GSM (850/900/1800/1900) GSM/GPRS/EDGEGSM technology
International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI). Long Term Evolution (LTE). MSISDN Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number. Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT). ORFS. Personal communications network (PCN). RTP audio video profile. Simulation of GSM networks. Standards. Comparison of mobile phone standards. GEO-Mobile Radio Interface. GSM 02.07 - Cellphone features. GSM 03.48 – Security mechanisms for the SIM application toolkit. Intelligent Network. Parlay X. RRLP – Radio Resource Location Protocol. Um interface. Visitors Location Register (VLR). GSM Association—Official industry trade group representing GSM network operators worldwide. 3GPP—3G GSM standards development group.

Long-distance calling

long distancelong-distancelong distance call
It is not possible for mobile telephone subscribers or coin-paid telephone users to select a default carrier, so long distance calls are often priced higher from these services. The use of prepaid telephone calling cards is a possible workaround. The regulatory structure in British Telecom exchanges differs from the North American system as there are no free local calls. A long-distance call is therefore known not as a "toll call" but as a trunk call. It traditionally carried a higher rate ("national rate" instead of "local rate") and requires a trunk prefix and area code be dialled before the number.


SkypingSkype PreviewMicrosoft Skype
Caller ID spoofing. Comparison of instant messaging clients. Comparison of instant messaging protocols. Comparison of VoIP software. Mobile VoIP. Presence information. Unified communications. List of video telecommunication services and product brands.

Touch-Tone Terrorists

It appeared under the name The Junkyard Willie Prank Call Tapes 4 due to its release shortly after the September 11 attacks. This CD features 22 prank calls. The Junkyard Willie Movie: Lost In Transit: A straight-to-DVD movie based loosely on the Touch-Tone Terrorists characters. The film, released in 2008, includes one new prank call. Customer Care Creeps: This is the 5th CD in the series, was released in two parts in 2009 and 2015 and contains 16 calls. Caller ID spoofing. Jerky Boys. The Wack Pack. Tube Bar prank calls. Touch-tone Terrorists official Web Site. Homepage of the lost in transit movie.

Fictitious telephone number

Drama usefictional numbersfictional telephone number
Per the ACMA web page – Fictitious numbers for radio, books, film & TV, version October 21, 2009: In Hungary, telephone numbers are in the format 06 + area code + subscriber number, where the area code is a single digit 1 for Budapest, the capital, followed by a seven digit subscriber number, and two digits followed by either seven (for cell phone numbers) or six digits (others). for other areas, cell phone numbers or non-geographic numbers like toll-free or premium-rate numbers. Two digit area codes which consist of digits between 2 and 9 are geographic areas, while area codes ending with a 0 or a 1 denote other services.

Mobile radio telephone

0Gmanual mobile telephone systemmobile radio telephony
The Automatizovaný městský radiotelefon (AMR) launched in 1978, fully operational in 1983, in Czechoslovakia as the first analog mobile radio telephone in the whole Eastern Bloc. The B-Netz launched 1972 in West Germany as the country's second public commercial mobile phone network (but the first one that did not require human operators to connect calls). List of mobile phone generations. 1G. 2G. 3G. 4G. 5G. Mobile rig. Mobile Telephone Service - (A pre-cellular VHF radio system that linked to thep PSTN). Radiotelephone - (A communications device for transmission of speech over radio). Satellite telephone. Mobile Phone History. Mobile Phone Generations.

Analog signal

analoganalogueanalogue signal
An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time-varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal. For example, in an analog audio signal, the instantaneous voltage of the signal varies continuously with the pressure of the sound waves. It differs from a digital signal, in which the continuous quantity is a representation of a sequence of discrete values which can only take on one of a finite number of values.

United States

These advancements then lead to greater personalization of technology for individual use., 83.8% of American households owned at least one computer, and 73.3% had high-speed Internet service. 91% of Americans also own a mobile phone. The United States ranks highly with regard to freedom of use of the internet. In the 21st century, approximately two-thirds of research and development funding comes from the private sector. The United States leads the world in scientific research papers and impact factor. Accounting for 4.4% of the global population, Americans collectively possess 41.6% of the world's total wealth, and Americans make up roughly half of the world's population of millionaires.


Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 e6km2, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border. Its capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra.

Nuisance call

telephone harassmentcallsnuisance calls
However, these do not provide complete protection: harassers can use payphones and, in some cases, caller ID (but not necessarily automatic number identification itself) can be spoofed or blocked. Mobile telephone abusers can (at some cost) use "throwaway" mobile phones or SIMs. Voice over IP users may send bogus caller ID or route calls through servers in multiple countries. Even in these cases, with sufficient law enforcement and telco effort, persistent abusers can often be tracked down by technical means. Call screening is another countermeasure against unsolicited calls. Most telephone companies have a department devoted to handling complaints regarding unsolicited phone calls.


As of 2009, out of Japan's $20 billion gaming market, $6 billion of that amount is generated from arcades, which represent the largest sector of the Japanese video game market, followed by home console games and mobile games at $3.5 billion and $2 billion, respectively. In the present day, Japan is the world's largest market for mobile games. The country's traditional console gaming market itself is today largely dominated by handheld game consoles rather than home consoles. In 2014, Japan's consumer video game market grossed $9.6 billion, with $5.8 billion coming from mobile gaming.


Most products use methods similar to those used to mitigate SPIT (spam over Internet telephony) and can be broadly categorised by the primary method used. However, due to the complexity of the problem, no single method is sufficiently reliable. Solutions are available as both hardware and software products. Mobile apps are especially prevalent as they use techniques which do not require the modification of infrastructure. Many products are limited to use only on a single medium, such as traditional copper landlines, or mobile phone contracts from a specific mobile phone operator.


videoconferencingvideo conferencingvideo chat
The widest deployment of video telephony now occurs in mobile phones. Nearly all mobile phones supporting UMTS networks can work as videophones using their internal cameras, and are able to make video calls wirelessly to other UMTS users in the same country or internationally. As of the second quarter of 2007, there are over 131 million UMTS users (and hence potential videophone users), on 134 networks in 59 countries. Mobile phones can also use broadband wireless Internet, whether through the cell phone network or over a local wifi connection, along with software-based videophone apps to make calls to any video-capable Internet user, whether mobile or fixed.

Denial-of-service attack

denial of servicedistributed denial of serviceDDoS
Widespread publication of a number can also flood it with enough calls to render it unusable, as happened by accident in 1981 with multiple +1-area code-867-5309 subscribers inundated by hundreds of misdialed calls daily in response to the song 867-5309/Jenny. TDoS differs from other telephone harassment (such as prank calls and obscene phone calls) by the number of calls originated; by occupying lines continuously with repeated automated calls, the victim is prevented from making or receiving both routine and emergency telephone calls. Related exploits include SMS flooding attacks and black fax or fax loop transmission.

Telephone company

telecommunications companytelephone companiestelco
Bell Telephone Company, forerunner of AT&T in the U.S. Internet telephony service provider. Competitive local exchange carrier (in Canada and the U.S.). Communications service provider. History of the telephone. Incumbent local exchange carrier (of the Bell System). List of telephone operating companies. List of mobile network operators. Mobile network operator. Plain old telephone service (POTS). Public switched telephone network. Telecommunications Industry Association (for the development of U.S. telecom standards). Regional Bell Operating Company (in the U.S.). Service provider. Telecommunications service provider. The Phone Company, free, non-commercial email-to-fax service.

The New York Times

New York TimesNY TimesTimes
Some content, such as the front page and section fronts remained free, as well as the Top News page on mobile apps. In January 2013, The New York Times Public Editor Margaret M. Sullivan announced that for the first time in many decades, the paper generated more revenue through subscriptions than through advertising. In December 2017, the number of free articles per month was reduced from ten to five, as the first change to the metered paywall since 2012. An executive of The New York Times Company stated that the decision was motivated by "an all-time high" in the demand for journalism.

List of North American Numbering Plan area codes

List of North American area codesArea CodesNPA
Area codes with the last two digits matching, such as 322 and 755, are considered easily recognizable codes (ERC), and are also reserved; existing assignments are the toll-free codes 800, 888, 877, 866, 855, 844, and 833. Area code 822 is expected to be used in the future, followed by 880 through 887, then 889. Future area codes are written in italics. * States with area code list article ''*very small localities adjacent to the 60th parallel are served by exchanges within the 867 area code. A customs station in B.C. is served by an Alaska exchange.'' Bell System. List of country calling codes. Telephone numbers in the Americas. List of future North American area codes.


It is also used for computer monitors, portable systems such as mobile phones, handheld games consoles and PDAs. There are two main families of OLED: those based on small molecules and those employing polymers. Adding mobile ions to an OLED creates a light-emitting electrochemical cell or LEC, which has a slightly different mode of operation. OLED displays can use either passive-matrix (PMOLED) or active-matrix (AMOLED) addressing schemes. Active-matrix OLEDs require a thin-film transistor backplane to switch each individual pixel on or off, but allow for higher resolution and larger display sizes. An OLED display works without a backlight.

Last mile

last-milefirst-milelast kilometre
Examples are the copper wire subscriber lines connecting landline telephones to the local telephone exchange; coaxial cable service drops carrying cable television signals from utility poles to subscribers' homes, and cell towers linking local cell phones to the cellular network. The word "mile" is used metaphorically; the length of the last mile link may be more or less than a mile. Because the last mile of a network to the user is conversely the first mile from the user's premises to the outside world when the user is sending data (sending an email, for example), the term first mile is also alternately used.

Automatic number identification

ANIautomatic number identification (ANI)the caller's number
Modern toll-free telephone numbers, which generate itemized billing of all calls received instead of relying on the special fixed-rate trunks of the Bell System's original Inward WATS service, depend on ANI to track inbound calls to numbers in special area codes such as +1-800, 888, 877, 866, 855, 844 with 833 and 822 reserved for future toll free use (United States and Canada), 1800 (Australia) or 0800 and 0808 (United Kingdom). ANI is different, conceptually and technically, from caller ID service. A caller's telephone number and line type are captured by ANI service even if caller ID blocking is activated.

Wideband audio

HD VoicewidebandHD
Wideband audio, also known as wideband voice or HD voice, is high definition voice quality for telephony audio, contrasted with standard digital telephony "toll quality". It extends the frequency range of audio signals transmitted over telephone lines, resulting in higher quality speech. The range of the human voice extends from 80 Hz to 14 kHz but traditional, voiceband or narrowband telephone calls limit audio frequencies to the range of 300 Hz to 3.4 kHz. Wideband audio relaxes the bandwidth limitation and transmits in the audio frequency range of 50 Hz to 7 kHz or even up to 22 kHz.

Access network

accessaccess attemptaccess networks
Access is essential to the future profitability of operators who are experiencing massive reductions in revenue from plain old telephone services, due in part to the opening of historically nationalized companies to competition, and in part to increased use of mobile phones and voice over IP (VoIP) services. Operators offered additional services such as xDSL based broadband and IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) to guarantee profit. The access network is again the main barrier to achieving these profits since operators worldwide have accurate records of only 40% to 60% of the network.

Called party

calleebe calledcall receiver
The called party also pays if the number dialed is a toll-free telephone number. In some countries such as Canada, the United States and China, users of mobile phones pay for the "airtime" to receive calls. In most other countries (e.g. most European countries), the elevated interconnect fees are paid fully by the calling party and the called party incurs no charge. de:B-Teilnehmer

Call centre

call centercall centerscall centres
In virtual call centre model, the call centre operator pays a monthly or annual fee to a vendor that hosts the call centre telephony equipment in their own data centre. In this model, the operator does not own, operate or host the equipment that the call centre runs on. Agents connect to the vendor's equipment through traditional PSTN telephone lines, or over voice over IP. Calls to and from prospects or contacts originate from or terminate at the vendor's data centre, rather than at the call centre operator's premises. The vendor's telephony equipment then connects the calls to the call centre operator's agents.