List of North American Numbering Plan area codes

List of North American area codesArea CodesNPA
Area codes with the last two digits matching, such as 322 and 755, are considered easily recognizable codes (ERC), and are also reserved; existing assignments are the toll-free codes 800, 888, 877, 866, 855, 844, and 833. Area code 822 is expected to be used in the future, followed by 880 through 887, then 889. Future area codes are written in italics. * States with area code list article ''*very small localities adjacent to the 60th parallel are served by exchanges within the 867 area code. A customs station in B.C. is served by an Alaska exchange.'' Bell System. List of country calling codes. Telephone numbers in the Americas. List of future North American area codes.

Nuisance call

telephone harassmentnuisance phone callscalls
In the United Kingdom the communication regulator Ofcom offers a service to report on silent calls while the Telephone Preference Service (TPS) allows consumer to register on a do-not-call-list for marketing calls. Do-Not-Call list. False alarm. Misdialed call. Pocket dialing. Telephone fraud. Verbal abuse.

Denial-of-service attack

denial of servicedistributed denial of serviceDDoS
Widespread publication of a number can also flood it with enough calls to render it unusable, as happened by accident in 1981 with multiple +1-area code-867-5309 subscribers inundated by hundreds of misdialed calls daily in response to the song 867-5309/Jenny. TDoS differs from other telephone harassment (such as prank calls and obscene phone calls) by the number of calls originated; by occupying lines continuously with repeated automated calls, the victim is prevented from making or receiving both routine and emergency telephone calls. Related exploits include SMS flooding attacks and black fax or fax loop transmission.

UK telephone code misconceptions

misquotedSimilar misunderstandingswidespread misconception
Telephone numbering plan.

Cellular network

cellularmobile networkcellular networks
., mobile phones, tablets and laptops equipped with mobile broadband modems, pagers, etc.) to communicate with each other and with fixed transceivers and telephones anywhere in the network, via base stations, even if some of the transceivers are moving through more than one cell during transmission. Cellular networks offer a number of desirable features: Major telecommunications providers have deployed voice and data cellular networks over most of the inhabited land area of Earth. This allows mobile phones and mobile computing devices to be connected to the public switched telephone network and public Internet.


e164.arpae164.orgNational Significant Number (NSN)
E.164 is an ITU-T recommendation, titled The international public telecommunication numbering plan, that defines a numbering plan for the worldwide public switched telephone network (PSTN) and some other data networks. E.164 defines a general format for international telephone numbers. Plan-conforming numbers are limited to a maximum of 15 digits, including the international call prefix. The presentation of a number is usually prefixed with the plus sign, indicating that the number includes the country calling code.


GSM (850/900/1800/1900) GSM/GPRS/EDGEGSM technology
Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT). ORFS. Personal communications network (PCN). RTP audio video profile. Simulation of GSM networks. Standards. Comparison of mobile phone standards. GEO-Mobile Radio Interface. GSM 02.07 - Cellphone features. GSM 03.48 – Security mechanisms for the SIM application toolkit. Intelligent Network. Parlay X. RRLP – Radio Resource Location Protocol. Um interface. Visitors Location Register (VLR). GSM Association—Official industry trade group representing GSM network operators worldwide. 3GPP—3G GSM standards development group. online GSM messages decoder fully supporting all 3GPP releases from early GSM to latest 5G.

Kayvan Novak

In 2005, he and Ed Tracy created Fonejacker, a prank call show as part of Channel 4's Comedy Lab strand. After the pilot, he was given a Christmas special and a six-part series, which began airing on 5 July 2007 on E4 and 7 September 2007 on Channel 4. In November 2009, he appeared on the Channel 4 show The Increasingly Poor Decisions of Todd Margaret, playing a bomb disposal officer. In April 2010, Novak began appearing in a spin-off of Fonejacker called Facejacker, in which he adopted various disguises, including several characters heard in Fonejacker.

Business telephone system

PBXprivate branch exchangekey telephone system
A private branch exchange (PBX) is a telephone exchange or switching system that serves a private organization and performs concentration of central office lines or trunks to provide intercommunication between a large number of telephone stations in the organization. The central office lines provide connections to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and the concentration aspect of a PBX permits the shared use of these lines between all stations in the organization. Its intercommunication ability allows two or more stations to directly connect while not using the public switched telephone network.

Telephone tapping

However the government can tap mobile phones with the cooperation of the phone company. It is also possible for organizations with the correct technical equipment to monitor mobile phone communications and decrypt the audio. To the mobile phones in its vicinity, a device called an "IMSI-catcher" pretends to be a legitimate base station of the mobile phone network, thus subjecting the communication between the phone and the network to a man-in-the-middle attack. This is possible because, while the mobile phone has to authenticate itself to the mobile telephone network, the network does not authenticate itself to the phone.

Long-distance calling

long distancelong-distancelong distance call
Area code 700, rarely used, is reserved for carrier-specific services; each carrier places a recorded self-identification message on 1-700-555-4141 to allow a subscriber to identify the default InterLATA carrier for their line. In the United States, long-distance is either of two different classes of calls that are not local calls. The most common class of long-distance is often called interstate long-distance, though the more accurate term is inter-LATA interstate long-distance. This is the form of long-distance most commonly meant by the term, and the one for which long-distance carriers are usually chosen by telephone customers.


SkypingSkype Previewskyped conference call
Caller ID spoofing. Comparison of instant messaging clients. Comparison of instant messaging protocols. Comparison of VoIP software. Mobile VoIP. Presence information. Unified communications. List of video telecommunication services and product brands. Rushe, Dominic. " Skype's secret Project Chess reportedly helped NSA access customers' data." The Guardian. 20 June 2013. Latest Products." Skype Launches Video Messaging For Free". " New skype sign up process".

Digital subscriber line

DSLxDSLDigital Subscriber Line (DSL)
A naked DSL (also known as standalone or dry loop DSL) is a way of providing DSL services without a PSTN (analogue telephony) service. It is useful when the customer does not need the traditional telephony voice service because voice service is received either on top of the DSL services (usually VoIP) or through another network (mobile telephony). It is also commonly called a UNE (for unbundled network element) in the United States; in Australia it is known as a ULL (unconditioned local loop); in Belgium it is known as "raw copper" and in the UK it is known as Single Order GEA (SoGEA).

Touch-Tone Terrorists

It appeared under the name The Junkyard Willie Prank Call Tapes 4 due to its release shortly after the September 11 attacks. This CD features 22 prank calls. The Junkyard Willie Movie: Lost In Transit: A straight-to-DVD movie based loosely on the Touch-Tone Terrorists characters. The film, released in 2008, includes one new prank call. Customer Care Creeps: This is the 5th CD in the series, was released in two parts in 2009 and 2015 and contains 16 calls. Caller ID spoofing. Jerky Boys. The Wack Pack. Tube Bar prank calls. Touch-tone Terrorists official Web Site. Homepage of the lost in transit movie.

Number pooling

Widescale introduction of new area codes created confusion as consumers were often unaware which were domestic-rate calls and which were premium calls to Caribbean or foreign numbers within the NANP. The new area codes brought an initial flood of split plans which changed millions of existing numbers. Businesses in the newly created area codes (such as area code 520 in Arizona) found many clients attempting to call them were instead repeatedly reaching a wrong number due to incompatible or misconfigured switching equipment at call origin which could not handle the new codes.

History of videotelephony

We were certain that such a device would make cell phone communications much more convenient and enjoyable." Saburi also stated that their R&D section had "nourished [the idea] for several years before" they received project approval from their top management which had encourage such forward-thinking research, because they "also believed that such a product would improve Kyocera's brand image." Their research showed that a "cell phone with a camera and color display provided a completely new value for users, It could be used as a phone, a camera and a photo album".


The landline telephones in most residential homes are analog—that is, the speaker's voice directly determines the signal's voltage. Although short-distance calls may be handled from end-to-end as analog signals, increasingly telephone service providers are transparently converting the signals to digital signals for transmission. The advantage of this is that digitized voice data can travel side-by-side with data from the Internet and can be perfectly reproduced in long distance communication (as opposed to analog signals that are inevitably impacted by noise). Mobile phones have had a significant impact on telephone networks.

Integrated Services Digital Network

ISDN is also used as a smart-network technology intended to add new services to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) by giving users direct access to end-to-end circuit-switched digital services and as a backup or failsafe circuit solution for critical use data circuits. ISDN is used heavily by the broadcast industry as a reliable way of switching low-latency, high-quality, long-distance audio circuits.

Trillium Digital Systems

TrilliumTrillium Digital Systems, Inc.Product History
Trillium software products were used in communications and networking products designed for the PDN, PSTN, Internet, enterprise networks and home networks. Trillium's evolution and development, paralleled the evolution and development of the communications industry. In 1988 there were less than 1/2 million Internet users, about 4 million cell phone users and no broadband (DSL, cable) users. The industry went through significant transitions from the mid-1980s through the early 2000s, as described in the market history section. By 2008 there were over 1.4 billion Internet users, almost 3.3 billion mobile phone users and over 1 billion broadband users.

VoIP spam

SPIT (SPam over Internet Telephony)SPIT
Robocalls can be delivered automatically using telephony software, such as Asterisk. RFC 5039 contains some basic methods for the mitigation of telephony spam over SIP: A strong identification of the caller, for example as described in RFC 4474 helps to mitigate SPIT. In a Public switched telephone network (PSTN), the Caller ID permits caller identification, but at least the displayed caller ID can be spoofed. Various SPIT mitigation methods and frameworks have been proposed. The vast amount of work on spam detection in emails does not directly apply here because of the real-time nature of the voice calls.

Dial tone

dial-tonetonestutter dial tone
A dial tone is a telephony signal sent by a telephone exchange or private branch exchange (PBX) to a terminating device, such as a telephone, when an off-hook condition is detected. It indicates that the exchange is working and is ready to initiate a telephone call. The tone stops when the first dialed digit is recognized. If no digits are forthcoming, the permanent signal procedure is invoked, often eliciting a special information tone and an intercept message, followed by the off-hook tone, requiring the caller to hang up and redial. Early telephone exchanges signaled the switchboard operator when a subscriber picked up the telephone handset to make a call.

Timeline of the telephone

existence of a transatlantic telephonechronicles the developmenton-or-off transmission methods
the United States. 8 December 1937: Opening of fourth transcontinental telephone line. 1941: Multi-frequency dialing introduced for operators in Baltimore, Maryland. 1942: Telephone production is halted at Western Electric until 1945 for civilian distribution due to the retooling of factories for military equipment during World War II. 1946: National Numbering Plan (area codes). 1946: first commercial mobile phone call. 1946: Bell Labs develops the germanium point-contact transistor. 1947: December, W.

Global network

globalglobally distributed networkglobal networks
History of the telephone. History of telegraphy. Mobile telecommunications. Computer networking. Communication protocol. Network architecture. Global network positioning. Telephony. Fiber optic cable. Telegraphy.

Telephone network

Network engineeringtelephonenetworks
A telephone network is a telecommunications network used for telephone calls between two or more parties. There are a number of different types of telephone network: Public telephone operators (PTOs) own and build networks of the first two types and provide services to the public under license from the national government. Virtual Network Operators (VNOs) lease capacity wholesale from the PTOs and sell on telephony service to the public directly * Telephone service (disambiguation) A landline network where the telephones must be directly wired into a single telephone exchange. This is known as the public switched telephone network or PSTN.