Operator Toll Dialing

Nationwide Operator Toll Dialing
Operator Toll Dialing was a project and method used by the Bell System in the USA and Canada to automate the switching and billing of long distance calls in the public switched telephone network (PSTN). The program was initiated by 1945, at which time ca. 5% of the 2.7 million toll board calls per day were handled by this method. Operator Toll Dialing eliminated the need for intermediate and inward operators to complete toll calls to distant central offices. Initially this system involved step-by-step routings to set up each circuit, but later was improved by the development of area codes with machine translation which helped to standardize dialing across the network.

List of Fonejacker episodes

Complete Series 1
The following is an episode list for the E4 series Fonejacker. The series premiered on Comedy Lab with a pilot episode, and due to much popularity, a full series started on 5 July 2007, although the series was originally going to be aired in April at some point, but was delayed. A Christmas special was aired on 20 December of the same year. Then, in 2008, a second series began on 18 September. Both series have been released on DVD including special features such as Unseen Material and audio commentaries. Each episode is approximately 23 minutes long.

Automated attendant

auto attendantauto-attendantphone tree
Modern AA services (which now overlap with more complicated interactive voice response or IVR systems) can route calls to mobile phones, VoIP virtual phones, other AAs/IVRs, or other locations using traditional land-line phones. Telephone callers will recognize an automated attendant system as one that greets calls incoming to an organization with a recorded greeting of the form, "Thank you for calling .... If you know your party's extension, you may dial it any time during this message." Callers who have a touch tone (DTMF) phone can dial an extension number or, in most cases, wait for operator ("attendant") assistance.

Soundboard (computer program)

They are most often used in prank calls, when the caller uses the soundboard to imitate a celebrity or other well-known person. The individual on the other end of the call is usually deceived into thinking that they are actually talking to a real person. In some cases, the victim associated with the prank call has no idea who the person from the soundboard is, with one famous example being Matt Romney pranking his father by pretending to be Arnold Schwarzenegger using a sound board. Some users even record the calls and post them on the Internet. Soundboard prank-calling is often done with caller ID spoofing or masking, to provide a high level of anonymity or impersonation.

Quality of service

QoSquality-of-serviceQuality of Service (QOS)
Commercial VoIP services are often competitive with traditional telephone service in terms of call quality even though QoS mechanisms are usually not in use on the user's connection to their ISP and the VoIP provider's connection to a different ISP. Under high load conditions, however, VoIP may degrade to cell-phone quality or worse. The mathematics of packet traffic indicate that network requires just 60% more raw capacity under conservative assumptions. The amount of over-provisioning in interior links required to replace QoS depends on the number of users and their traffic demands. This limits usability of over-provisioning.

Cable modem

cablecable modemscable internet
The earliest systems used the public switched telephone network (PSTN) for the return path since very few cable systems were bi-directional. Later systems used CATV for the upstream as well as the downstream path. Hybrid's system architecture is used for most cable modem systems today. LANcity was an early pioneer in cable modems, developing a proprietary system that was widely deployed in the U.S. LANcity, which was led by the Iranian-American engineer Rouzbeh Yassini, was then acquired by Nortel, which eventually spun the cable modem business off as ARRIS. ARRIS continues to make cable modems and CMTS equipment compliant with the DOCSIS standard.

Area code 600

. * Telephone numbers in Canada * Non-geographic Telephone Codes for North America

Springfield (The Simpsons)

SpringfieldShelbyvilleSpringfield Elementary
Burns believes in order to operate a telephone, you spell the requested person's name out using the alphabetic keypad (he spells out S-M-I-T-H-E-R-S), he is instead connected to Moe's Tavern. As a result, if one was to spell Smithers name out on a telephone keypad, the fictional phone number minus the area code for the tavern would be revealed as 764-8437(7). Moe and his tavern had been the victim of Bart's ongoing prank calls in the earlier seasons when Bart would call looking for nonexistent people with names that would get Moe laughed at by his customers. Though there was one name that backfired on Bart when he asked for Hugh Jass, who had been sitting in the tavern.

List of confidence tricks

grandparent scamList of confidence tricks: Online scamsConfidence tricks
A similar caller ID spoofing scheme exists with misleading telephone calls ("vishing") facilitated by Internet telephony. A fraudster can make calls through an Internet-PSTN gateway to impersonate banks, police, schools or other trusted entities. A random dialer computer or auto-dialer can impersonate healthcare providers to get Social Security numbers and birthdates from elderly patients recently released from the hospital. The auto-dialer call states it is from a reputable hospital or a pharmacy and the message explains the need to "update records" to be from the hospital or a pharmacy.


Burning Man's open source cell phone system could help save the world, Network World, August 30, 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2011. McMillan, Robert. Coming Soon: A New Way to Hack Into Your Smartphone, PC World, Jan 17, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2011.

List of international call prefixes

International call prefixinternational access code+
List of country calling codes. List of mobile phone number series by country. List of North American Numbering Plan area codes. Public switched telephone network. Standards and recommendations. List of International Call Prefixes.


In telephony, a customer's telephone line now typically ends at the remote concentrator box, where it is multiplexed along with other telephone lines for that neighborhood or other similar area. The multiplexed signal is then carried to the central switching office on significantly fewer wires and for much further distances than a customer's line can practically go. This is likewise also true for digital subscriber lines (DSL). Fiber in the loop (FITL) is a common method of multiplexing, which uses optical fiber as the backbone. It not only connects POTS phone lines with the rest of the PSTN, but also replaces DSL by connecting directly to Ethernet wired into the home.

Push-button telephone

push-button dialingpushbutton telephonestouch-tone
Like cellular handsets, telephones designed for voice-over-IP use out-of-band signaling to send the dialed number. History of the telephone. Interactive voice response. Mobile phone. Timeline of the telephone. VoIP.

Managed facilities-based voice network

A managed facilities-based voice network (MFVN) is a physical network owned and operated by a voice service provider that delivers traditional telephone service via a loop start analog telephone interface. MFVNs are interconnected with the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and provide dialtone to end users. Historically, this was provided by equipment at Bell company central offices, however today's MFVNs can include a combination of access network (last mile network of copper, coaxial cable, or fiber optics), customer premises equipment (CPE), network switches and routers, network management systems, voice call servers, and gateways to the larger PSTN.


Globalstar-2failures of the Globalstar network's satellitesSpot LLC
A network of ground gateway stations provides connectivity from the 40 satellites to the public switched telephone network and Internet. A satellite must have a Gateway station in view to provide service to any users it may see. Twenty Four Globalstar Gateways are located around the world, including 7 in North America. Globalstar Gateways are the largest cellular base stations in the world with a design capacity for over 10,000 concurrent phone calls over a coverage area that is roughly 50% of the size of the USA. Globalstar supports CDMA technology such as the rake receiver and soft handoffs, so a handset may be talking via two spot beams to two Gateways for path diversity.

Speech coding

speech codecspeech encodingspeech
Mobile phone. Pulse-code modulation. Psychoacoustic model. Speech interface guideline. Speech processing. Speech synthesis. Telecommunication. Vector quantization. Vocoder. Various Speech Coding Links. ITU-T Test Signals for Telecommunication Systems Test Samples. ITU-T Perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) tool Sources.

Sampling (signal processing)

sampling ratesamplingsample rate
For most phonemes, almost all of the energy is contained in the 100 Hz–4 kHz range, allowing a sampling rate of 8 kHz. This is the sampling rate used by nearly all telephony systems, which use the G.711 sampling and quantization specifications. Standard-definition television (SDTV) uses either 720 by 480 pixels (US NTSC 525-line) or 704 by 576 pixels (UK PAL 625-line) for the visible picture area. High-definition television (HDTV) uses 720p (progressive), 1080i (interlaced), and 1080p (progressive, also known as Full-HD). In digital video, the temporal sampling rate is defined the frame rate or rather the field rate rather than the notional pixel clock.


mnemonicphone wordspells
One brief practice was when the successive toll-free area codes were introduced (888, 877, 866, etc.), a business word or phrase would actually use one or more of the numbers in the area code. Examples of this were Rent-A-Wreck (1-87-RENT-A-WRECK or 1-US-RENT-A-WRECK), Speedpass (1-87-SPEEDPASS), and one of the first Vonage numbers (1-VONAGE-HELP). However, these proved to be more confusing than helpful to the callers, so the practice is not often used. When the telephone appeared in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century, telephone numbers mixed letters and numbers. In 1968, the letters were replaced by numbers, but recently phonewords have returned to popularity in Russia.


numeric keypadkeyboardkeypads
Additionally, on a rotary telephone, the "1" hole was at the top, albeit at the top right. Keyboard (computing). Telephone keypad. Push-button telephone. Silicone rubber keypad. Numeric keypad. Keyboard technology. Mobile phone. Digital door lock. Arrow keys.

History of the telephone

telephonetelephone historymechanical telephone
Internet Protocol (IP) telephony, also known as Internet telephony or Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), is a disruptive technology that is rapidly gaining ground against traditional telephone network technologies. In Japan and South Korea up to 10% of subscribers switched to this type of telephone service as of January 2005. IP telephony uses a broadband Internet service to transmit conversations as data packets. In addition to replacing the traditional plain old telephone service (POTS) systems, IP telephony also competes with mobile phone networks by offering free or lower cost service via WiFi hotspots.

Obscene phone call

Telephone scatologiatelephone scatophilialewd phone calls
Prank call. Sexual harassment. Strip search phone call scam. Why do some men make obscene phone calls?. Fact Sheet 3: How to Put an End to Unwanted or Harassing Phone Calls.

Local loop

subscriber linelooptelephone circuit
In telephony, the local loop (also referred to as a local tail, subscriber line, or in the aggregate as the last mile) is the physical link or circuit that connects from the demarcation point of the customer premises to the edge of the common carrier or telecommunications service provider's network. At the edge of the carrier access network in a traditional public telephone network, the local loop terminates in a circuit switch housed in an incumbent local exchange carrier or telephone exchange. Traditionally, the local loop was an electrical circuit in the form of a single pair of conductors from the telephone on the customer's premises to the local telephone exchange.

Telephone line

phone linelinetelephone lines
A telephone line or telephone circuit (or just line or circuit within the industry) is a single-user circuit on a telephone communication system. This is the physical wire or other signaling medium connecting the user's telephone apparatus to the telecommunications network, and usually also implies a single telephone number for billing purposes reserved for that user. Telephone lines are used to deliver landline telephone service and Digital subscriber line (DSL) phone cable service to the premises. Telephone overhead lines are connected to the public switched telephone network.

Last mile

last-mileLast mile providerlast kilometre
Examples are the copper wire subscriber lines connecting landline telephones to the local telephone exchange; coaxial cable service drops carrying cable television signals from utility poles to subscribers' homes, and cell towers linking local cell phones to the cellular network. The word "mile" is used metaphorically; the length of the last mile link may be more or less than a mile. Because the last mile of a network to the user is conversely the first mile from the user's premises to the outside world when the user is sending data (sending an email, for example), the term first mile is also alternately used.

Backbone network

core networkbackbonenetwork backbone
The theory, design principles, and first instantiation of the backbone network came from the telephone core network, when traffic was purely voice. The core network was the central part of a telecommunications network that provided various services to customers who were connected by the access network. One of the main functions was to route telephone calls across the PSTN. Typically the term referred to the high capacity communication facilities that connect primary nodes. A core network provided paths for the exchange of information between different sub-networks.