Globalstar-2failures of the Globalstar network's satellitesGlobalstar 7
A network of ground gateway stations provides connectivity from the 40 satellites to the public switched telephone network and Internet. A satellite must have a Gateway station in view to provide service to any users it may see. Twenty Four Globalstar Gateways are located around the world, including 7 in North America. Globalstar Gateways are the largest cellular base stations in the world with a design capacity for over 10,000 concurrent phone calls over a coverage area that is roughly 50% of the size of the USA. Globalstar supports CDMA technology such as the rake receiver and soft handoffs, so a handset may be talking via two spot beams to two Gateways for path diversity.


In mobile telecommunications network routing, E.214 is one of three prevailing numbering plans used for delivering mobility management related messages.


keypadsnumeric keypad
Additionally, on a rotary telephone, the "1" hole was at the top, albeit at the top right. Keyboard (computing). Telephone keypad. Push-button telephone. Silicone rubber keypad. Numeric keypad. Keyboard technology. Mobile phone. Digital door lock. Arrow keys.

Managed facilities-based voice network

A managed facilities-based voice network (MFVN) is a physical network owned and operated by a voice service provider that delivers traditional telephone service via a loop start analog telephone interface. MFVNs are interconnected with the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and provide dialtone to end users. Historically, this was provided by equipment at Bell company central offices, however today's MFVNs can include a combination of access network (last mile network of copper, coaxial cable, or fiber optics), customer premises equipment (CPE), network switches and routers, network management systems, voice call servers, and gateways to the larger PSTN.


One brief practice was when the successive toll-free area codes were introduced (888, 877, 866, etc.), a business word or phrase would actually use one or more of the numbers in the area code. Examples of this were Rent-A-Wreck (1-87-RENT-A-WRECK or 1-US-RENT-A-WRECK), Speedpass (1-87-SPEEDPASS), and one of the first Vonage numbers (1-VONAGE-HELP). However, these proved to be more confusing than helpful to the callers, so the practice is not often used. When the telephone appeared in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century, telephone numbers mixed letters and numbers. In 1968, the letters were replaced by numbers, but recently phonewords have returned to popularity in Russia.

Personal Handy-phone System

PHSPersonal Access SystemXiaolingtong
In Thailand, TelecomAsia (now True Corporation) integrated the PHS system with Intelligent Network and marketed the service as Personal Communication Telephone (PCT). The integrated system was the world's first that allowed the fixed line telephone subscribers of the public switched telephone network to use PHS as a value added service with the same telephone number and shared the same voice mailbox. The PCT service was commercially launched in November 1999 with the peak of 670,000 subscribers in 2001. However, the number of subscribers had declined to 470,000 in 2005 before the breakeven in 2006 after six years of heavy investment up to 15 billion THB.

Push-button telephone

10- or 12-button touch-tone telephonespush-buttonpush-button dialing
Like cellular handsets, telephones designed for voice-over-IP use out-of-band signaling to send the dialed number. History of the telephone. Interactive voice response. Mobile phone. Timeline of the telephone. VoIP.

Obscene phone call

Telephone scatologialewd phone callsobscene telephone calls
Prank call. Sexual harassment. Strip search phone call scam. Why do some men make obscene phone calls?. Fact Sheet 3: How to Put an End to Unwanted or Harassing Phone Calls.


trunktrunk linetrunks
Examples of this include telephone systems and the two-way radios commonly used by police agencies. Trunking, in the form of link aggregation and VLAN tagging, has been applied in computer networking as well. A trunk is a single communications channel between two points, each point being either the switching center or the node. A trunk line is a circuit connecting telephone switchboards (or other switching equipment), as distinguished from local loop circuit which extends from telephone exchange switching equipment to individual telephones or information origination/termination equipment. Trunk lines are used for connecting a private branch exchange (PBX) to a telephone service provider.

Digital electronics

digital circuitdigitaldigital technology
An increasingly common goal is to reduce the power used in a battery-powered computer system, such as a cell-phone. Many computer architects serve an extended apprenticeship as microprogrammers. Digital circuits are made from analog components. The design must assure that the analog nature of the components doesn't dominate the desired digital behavior. Digital systems must manage noise and timing margins, parasitic inductances and capacitances, and filter power connections.

Video game

video gamesgamegaming
For casual online puzzle-style and simple mobile cell phone games, the gender divide is more or less equal between men and women. More recently there has been a growing segment of female players engaged with the aggressive style of games historically considered to fall within traditionally male genres (e.g., first-person shooters). According to the ESRB, almost 41% of PC gamers are women. Participation among African-Americans is lower. One survey of over 2000 game developers returned responses from only 2.5% who identified as black. When comparing today's industry climate with that of 20 years ago, women and many adults are more inclined to be using products in the industry.

Nippon Telegraph and Telephone

NTTNippon Telegraph and Telephone CorporationNTT East
Telephone. List of telephone operating companies. NTT Research Inc. NTT Innovation Institute, Inc.

Tommy Tutone

National Emotion
Tommy Tutone is a power pop band, best known for its 1981 hit "867-5309/Jenny", which peaked at #4 on the Billboard Hot 100.

E4 (TV channel)

E4E4.comE4 Music
E4 is a British free-to-air television channel headquartered in London, United Kingdom owned by Channel Four Television Corporation. The "E" stands for entertainment, and the channel is mainly aimed at the 16–34 age group. Programming includes US imports such as Brooklyn Nine-Nine, The Goldbergs, The O.C., Smallville, Veronica Mars, Everwood, What About Brian, Desperate Housewives, How I Met Your Mother, 90210, Gotham, Rules of Engagement, The Big Bang Theory, RuPaul's Drag Race, 2 Broke Girls, Scream Queens, Revenge, and previously Friends (now on Comedy Central and Channel 5).

Calling party

callercall originatorA-Number
The calling party (in some contexts called the "A-Number") is a person who (or device that) initiates a telephone call. The person who, or device that, receives a telephone call is the called party. In some countries, it is common etiquette for a call originator to identify himself first instead of the receiver, when the connection is established. Modems and fax machines use different tones when originating or answering a connection, which may be a source of problems for the user. * Calling-party camp-on * Calling party intercept recordings

United Kingdom

Other major engineering projects and applications by people from the UK include the steam locomotive, developed by Richard Trevithick and Andrew Vivian; from the 19th century the electric motor by Michael Faraday, the first computer designed by Charles Babbage, the first commercial electrical telegraph by William Fothergill Cooke and Charles Wheatstone, the incandescent light bulb by Joseph Swan, and the first practical telephone, patented by Alexander Graham Bell; and in the 20th century the world's first working television system by John Logie Baird and others, the jet engine by Frank Whittle, the basis of the modern computer by Alan Turing, and the World Wide Web by Tim Berners-Lee.

Public utility

utilitiespublic utilitiesutility
The term utilities can also refer to the set of services provided by these organizations consumed by the public: Coal, electricity, natural gas, water, sewage, telephone, and transportation. Broadband internet services (both fixed-line and mobile) are increasingly being included within the definition. In the United States, public utilities are often natural monopolies because the infrastructure required to produce and deliver a product such as electricity or water is very expensive to build and maintain. As a result, they are often government monopolies, or if privately owned, the sectors are specially regulated by a public utilities commission.


The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as cycles per one second. It is named after Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves. Hertz are commonly expressed in multiples: kilohertz (10 3 Hz, kHz), megahertz (10 6 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (10 9 Hz, GHz), terahertz (10 12 Hz, THz), petahertz (10 15 Hz, PHz), exahertz (10 18 Hz, EHz), and zettahertz (10 21 Hz, ZHz).

Bell System

Bell Operating CompanyBell Operating CompaniesBell Telephone
American Telephone and Telegraph Company, a holding company and long-distance carrier. Illinois Bell Telephone Company. Indiana Bell Telephone Company, Incorporated. Michigan Bell Telephone Company. New England Telephone and Telegraph Company. New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. New York Telephone Company. Northwestern Bell Telephone Company. Pacific Northwest Bell Telephone Company. South Central Bell Telephone Company. Southern Bell Telephone and Telegraph Company. Southwestern Bell Telephone Company. The Bell Telephone Company of Pennsylvania. The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company. The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company of Maryland.

Submarine communications cable

submarine cablesubmarine telecommunications cable systemsubmarine telegraph cable
The first trans-Pacific telephone cable was laid from Hawaii to Japan in 1964, with an extension from Guam to The Philippines. Also in 1964, the Commonwealth Pacific (COMPAC) cable, with 80 telephone channel capacity, opened for traffic from Sydney to Vancouver, and in 1967, the South East Asia Commonwealth (SEACOM) system, with 160 telephone channel capacity, opened for traffic. This system used microwave radio from Sydney to Cairns (Queensland), cable running from Cairns to Madang (Papua New Guinea), Guam, Hong Kong, Kota Kinabalu (capital of Sabah, Malaysia), Singapore, then overland by microwave radio to Kuala Lumpur.

Bell Labs

Bell LaboratoriesBell Telephone LaboratoriesAT&T Bell Laboratories
After the invention of the telephone, Bell maintained a relatively distant role with the Bell System as a whole, but continued to pursue his own personal research interests. The Bell Patent Association was formed by Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Sanders, and Gardiner Hubbard when filing the first patents for the telephone in 1876. Bell Telephone Company, the first telephone company, was formed a year later. It later became a part of the American Bell Telephone Company. American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) and its own subsidiary company, took control of American Bell and the Bell System by 1889.

International Telecommunication Union

ITUInternational Telecommunications UnionInternational Telecommunication Union´s
The ITU is also active in the areas of broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies, aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, data, voice, TV broadcasting, and next-generation networks. The development of the telegraph in the early 19th century changed the way people communicated on the local and international levels. Increases in international communication brought about the need for standardization and cooperation across national borders.


VDMOSpFET resistanceUMOS
. • Cell phones. • Cellular networks, including Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), 2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G. • Commutation. • Computer hardware components, including motherboards, graphics card, voltage regulator module (VRM), and overclocking. • Computer peripherals. • Consumer electronics, such as digital cameras and home entertainment equipment. • Controlled power in everyday devices. • DC/AC inverters. • Diode reverse recovery. • Driver circuits, such as for stepper motors. • Electric motor drives, including pulse motor and DC motor drives. • Electric shavers. • Electric vehicle (EV), including hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), light electric vehicle, battery-driven airport vehicle, Segway

RF power amplifier

RF amplifierpower amplifieramplified
A radio frequency power amplifier (RF power amplifier) is a type of electronic amplifier that converts a low-power radio-frequency signal into a higher power signal. Typically, RF power amplifiers drive the antenna of a transmitter. Design goals often include gain, power output, bandwidth, power efficiency, linearity (low signal compression at rated output), input and output impedance matching, and heat dissipation.


lateral-diffused metal-oxide semiconductor
LDMOS (laterally-diffused metal-oxide semiconductor) is a planar double-diffused MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor) used in microwave/RF power amplifiers as well as audio power amplifiers. These transistors are often fabricated on p/p + silicon epitaxial layers. The fabrication of LDMOS devices mostly involves various ion-implantation and subsequent annealing cycles. As an example, The drift region of this power MOSFET is fabricated using up to three ion implantation sequences in order to achieve the appropriate doping profile needed to withstand high electric fields.