Tommy Tutone

Tommy Tutone is a power pop band, best known for its 1981 hit "867-5309/Jenny", which peaked at No. 4 on the Billboard Hot 100.

Submarine communications cable

submarine cablesubmarine telecommunications cable systemsubmarine telegraph cable
The first trans-pacific telephone cable was laid from Hawaii to Japan in 1964, with an extension from Guam to The Philippines. Also in 1964, the Commonwealth Pacific (COMPAC) cable, with 80 telephone channel capacity, opened for traffic from Sydney to Vancouver, and in 1967 the South East Asia Commonwealth (SEACOM) system, with 160 telephone channel capacity, opened for traffic. This system used microwave radio from Sydney to Cairns (Queensland), the cable running from Cairns to Madang (now Papua New Guinea), Guam, Hong Kong, Kota Kinabalu (Sabah, Malaysia), Singapore, then overland by microwave radio to Kuala Lumpur.

E4 (TV channel)

E4E4.comE4 HD
E4 is a British free-to-air television channel owned by Channel Four Television Corporation. The "E" stands for entertainment, and the channel is mainly aimed at the 16–34 age group. Programming includes US imports such as The Goldbergs, The O.C., Smallville, Veronica Mars, Everwood, What About Brian, Desperate Housewives, How I Met Your Mother, 90210, Gotham, Rules of Engagement, The Big Bang Theory, RuPaul's Drag Race, 2 Broke Girls, Scream Queens, Revenge, and previously Friends (now on Channel 5). Other programming includes homegrown British shows such as Skins, Misfits, The Inbetweeners, Shameless, Hollyoaks, Coach Trip and Made in Chelsea.

United Kingdom

Other major engineering projects and applications by people from the UK include the steam locomotive, developed by Richard Trevithick and Andrew Vivian; from the 19th century the electric motor by Michael Faraday, the incandescent light bulb by Joseph Swan, and the first practical telephone, patented by Alexander Graham Bell; and in the 20th century the world's first working television system by John Logie Baird and others, the jet engine by Frank Whittle, the basis of the modern computer by Alan Turing, and the World Wide Web by Tim Berners-Lee.

Calling party

callercall originatorcall
The calling party (in some contexts called the "A-Number") is a person who (or device that) initiates a telephone call. The person who, or device that, receives a telephone call is the called party. In some countries, it is common etiquette for a call originator to identify himself first instead of the receiver, when the connection is established. Modems and fax machines use different tones when originating or answering a connection, which may be a source of problems for the user. * Calling-party camp-on * Calling party intercept recordings

Public utility

utilitiespublic utilitiesutility
The term utilities can also refer to the set of services provided by these organizations consumed by the public: Coal, electricity, natural gas, water, sewage, telephone, and transportation. Broadband internet services (both fixed-line and mobile) are increasingly being included within the definition. In the United States, public utilities are often natural monopolies because the infrastructure required to produce and deliver a product such as electricity or water is very expensive to build and maintain. As a result, they are often government monopolies, or if privately owned, the sectors are specially regulated by a public utilities commission.

Bell System

BellBell Operating CompaniesBell Telephone
American Telephone and Telegraph Company, a holding company and long-distance carrier. Illinois Bell Telephone Company. Indiana Bell Telephone Company, Incorporated. Michigan Bell Telephone Company. New England Telephone and Telegraph Company. New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. New York Telephone Company. Northwestern Bell Telephone Company. Pacific Northwest Bell Telephone Company. South Central Bell Telephone Company. Southern Bell Telephone and Telegraph Company. Southwestern Bell Telephone Company. The Bell Telephone Company of Pennsylvania. The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company. The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company of Maryland.

Fiber to the x

FTTHfiber to the homefibre to the home
For FTTC and FTTN, the combined internet, video and telephone signal travels to the building over existing telephone or cable wiring until it reaches the end-user's living space, where a VDSL or DOCSIS modem converts data and video signals into ethernet protocol, which is sent over the end-user's category 5 cable. *National broadband plans from around the world de:Glasfasernetz de:Fiber In The Loop FTTP (fiber-to-the-premises): This term is used either as a blanket term for both FTTH and FTTB, or where the fiber network includes both homes and small businesses. FTTH (fiber-to-the-home): Fiber reaches the boundary of the living space, such as a box on the outside wall of a home.

International Telecommunication Union

ITUInternational Telecommunication Union´sInternational Telecommunications Union
The ITU is active in areas including broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies, aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, data, voice, TV broadcasting, and next-generation networks. The agency also organizes worldwide and regional exhibitions and forums, such as ITU Telecom World, bringing together representatives of government and the telecommunications and ICT industry to exchange ideas, knowledge and technology. ITU, based in Geneva, Switzerland, is a member of the United Nations Development Group, and has 12 regional and area offices in the world.

Bell Labs

Bell Telephone LaboratoriesBell LaboratoriesAT&T Bell Laboratories
History of mobile phones—Bell Laboratories conception and development of cellular phones. High speed photography & Wollensak—Fastax high speed (rotating prism) cameras developed by Bell Labs. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory. Simplified Message Desk Interface. Sound film—Westrex sound system for cinema films developed by Bell Labs. TWX Magazine—A short-lived trade periodical published by Bell Laboratories (1944–1952). Walter A. Shewhart—Bell Laboratories engineer—"father of statistical quality control". "Worse is Better"—A software design philosophy also called "The New Jersey Style" under which UNIX and C were supposedly developed.


onlinethe Internetweb
Internet telephony is another common communications service made possible by the creation of the Internet. VoIP stands for Voice-over-Internet Protocol, referring to the protocol that underlies all Internet communication. The idea began in the early 1990s with walkie-talkie-like voice applications for personal computers. In recent years many VoIP systems have become as easy to use and as convenient as a normal telephone. The benefit is that, as the Internet carries the voice traffic, VoIP can be free or cost much less than a traditional telephone call, especially over long distances and especially for those with always-on Internet connections such as cable or ADSL and mobile data.

Digital Signal 1

DS1 is the primary digital telephone standard used in the United States, Canada and Japan and is able to transmit up to 24 multiplexed voice and data calls over telephone lines. E-carrier is used in place of T-carrier outside the United States, Canada, Japan, and South Korea. DS1 is the logical bit pattern used over a physical T1 line; in practice, the terms "DS1" and "T1" are often used interchangeably. T1 refers to the primary digital telephone carrier system used in North America. T1 is one line type of the PCM T-carrier hierarchy.

Digital Signal 0

DS0D 0 (DS0)DS-0
Digital Signal 0 (DS0) is a basic digital signaling rate of 64 kilobits per second (kbit/s), corresponding to the capacity of one analog voice-frequency-equivalent communication channel. The DS0 rate, and its equivalents E0 in the E-carrier system and T0 in the T-carrier system, form the basis for the digital multiplex transmission hierarchy in telecommunications systems used in North America, Europe, Japan, and the rest of the world, for both the early plesiochronous systems such as T-carrier and for modern synchronous systems such as SDH/SONET.

International mobile subscriber identity

IMSIE.212service-subscriber key (IMSI)
This is mainly important for international mobile roaming. Outside North America, the IMSI is converted to the Mobile Global Title (MGT) format, standard E.214, which is similar to an E.164 number. E.214 provides a method to convert the IMSI into a number that can be used for routing to international SS7 switches. E.214 can be interpreted as implying that there are two separate stages of conversion; first determine the MCC and convert to E.164 country calling code then determine MNC and convert to national network code for the carrier's network. But this process is not used in practice and the GSM numbering authority has clearly stated that a one-stage process is used.


T1T-1T1 carrier
The T-carriers are commonly used for trunking between switching centers in a telephone network, including to private branch exchange (PBX) interconnect points. It uses the same twisted pair copper wire that analog trunks used, employing one pair for transmitting, and another pair for receiving. Signal repeaters may be used for extended distance requirements. Before the digital T-carrier system, carrier wave systems such as 12-channel carrier systems worked by frequency division multiplexing; each call was an analog signal. A T1 trunk could transmit 24 telephone calls at a time, because it used a digital carrier signal called Digital Signal 1 (DS-1).


E1E-1digital trunks
Nonblocking minimal spanning switch - discussion of practical telephone switches. Clos network - the mathematics of telephone switches.

Synchronous optical networking

Local "craftspersons" (telephone network engineers) can access a SDH/ SONET network element on a "craft port" and issue commands through a dumb terminal or terminal emulation program running on a laptop. This interface can also be attached to a console server, allowing for remote out-of-band management and logging. TL1 Electrical interface. The electrical interface, often a 50-ohm coaxial cable, sends SONET TL1 commands from a local management network physically housed in the central office where the SONET network element is located. This is for local management of that network element and, possibly, remote management of other SONET network elements.

Audio engineer

engineeringengineersound engineer
Ensuring speech is transmitted intelligibly, efficiently and with high quality; in rooms, through public address systems and through mobile telephone systems are important areas of study. A variety of terms are used to describe audio engineers who install or operate sound recording, sound reinforcement, or sound broadcasting equipment, including large and small format consoles. Terms such as "audio technician," "sound technician," "audio engineer," "audio technologist," "recording engineer," "sound mixer" and "sound engineer" can be ambiguous; depending on the context they may be synonymous, or they may refer to different roles in audio production.

Mobile Telephone Service

MTSLimited capacity Mobile Telephone Service for automobilesMobile Service
The Mobile Telephone Service (MTS) was a pre-cellular VHF radio system that linked to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). MTS was the radiotelephone equivalent of land dial phone service. The Mobile Telephone Service was one of the earliest mobile telephone standards. It was operator assisted in both directions, meaning that if one were called from a land line the call would be routed to a mobile operator, who would route it to one's phone. Similarly, to make an outbound call one had to go through the mobile operator, who would ask for the mobile number and the number to be called, and would then place the call.


pay phonepayphonespublic telephone
In the past, payphones were ubiquitous around the world, but their prevalence has decreased significantly over the years due to the increasing availability of mobile phones, but cell phone service is not always available in emergencies. Most payphones in Canada are owned and operated by large telecom providers such as Bell, Telus and SaskTel. In the last 20 years customer-owned coin-operated telephones (COCOT) have also appeared in the market, but their numbers are smaller due to emergence of mobile phones. The cost of most local payphone calls is 50 cents CAD, having increased from 25 cents since 2007.

Improved Mobile Telephone Service

Increasing affordability of satellite service, and government investment in cellular expansion allowed MTS and IMTS to be removed. * THE MOBILE TELEPHONE - overview of MTS and IMTS Advanced Mobile Phone System, successor. Car phone. Mobile radio telephone. Mobile Telephone Service, the earliest 'car telephone' service provided by the Bell System, later replaced by IMTS technology. Radiotelephone. Two-way radio.

Telephone numbers in Israel

Area code+972prefix
Mobile number portability was introduced in late 2007. The format for calls to landlines within the same area code is XXX-XXXX (7 digits subscriber number). For calls to a landline outside the local area, the area code is prefixed and the format becomes (0A) XXX-XXXX for calls to landlines, where "0A" is the area code. The format for calls to cellular mobile phones is 05N-XXX-XXXX, where "05N" is the mobile operator indicator. The format for calls to VoIP lines is 07N-XXX-XXXX, where "07N" is the VoIP operator indicator.

On- and Off-hook

off-hookon-hookon hook
In telephony, on-hook and off-hook refer to the two possible states of a receiver. Off-hook originally referred to the condition that prevailed when telephones had a separate earpiece (i.e., receiver), which hung from its switchhook until the user wished to activate it. The weight of the receiver no longer depresses the spring-loaded switchhook, thereby connecting the instrument to the telephone line. The term off-hook has the following meanings: On an ordinary two-wire telephone line, off-hook status is communicated to the telephone exchange by a resistance short across the pair.

Telecommunications in Brazil

Other areas of the country, particularly the North and Northeast regions, lack even basic analog PSTN telephone lines. This is a problem that the government is trying to solve by linking the liberation of new technologies such as WiMax and FTTH) only tied with compromises on extension of the service to less populated regions. The Brazilian landline sector is fully open to competition and continues to attract operators. The bulk of the market is divided between four operators: Telefónica, América Móvil, Oi (controlled by Brazilian investors and Portugal Telecom), and GVT.

Multi-frequency signaling

Benefits include higher connection establishment rate, better fraud security and features such as Caller ID Some 911 Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) still use the MF format to identify the calling party to the PSAP when processing calls from Mobile Telephone Switching Offices (MTSOs) and land telephone offices. This is based on an earlier system which used MF to identify the calling party to a feature group 'D' (101xxxx) alternate long distance provider. Other countries may still use a version of in-band signaling.