Nepal Telecom

NTC
It has a total of 262 telephone exchanges in various parts of the country serving 603,291 PSTN lines, more than 5 million GSM cellular phones and more than a million CDMA phone line as of July 2011. According to recent data, there are about 10 million users of Nepal Telecom including all those of fixed landline, GSM mobile, CDMA and internet service. Nepal Telecom Launched 4G LTE Service on 1 January 2017.

867-5309/Jenny

867-5309867-5309 (Jenny)hit song
In 2013, the number was still ringing up fifty misdialled calls daily for Florida realtor Carrie Routt in area code 850. Phoenix, Arizona-based professional services referral company MyGuy Referrals also use the number, in area code 602. Fort Collins, Colorado restaurant, Totally 80's Pizza, uses this number as part of its 1980s theme, in area code 970. Fictitious telephone number. Denial-of-service attack#Telephony denial-of-service. List of Billboard Mainstream Rock number-one songs of the 1980s.

Call Control eXtensible Markup Language

CCXML
Combines CCXML, VoiceXML with MRCP, HTTP(s) interfaces and connects to internet protocol, fixed telephony and mobile phone telecoms networks using SIP, VOIP, SS7/PSTN and other telecoms protocols. Supports multi-tenant applications. Open Source Oktopous PIK an abstract, C++ implementation of the W3C Call Control XML (ccXML) standard. Licensed under a BSD-Style license, the toolkit is independent of the underlying telephony platform / protocols and is best suited for OEM / System Integrators looking to implement ccXML functionality in their product offerings. Originally developed by Phonologies, Oktopous has been adopted by more telephony platforms than any open source ccXML Browser.

Telecommunications in India

TelephonecommunicationsIndian Telecom Industry
As the unbranded Chinese cell phones which do not have International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) numbers pose a serious security risk to the country, Mobile network operators therefore suspended the usage of around 30 million mobile phones (about 8% of all mobiles in the country) by 30 April 2009. Phones without valid IMEI cannot be connected to cellular operators. India has opted for the use of both the GSM (global system for mobile communications) and CDMA (code-division multiple access) technologies in the mobile sector. In addition to landline and mobile phones, some of the companies also provide the WLL service. The mobile tariffs in India have also become the lowest in the world.

SMS

short message servicetext messagetext messages
The first action plan of the CEPT Group GSM was approved in December 1982, requesting that "The services and facilities offered in the public switched telephone networks and public data networks ... should be available in the mobile system." This plan included the exchange of text messages either directly between mobile stations, or transmitted via message handling systems in use at that time. The SMS concept was developed in the Franco-German GSM cooperation in 1984 by Friedhelm Hillebrand and Bernard Ghillebaert. The GSM is optimized for telephony, since this was identified as its main application.

Jajah

On April 28, 2008 Jajah provideds its proprietary telephony infrastructure, payment processing, and customer care to Yahoo! Messenger users using the platform for receiving calls from the PSTN network, or for making calls to land lines and mobile phones. Telefónica bought Jajah for a reported $207 million on December 23, 2009. On April 14, 2011, Jajah announced a partnership with Globe Telecom to allow Filipinos living outside Philippines to call home at inexpensive rate. It announced November 30, 2012 that effective January 30, 2013, Yahoo! Messenger will no longer offer Yahoo! Voice Phone In and Phone Out capabilities, the co-branded landline and mobile phone service from Jajah.

History of telecommunication

progressenormously increased speed of telecommunicationsTelecommunication, History of
The first and historically most important application for communication satellites was in intercontinental long distance telephony. The fixed Public Switched Telephone Network relays telephone calls from land line telephones to an earth station, where they are then transmitted a receiving satellite dish via a geostationary satellite in Earth orbit. Improvements in submarine communications cables, through the use of fiber-optics, caused some decline in the use of satellites for fixed telephony in the late 20th century, but they still exclusively service remote islands such as Ascension Island, Saint Helena, Diego Garcia, and Easter Island, where no submarine cables are in service.

Foreign exchange service (telecommunications)

foreign exchange stationforeign exchange officeforeign exchange line
These are commonly found in devices acting as gateways between local Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) systems and the public switched telephone network (PSTN). In a nutshell, an FXO device is any device that, from the point of view of a telephone exchange, appears to be a regular telephone. As such, it should be able to accept ringing signals, go on-hook and off-hook, and send and receive voice frequency signals. It may use loop start or ground start signaling. FXO channel units were invented and named in the middle 20th century for service at the "Office" end of an FX line via carrier system.

Modem

modemsdial-up modem56k modem
Direct broadcast satellite, WiFi, and mobile phones all use modems to communicate, as do most other wireless services today. Modern telecommunications and data networks also make extensive use of radio modems where long distance data links are required. Such systems are an important part of the PSTN, and are also in common use for high-speed computer network links to outlying areas where fibre is not economical. Even where a cable is installed, it is often possible to get better performance or make other parts of the system simpler by using radio frequencies and modulation techniques through a cable.

Smartphone

smartphonessmart phonesmart phones
The first integration of data signals with telephony was conceptualized by Nikola Tesla in 1909 and pioneered by Theodore Paraskevakos beginning in 1968 with his work on transmission of electronic data through telephone lines. In 1971, while he was working with Boeing in Huntsville, Alabama, Paraskevakos demonstrated a transmitter and receiver that provided additional ways to communicate with remote equipment. This formed the original basis for what is now known as caller ID. The first caller ID equipment was installed at Peoples' Telephone Company in Leesburg, Alabama and was demonstrated to several telephone companies.

Mobile telephony

mobile telecommunicationscellular telephonymobile telecommunication
Mobile telephony is the provision of telephone services to phones which may move around freely rather than stay fixed in one location. Mobile phones connect to a terrestrial cellular network of base stations (cell sites), whereas satellite phones connect to orbiting satellites. Both networks are interconnected to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) to allow any phone in the world to be dialed. In 2010 there were estimated to be five billion mobile cellular subscriptions in the world.

GSM services

servicesmobile data servicemobile phone services
Once a mobile phone has successfully attached to a GSM network as described above, calls may be made from the phone to any other phone on the global Public Switched Telephone Network. The user dials the telephone number, presses the send or talk key, and the mobile phone sends a call setup request message to the mobile phone network via the nearest mobile phone base transceiver station (BTS). The call setup request message is handled next by the Mobile Switching Center, which checks the subscriber's record held in the Visitor Location Register to see if the outgoing call is allowed. If so, the MSC then routes the call in the same way that a telephone exchange does in a fixed network.

Local number portability

number portabilityportedport
Canada, South Africa and the United States are the only countries that offer full number portability transfers between both fixed lines and mobile phone lines, because mobile and fixed line numbers are mixed in the same area codes, and are billed identically for the calling party, the mobile user usually pays for incoming calls and texts; in other countries all mobile numbers are placed in higher priced mobile-dedicated area codes and the originator of the call to the mobile phone pays for the call. The government of Hong Kong has tentatively approved fixed-mobile number portability; however, as of July 2012, this service is not yet available.

Swatting

swatswattersending
Caller ID spoofing, social engineering, TTY, prank calls and phone phreaking techniques may be variously combined by swatting perpetrators. 911 systems (including computer telephony systems and human operators) have been tricked by calls placed from cities hundreds of miles away from the location of the purported call, or even from other countries. The caller typically places a 911 call using a spoofed phone number (so as to hide the fraudulent caller's real location) with the goal of tricking emergency authorities into responding with a SWAT team to a fabricated emergency.

Global title

Global Title Translation
NPI=E.214: 359888 xxxxxxxxx (359 = Bulgaria country calling code). NPI=E.214: 14054 xxxxxxxxx (1 = U.S. country calling code) ->. NPI=E.212: 310150 xxxxxxxxx (310 = U.S. MCC + 150 = Cingular MNC).

Public land mobile network

PLMNmobile phone network
PLMNs interconnect with other PLMNs and Public switched telephone networks (PSTN) for telephone communications or with internet service providers for data and internet access of which links are defined as interconnect links between providers. These links mostly incorporate SDH digital transmission networks via fiber optic on land and digital microwave links.

Network switching subsystem

HLRHome Location Registermobile switching centre
Network switching subsystem (NSS) (or GSM core network) is the component of a GSM system that carries out call out and mobility management functions for mobile phones roaming on the network of base stations. It is owned and deployed by mobile phone operators and allows mobile devices to communicate with each other and telephones in the wider public switched telephone network (PSTN). The architecture contains specific features and functions which are needed because the phones are not fixed in one location. The NSS originally consisted of the circuit-switched core network, used for traditional GSM services such as voice calls, SMS, and circuit switched data calls.

Cable telephony

cable telephoneDigital telephonecable telephone service
Cable telephony is a form of digital telephony over cable TV networks. A telephone interface installed at the customer's premises converts analog signals from the customer's in-home wiring to a digital signal, which is then sent over the cable connection to the company's switching center. The signal is then sent on to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Cable telephone provides another revenue stream for cable television system operators and gives the consumer the convenience of a single bill for combined television, internet and telephone services. The biggest obstacle to cable telephone service is the need for nearly 100% reliable service for emergency calls.

John Francis Mitchell

John F. Mitchell
Prior to the development of the cell phone, Mitchell and his team of engineers produced and marketed the first transistorized pager and obtained a patent for the concept of portable cell telephony, including small antennae used to help free mobile phone units from car trunks where they were typically installed. Mitchell, Motorola's chief of portable communication products and Martin Cooper's boss in 1973, played a key role in advancing the development of handheld mobile telephone equipment. Mitchell successfully pushed Motorola to develop wireless communication products that would be small enough to use anywhere and participated in the design of the cellular phone.

Internet access

broadband internetbroadbandbroadband Internet access
Mobile broadband is the marketing term for wireless Internet access delivered through mobile phone towers to computers, mobile phones (called "cell phones" in North America and South Africa, and "hand phones" in Asia), and other digital devices using portable modems. Some mobile services allow more than one device to be connected to the Internet using a single cellular connection using a process called tethering. The modem may be built into laptop computers, tablets, mobile phones, and other devices, added to some devices using PC cards, USB modems, and USB sticks or dongles, or separate wireless modems can be used.

Enhanced 9-1-1

enhanced 911E911Wireless Enhanced 911
The dispatcher's computer uses information provided by the telephone company to display the physical address or geographic coordinates of the caller. This information is used to dispatch police, fire, medical, and other services as needed. Calls to 911 over the public switched telephone network (PSTN) are routed to a special router (known as Selective Router, or 9-1-1 Tandem). The router looks for the address associated with the caller's telephone number in a database. The caller's phone number is known as an ANI. The database relating ANIs to addresses is known as ALI (Automatic Location Identification).

Intelligent Network

INIntelligent Network (IN)intelligent network service
It allows operators to differentiate themselves by providing value-added services in addition to the standard telecom services such as PSTN, ISDN on fixed networks, and GSM services on mobile phones or other mobile devices. The intelligence is provided by network nodes on the service layer, distinct from the switching layer of the core network, as opposed to solutions based on intelligence in the core switches or equipment. The IN nodes are typically owned by telecommunications service providers such as a telephone company or mobile phone operator. IN is supported by the Signaling System #7 (SS7) protocol between network switching centers and other network nodes owned by network operators.

Area codes 919 and 984

919984919, 984
In 1993, the eastern and southern portions of the numbering plan area were split off to form area code 910. In 1998, the northeastern portion was split off to form area code 252. Area code 919 was initially slated for overlay with area code 984 in 2001. However, the overlay was deferred when the supply of numbers was deemed sufficient for the near term. Within a decade, however, the proliferation of cell phones and pagers meant that the implementation of 984 could no longer be delayed. In September 2011, the North Carolina Utilities Commission announced that the 984 area code was being pressed into service.

Routing in the PSTN

routingrouting strategyroute telephone calls
Routing in the PSTN is the process used to route telephone calls across the public switched telephone network. Telephone calls are routed across a network of potentially many switching systems, often owned by different telephone carriers. Switching systems are connected with trunks. Each switch may have many neighbors. Neighboring switches owned by different operators are connected at interconnect points. The PSTN is not a full mesh network with the nodes of every operator directly connected to those of every other, which would be impractical and inefficient. Therefore, calls may be routed through intermediate operator networks before they reach their final destination.

Plain old telephone service

POTSLocal Telephone Servicetelephone
In most cases, the function of the local loop presented to the customer for connection to telephone equipment is practically unchanged and remains compatible with pulse dialing telephones. Due to the wide availability of traditional telephone services, new forms of communications devices such as modems and facsimile machines were initially designed to use traditional analog telephony to transmit digital information. Although POTS provides limited features, low bandwidth, and no mobile capabilities, it provides greater reliability than other telephony systems (mobile phone, VoIP, etc.).