanish Republican Army in the Spanish Civil War. It was formed in March 1937 with battalions of the Iron Column (Columna de Hierro) and was disbanded after the tragic events at Mora de Rubielos when 46 soldiers were shot by firing squad in a decimation following the brigade's Battle of Teruel December combats in harsh winter conditions. In April 1938 a new unit was established with the same number; the new mixed brigade took part in the Battle of the Segre and the Battle of the Ebro before vanishing in the debacle of the Catalonia Offensive.

86th Mixed Brigade

86th
The 86th Mixed Brigade (86.ª Brigada Mixta), was a mixed brigade of the Spanish Republican Army in the Spanish Civil War. It was formed in March 1937 with battalions of the Carabineros corps. Until its demise it operated mostly in the Sierra Morena area, at the southern limits of the territory held by the Republic. In January 1938 it was deeply restructured and transformed into an International Brigade having 2,338 international fighters which lasted until 1 October the same year. A unit known as Brigada Móvil de Puertollano was established towards the end of 1936 led by Infantry Lieutenant Colonel Ernesto Martín del Castillo.

87th Mixed Brigade

87th
The 87th Mixed Brigade (87.ª Brigada Mixta), was a mixed brigade of the Spanish Republican Army in the Spanish Civil War. It was formed in March 1937 with battalions of the Carabineros corps. Its first commander was Infantry Colonel Carlos Amores Cantos, who was succeeded by Militia Major Andrés Nieto Carmona. The unit's first Battalion (the 345) published the "Combate" newspaper. The 87th Mixed Brigade was established in the spring 1937 in Lorca. During the instruction period the unit was under the command of Colonel Carlos Amores Cantos.

Carabineros

Carabinero de la Hacienda NacionalCarabineros de EspañaCarabineros of Spain
Mixed brigade. Si me quieres escribir (song). Spanish Civil War.

109th Mixed Brigade

109th
Mixed Brigades. La Serena. Dignificar la memoria de la 109ª Brigada Mixta. José Hinojosa Durán, Notas sobre la vida cotidiana de la tropa republicana en un frente secundario. Testimonio familiar del militar represaliado Juan Manuel Moraño. La Guerra Civil Española y sus victimas.

Spanish Republican Navy

NavyRepublican NavyAeronáutica Naval
Some republican Infantería de Marina units also saw frontline combat action; the 151 Brigada Mixta, was a mixed brigade composed of Spanish Republican Navy Marines led by Commander Pedro Muñoz Caro. Its landing operations activity was limited, however, by the lack of offensive actions and the general ineffectiveness of the Spanish Republican Navy. Therefore, these Republican Marines saw action mostly inland supporting the Army in such battles as the Battle of Alfambra, Battle of Brunete, Battle of the Ebro and the Battle of the Segre, far away from the sea. Photographer Robert Capa took pictures of the Spanish Republican Navy Marines in one of these inland battles.