e164.arpae164.orgcountry code
E.164 is an ITU-T recommendation, titled The international public telecommunication numbering plan, that defines a numbering plan for the worldwide public switched telephone network (PSTN) and some other data networks. E.164 defines a general format for international telephone numbers. Plan-conforming numbers are limited to a maximum of 15 digits, excluding the international call prefix. The presentation of a number at the B-party device is usually prefixed with the plus sign, indicating that the number includes the country calling code. This is done by the B-party subscribers network by usually looking at the NOA (Nature Of Address) field of the signaling messages.

Kayvan Novak

In 2005, he and Ed Tracy created Fonejacker, a prank call show as part of Channel 4's Comedy Lab strand. After the pilot, he was given a Christmas special and a six-part series, which began airing on 5 July 2007 on E4 and 7 September 2007 on Channel 4. In November 2009, he appeared on the Channel 4 show The Increasingly Poor Decisions of Todd Margaret, playing a bomb disposal officer. In April 2010, Novak began appearing in a spin-off of Fonejacker called Facejacker, in which he adopted various disguises, including several characters heard in Fonejacker.

Business telephone system

PBXprivate branch exchangekey telephone system
Each device connected to the PBX, such as a telephone, a fax machine, or a computer modem, is referred to as an extension. There are two numbering plans to designate extensions on a private branch exchange. In the first numbering plan the PBX maps one-to-one with the numbering plan of the public switched telephone network, e.g. the PBX is assigned all numbers 234-5000 to 234-5999 (1000 devices), and the public switched telephone network treats it as a normal internal switching exchange. In the second numbering plan, the PBX is assigned a few public switch telephone network numbers, and the device is designated my a second "extension" number, e.g. 234-5678 ext 1234(5).

Digital subscriber line

DSLxDSLDigital Subscriber Line (DSL)
A naked DSL (also known as standalone or dry loop DSL) is a way of providing DSL services without a PSTN (analogue telephony) service. It is useful when the customer does not need the traditional telephony voice service because voice service is received either on top of the DSL services (usually VoIP) or through another network (mobile telephony). It is also commonly called a UNE (for unbundled network element) in the United States; in Australia it is known as a ULL (unconditioned local loop); in Belgium it is known as "raw copper" and in the UK it is known as Single Order GEA (SoGEA).

Local loop

subscriber lineloopsubscriber loop
In telephony, the local loop (also referred to as a local tail, subscriber line, or in the aggregate as the last mile) is the physical link or circuit that connects from the demarcation point of the customer premises to the edge of the common carrier or telecommunications service provider's network. At the edge of the carrier access network in a traditional public telephone network, the local loop terminates in a circuit switch housed in an incumbent local exchange carrier or telephone exchange. Traditionally, the local loop was an electrical circuit in the form of a single pair of conductors from the telephone on the customer's premises to the local telephone exchange.

Telephone line

phone linelinetelephone lines
A telephone line or telephone circuit (or just line or circuit within the industry) is a single-user circuit on a telephone communication system. This is the physical wire or other signaling medium connecting the user's telephone apparatus to the telecommunications network, and usually also implies a single telephone number for billing purposes reserved for that user. Telephone lines are used to deliver landline telephone service and Digital subscriber line (DSL) phone cable service to the premises. Telephone overhead lines are connected to the public switched telephone network.

Backbone network

core networkbackbonenetwork backbone
The theory, design principles, and first instantiation of the backbone network came from the telephone core network, when traffic was purely voice. The core network was the central part of a telecommunications network that provided various services to customers who were connected by the access network. One of the main functions was to route telephone calls across the PSTN. Typically the term referred to the high capacity communication facilities that connect primary nodes. A core network provided paths for the exchange of information between different sub-networks.

Signaling (telecommunications)

In the public switched telephone network (PSTN), in-band signaling is the exchange of call control information within the same physical channel, or within the same frequency band, that the telephone call itself is using. An example is dual-tone multi-frequency signaling (DTMF), which is used on most telephone lines to customer premises. Out-of-band signaling is telecommunication signaling on a dedicated channel separate from that used for the telephone call. Out-of-band signaling has been used since Signaling System No. 6 (SS6) was introduced in the 1970s, and also in Signalling System No. 7 (SS7) in 1980 which became the standard for signaling among exchanges ever since.


CCITTTelecommunication Standardization SectorComité Consultatif International Téléphonique et Télégraphique
Data communication over the telephone network, V-series. Fax standards T.2 – T.4, T.30, T.37, T.38. G.hn (Next generation wired home networking over powerlines, phonelines and coaxial cable). Green ICT standards and supplements ( L.1000 series). H.323 family of standards for multimedia and VoIP. Interconnection rate harmonization, D-series. International Emergency Preference Scheme E.106. IMSI codes used in SIM cards E.212. ISDN and PSTN/3G videoconferencing systems, H.320 and H.324. ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) Q.931. Open Systems Interconnection. Optical Transport Network (OTN) G.709, G.798, G.872. Passive optical networks (PON) G.983, G.984, G.987.

Pulse-code modulation

For example, in telephony, the usable voice frequency band ranges from approximately 300 Hz to 3400 Hz. For effective reconstruction of the voice signal, telephony applications therefore typically uses an 8000 Hz sampling frequency which is more than twice the highest usable voice frequency. Regardless, there are potential sources of impairment implicit in any PCM system: In conventional PCM, the analog signal may be processed (e.g., by amplitude compression) before being digitized. Once the signal is digitized, the PCM signal is usually subjected to further processing (e.g., digital data compression). PCM with linear quantization is known as Linear PCM (LPCM).

SIM card

SIMnano-SIMSIM cards
A subscriber identity module or subscriber identification module (SIM), widely known as a SIM card, is an integrated circuit that is intended to securely store the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) number and its related key, which are used to identify and authenticate subscribers on mobile telephony devices (such as mobile phones and computers). It is also possible to store contact information on many SIM cards. SIM cards are always used on GSM phones; for CDMA phones, they are only needed for newer LTE-capable handsets. SIM cards can also be used in satellite phones, smart watches, computers, or cameras.

Telephone exchange names

central office nametelephone exchangetelephone exchange name
This extended the usable numbering plan and only two area code splits became necessary between 1962 and 1981. All-number calling was phased in starting in 1958 and most areas had adopted it fully by the mid-1960s. In some areas it did not become universal until the 1980s. The Bell System published and distributed area code handbooks yearly which compiled the towns available for calling using an area code. Experiencing significant resistance in many areas, the Bell System employed a strategy of gradual changes to ease the transition for customers.

Bruce Almighty

Since God contacts Bruce using an actual phone number rather than a number in the standard fictional 555 telephone exchange, several people and groups sharing this number subsequently received hundreds of phone calls from people wanting to talk to God, including a church in North Carolina (where the Minister was named Bruce), a Pastor in Northern Wisconsin and a man in Manchester, England. The producers noted that the number (776-2323) was not in use in the area code (716, which was never specified on screen) in the film's story but did not check anywhere else. The home video and television versions changed it to the fictional 555-0123.

Disruptive innovation

disruptive technologydisruptive technologiesdisruption
In business, a disruptive innovation is an innovation that creates a new market and value network and eventually disrupts an existing market and value network, displacing established market-leading firms, products, and alliances. The term was defined and first analyzed by the American scholar Clayton M. Christensen and his collaborators beginning in 1995, and has been called the most influential business idea of the early 21st century.


WiFiwireless internetwireless
The United Kingdom's Health Protection Agency reported in 2007 that exposure to Wi-Fi for a year results in the "same amount of radiation from a 20-minute mobile phone call". A review of studies involving 725 people who claimed electromagnetic hypersensitivity, "...suggests that 'electromagnetic hypersensitivity' is unrelated to the presence of an EMF, although more research into this phenomenon is required."


smartphonessmart phonesmart phones
Smartphones (contraction of smart and telephone) are a class of mobile phones and of multi-purpose mobile computing devices. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive mobile operating systems, which facilitate wider software, internet (including web browsing over mobile broadband), and multimedia functionality (including music, video, cameras, and gaming), alongside core phone functions such as voice calls and text messaging.

GSM services

servicesmobile data serviceGSM
The systems that monitor and provide the prepaid services are not part of the GSM standard services, but instead an example of intelligent network services that a mobile phone operator may decide to implement in addition to the standard GSM ones. When someone places a call to a mobile phone, they dial the telephone number (also called a MSISDN) associated with the phone user and the call is routed to the mobile phone operator's Gateway Mobile Switching Centre. The Gateway MSC, as the name suggests, acts as the "entrance" from exterior portions of the Public Switched Telephone Network onto the provider's network.

Mobile telephony

mobile communicationmobile telecommunicationsmobile communications
Mobile telephony is the provision of telephone services to phones which may move around freely rather than stay fixed in one location. Mobile phones connect to a terrestrial cellular network of base stations (cell sites), whereas satellite phones connect to orbiting satellites. Both networks are interconnected to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) to allow any phone in the world to be dialed. In 2010 there were estimated to be five billion mobile cellular subscriptions in the world.


played it for a 911 operatora false report from an anonymous caller claiming that there was a hostage situation in Hogg's family home.false report about a stabbing
Caller ID spoofing, social engineering, TTY, prank calls and phone phreaking techniques may be variously combined by swatting perpetrators. 911 systems (including computer telephony systems and human operators) have been tricked by calls placed from cities hundreds of miles away from the location of the purported call, or even from other countries. The caller typically places a 911 call using a spoofed phone number (so as to hide the fraudulent caller's real location) with the goal of tricking emergency authorities into responding with a SWAT team to a fabricated emergency.

John Francis Mitchell

John F. Mitchell
Prior to the development of the cell phone, Mitchell and his team of engineers produced and marketed the first transistorized pager and obtained a patent for the concept of portable cell telephony, including small antennae used to help free mobile phone units from car trunks where they were typically installed. Mitchell, Motorola's chief of portable communication products and Martin Cooper's boss in 1973, played a key role in advancing the development of handheld mobile telephone equipment. Mitchell successfully pushed Motorola to develop wireless communication products that would be small enough to use anywhere and participated in the design of the cellular phone.

Global title

Global Title Translation
E.212(IMSI) = MCC+MNC+MSIN - (Mobile Country Code+Mobile Network Code+Mobile Subscription Identification Number) e.g. 404-68-6600620186 (MTNL delhi) -. E.214(MGT) = combination of E.212 and E.164(CC+NDC+MSIN) (Exact combination is defined in the operators IR21 document). NPI=E.212: 28405 xxxxxxxxxx (284 = Bulgaria MCC + 05 = Globul MNC) ->. NPI=E.214: 359888 xxxxxxxxx (359 = Bulgaria country calling code). NPI=E.214: 14054 xxxxxxxxx (1 = U.S. country calling code) ->. NPI=E.212: 310150 xxxxxxxxx (310 = U.S. MCC + 150 = Cingular MNC).

Internet access

broadband internetbroadbandbroadband Internet access
Mobile broadband is the marketing term for wireless Internet access delivered through mobile phone towers to computers, mobile phones (called "cell phones" in North America and South Africa, and "hand phones" in Asia), and other digital devices using portable modems. Some mobile services allow more than one device to be connected to the Internet using a single cellular connection using a process called tethering. The modem may be built into laptop computers, tablets, mobile phones, and other devices, added to some devices using PC cards, USB modems, and USB sticks or dongles, or separate wireless modems can be used.

Telephone numbers in the United Kingdom

+44dialling code0141
Telephone numbers in the United Kingdom are administered by the UK government's Office of Communications (Ofcom). For this purpose Ofcom established a telephone numbering plan, known as the National Telephone Numbering Plan, which is the system for assigning telephone numbers to subscriber stations. The numbers are of variable length. Local numbers are supported from land-lines, or numbers can be dialled with a '0'-lead prefix that denotes either a geographical region or another service. Cell phone numbers have their own prefixes which are not geographical and are completely portable between providers.

Trunk prefix

trunk code8city or region
However, because the world's telephone systems are "intelligent" enough to "know" from where the call has been originated, to where the call is directed and as to how it is to be charged, if the full international number is used, then this full international number may be dialed from any telephone anywhere. This is particularly important for users of mobile phones. Such users are strongly advised to store all numbers in their phones in the form of "+ (Country Code) (Area Code) (Local Number)", no matter where they live.

Local number portability

number portabilityportedport
Canada, South Africa and the United States are the only countries that offer full number portability transfers between both fixed lines and mobile phone lines, because mobile and fixed line numbers are mixed in the same area codes, and are billed identically for the calling party, the mobile user usually pays for incoming calls and texts; in other countries all mobile numbers are placed in higher priced mobile-dedicated area codes and the originator of the call to the mobile phone pays for the call. The government of Hong Kong has tentatively approved fixed-mobile number portability; however, as of July 2012, this service is not yet available.