Long-distance calling

long distancelong-distancelong distance call
It is not possible for mobile telephone subscribers or coin-paid telephone users to select a default carrier, so long distance calls are often priced higher from these services. The use of prepaid telephone calling cards is a possible workaround. The regulatory structure in British Telecom exchanges differs from the North American system as there are no free local calls. A long-distance call is therefore known not as a "toll call" but as a trunk call. It traditionally carried a higher rate ("national rate" instead of "local rate") and requires a trunk prefix and area code be dialled before the number.

Mobile radio telephone

0Gmanual mobile telephone systemmobile radio telephony
The Automatizovaný městský radiotelefon (AMR) launched in 1978, fully operational in 1983, in Czechoslovakia as the first analog mobile radio telephone in the whole Eastern Bloc. The B-Netz launched 1972 in West Germany as the country's second public commercial mobile phone network (but the first one that did not require human operators to connect calls). List of mobile phone generations. 1G. 2G. 3G. 4G. 5G. Mobile rig. Mobile Telephone Service - (A pre-cellular VHF radio system that linked to thep PSTN). Radiotelephone - (A communications device for transmission of speech over radio). Satellite telephone. Mobile Phone History. Mobile Phone Generations. Storno.co.uk.

Analog signal

analoganalogueanalogue signal
An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time-varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal. For example, in an analog audio signal, the instantaneous voltage of the signal varies continuously with the pressure of the sound waves. It differs from a digital signal, in which the continuous quantity is a representation of a sequence of discrete values which can only take on one of a finite number of values.

United States

These advancements then lead to greater personalization of technology for individual use., 83.8% of American households owned at least one computer, and 73.3% had high-speed Internet service. 91% of Americans also own a mobile phone. The United States ranks highly with regard to freedom of use of the internet. In the 21st century, approximately two-thirds of research and development funding comes from the private sector. The United States leads the world in scientific research papers and impact factor. Accounting for 4.4% of the global population, Americans collectively possess 41.6% of the world's total wealth, and Americans make up roughly half of the world's population of millionaires.


Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 e6km2, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border. Its capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra.


As of 2009, out of Japan's $20 billion gaming market, $6 billion of that amount is generated from arcades, which represent the largest sector of the Japanese video game market, followed by home console games and mobile games at $3.5 billion and $2 billion, respectively. In the present day, Japan is the world's largest market for mobile games. The country's traditional console gaming market itself is today largely dominated by handheld game consoles rather than home consoles. In 2014, Japan's consumer video game market grossed $9.6 billion, with $5.8 billion coming from mobile gaming.


Most products use methods similar to those used to mitigate SPIT (spam over Internet telephony) and can be broadly categorised by the primary method used. However, due to the complexity of the problem, no single method is sufficiently reliable. Solutions are available as both hardware and software products. Mobile apps are especially prevalent as they use techniques which do not require the modification of infrastructure. Many products are limited to use only on a single medium, such as traditional copper landlines, or mobile phone contracts from a specific mobile phone operator.


videoconferencingvideo conferencingvideo chat
The widest deployment of video telephony now occurs in mobile phones. Nearly all mobile phones supporting UMTS networks can work as videophones using their internal cameras, and are able to make video calls wirelessly to other UMTS users in the same country or internationally. As of the second quarter of 2007, there are over 131 million UMTS users (and hence potential videophone users), on 134 networks in 59 countries. Mobile phones can also use broadband wireless Internet, whether through the cell phone network or over a local wifi connection, along with software-based videophone apps to make calls to any video-capable Internet user, whether mobile or fixed.

Denial-of-service attack

denial of servicedistributed denial of serviceDDoS
Widespread publication of a number can also flood it with enough calls to render it unusable, as happened by accident in 1981 with multiple +1-area code-867-5309 subscribers inundated by hundreds of misdialed calls daily in response to the song 867-5309/Jenny. TDoS differs from other telephone harassment (such as prank calls and obscene phone calls) by the number of calls originated; by occupying lines continuously with repeated automated calls, the victim is prevented from making or receiving both routine and emergency telephone calls. Related exploits include SMS flooding attacks and black fax or fax loop transmission.

Directory assistance

directory enquiries118 5001-800-555-1212
Example: The caller is looking for a listing in Los Angeles, CA (area code 213) and dials 213-555-1212. In this case Verizon bills the call. 4) 00 and ask for the international directory assistance operator. AT&T provides International Directory Assistance calls. See www.consumer.att.com/global/english/country_codes.html for additional information and country and city codes. 555 (telephone number). Telephone directory.

Telephone company

telecommunications companytelephone companiestelco
Bell Telephone Company, forerunner of AT&T in the U.S. Internet telephony service provider. Competitive local exchange carrier (in Canada and the U.S.). Communications service provider. History of the telephone. Incumbent local exchange carrier (of the Bell System). List of telephone operating companies. List of mobile network operators. Mobile network operator. Plain old telephone service (POTS). Public switched telephone network. Telecommunications Industry Association (for the development of U.S. telecom standards). Regional Bell Operating Company (in the U.S.). Service provider. Telecommunications service provider. The Phone Company, free, non-commercial email-to-fax service.

Last mile

last-milefirst-milelast kilometre
Examples are the copper wire subscriber lines connecting landline telephones to the local telephone exchange; coaxial cable service drops carrying cable television signals from utility poles to subscribers' homes, and cell towers linking local cell phones to the cellular network. The word "mile" is used metaphorically; the length of the last mile link may be more or less than a mile. Because the last mile of a network to the user is conversely the first mile from the user's premises to the outside world when the user is sending data (sending an email, for example), the term first mile is also alternately used.

Access network

accessaccess attemptaccess networks
Access is essential to the future profitability of operators who are experiencing massive reductions in revenue from plain old telephone services, due in part to the opening of historically nationalized companies to competition, and in part to increased use of mobile phones and voice over IP (VoIP) services. Operators offered additional services such as xDSL based broadband and IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) to guarantee profit. The access network is again the main barrier to achieving these profits since operators worldwide have accurate records of only 40% to 60% of the network.

Called party

calleebe calledcall receiver
The called party also pays if the number dialed is a toll-free telephone number. In some countries such as Canada, the United States and China, users of mobile phones pay for the "airtime" to receive calls. In most other countries (e.g. most European countries), the elevated interconnect fees are paid fully by the calling party and the called party incurs no charge. de:B-Teilnehmer

Direct inward dial

direct inward dialingDIDdirect inbound dialing
To allow public switched telephone network (PSTN) users to directly reach users with VoIP phones, DID numbers are assigned to a communications gateway. The gateway connects the PSTN to the VoIP network, routing and translating calls between the two networks. In countries with multiple competing local providers, DID services can be purchased in bulk from a Competitive Local Exchange Carrier (CLEC). For voice over IP resellers, some specialized CLECs (for local numbers) or interexchange carriers (for toll-free numbers) will deliver blocks of direct inward dial calls already converted to Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) or common VoIP formats.

Asterisk (PBX)

AsteriskAsterisk PBXHigh Availability for Asterisk
In conjunction with suitable telephony hardware interfaces and network applications, Asterisk is used to establish and control telephone calls between telecommunication endpoints, such as customary telephone sets, destinations on the public switched telephone network (PSTN), and devices or services on voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) networks. Its name comes from the asterisk symbol for a signal used in dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) dialing. Asterisk was created in 1999 by Mark Spencer of Digium, today a division of Sangoma Technologies Corporation.