Marriage

married couplesopposite-sex married couplesmarried
However, this was not the case in the Roman Catholic Church before the 1184 Council of Verona officially recognized it as such. Before then, no specific ritual was prescribed for celebrating a marriage: "Marriage vows did not have to be exchanged in a church, nor was a priest's presence required. A couple could exchange consent anywhere, anytime." The Church only formally recognized the union and it was finalized with the couple together partaking Holy Communion. Decrees on marriage of the Roman Catholic Council of Trent (twenty-fourth session of 1563) made the validity of marriage dependent on the wedding occurring in the presence of a priest and two witnesses.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
According to a 2014 survey, 70.6% of adults in the United States identified themselves as Christians; Protestants accounted for 46.5%, while Roman Catholics, at 20.8%, formed the largest single denomination. In 2014, 5.9% of the U.S. adult population claimed a non-Christian religion. These include Judaism (1.9%), Islam (0.9%), Hinduism (0.7%), and Buddhism (0.7%). The survey also reported that 22.8% of Americans described themselves as agnostic, atheist or simply having no religion—up from 8.2% in 1990.

United Kingdom

BritishUKBritain
Among Christians, adherents to the Church of England constituted 15 per cent, Roman Catholic Church 9 per cent, and other Christians (including Presbyterians, Methodists, other Protestants, as well as Eastern Orthodox), 17 per cent. 71 per cent of young people aged 18––24 said they had no religion. The Church of England is the established church in England. It retains a representation in the UK Parliament and the British monarch is its Supreme Governor. In Scotland, the Church of Scotland is recognised as the national church.

Sexual revolution

sexual liberationsexually liberatedsexual
The Roman Catholic Church's Index Librorum Prohibitorum carried great weight among Catholics and amounted to an effective and instant boycott of any book appearing on it. Boston's Watch and Ward Society, a largely Protestant creation inspired by Anthony Comstock, made "banned in Boston" a national by-word. In 1959 Grove Press published an unexpurgated version of Lady Chatterley's Lover by D. H. Lawrence. The U.S. Post Office confiscated copies sent through the mail. Lawyer Charles Rembar sued the New York City Postmaster, and won in New York and then on federal appeal.

In vitro fertilisation

IVFin vitro fertilizationin-vitro fertilization
Pope Benedict XVI had publicly re-emphasised the Catholic Church's opposition to in vitro fertilisation, saying that it replaces love between a husband and wife. The Catechism of the Catholic Church, in accordance with the Catholic understanding of natural law, teaches that reproduction has an "inseparable connection" to the sexual union of married couples. In addition, the church opposes IVF because it might result in the disposal of embryos; in Catholicism, an embryo is viewed as an individual with a soul that must be treated as a person.

Italy

ItalianITAItalia
According to the Italian National Institute of Statistics, Romanian is the most common mother tongue among foreign residents in Italy: almost 800,000 people speak Romanian as their first language (21.9% of the foreign residents aged 6 and over). Other prevalent mother tongues are Arabic (spoken by over 475,000 people; 13.1% of foreign residents), Albanian (380,000 people) and Spanish (255,000 people). In 2017, the proportion of Italians who identified themselves as Roman Catholic Christians was 74.4%. Since 1985, it is no longer officially the state religion. The Holy See, the episcopal jurisdiction of Rome, contains the central government of the Roman Catholic Church.

Father

paternalsirefatherhood
Adoptive father – the father who has adopted a child. Cuckolded father – where the child is the product of the mother's adulterous relationship. DI Dad – social/legal father of children produced via Donor Insemination (where a donor's sperm were used to impregnate the DI Dad's spouse). Father-in-law – the father of one's spouse. Foster father – child is raised by a man who is not the biological or adoptive father usually as part of a couple. Mother's partner – assumption that current partner fills father role. Mother's husband – under some jurisdictions (e.g. in Quebec civil law), if the mother is married to another man, the latter will be defined as the father.

Legitimacy (family law)

illegitimatebastardillegitimacy
For example, canon 1137 of the Roman Catholic Church's Code of Canon Law specifically affirms the legitimacy of a child born to a marriage that is declared null following the child's birth. The Catholic Church is also changing its attitude toward unwed mothers and baptism of the children. In criticizing the priests who refused to baptize out-of-wedlock children, Pope Francis argued that the mothers had done the right thing by giving life to the child and should not be shunned by the church: "In our ecclesiastical region there are priests who don't baptise the children of single mothers because they weren't conceived in the sanctity of marriage. These are today's hypocrites.

Attachment parenting

attachment parent
For that, he adopted Mary Ainsworth’s term of "maternal sensitivity": The woman directs her attention completely on the child ("babyreading") and responds continuously to every signal that the child sends; the result is a state of harmony between mother and child that leads to mutual attachment. Sears believes that the maternal "tuning-in" begins during pregnancy already. Within the framework of infant cognitive development studies, the child's attachment to the parents has been well researched.

Illinois

ILState of IllinoisIll.
Roman Catholics constitute the single largest religious denomination in Illinois; they are heavily concentrated in and around Chicago, and account for nearly 30% of the state's population. However, taken together as a group, the various Protestant denominations comprise a greater percentage of the state's population than do Catholics. In 2010 Catholics in Illinois numbered 3,648,907. The largest Protestant denominations were the United Methodist Church with 314,461, and the Southern Baptist Convention, with 283,519 members. Illinois has one of the largest concentrations of Missouri Synod Lutherans in the United States.

Sweden

SwedishSWEKingdom of Sweden
After the Protestant Reformation in the 1530s, a change led by Martin Luther's Swedish associate Olaus Petri, the authority of the Roman Catholic Church was abolished and Lutheranism became widespread. Adoption of Lutheranism was completed by the Uppsala Synod of 1593, and it became the official religion. During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the period of Lutheran orthodoxy, small groups of non-Lutherans, especially Calvinist Dutchmen, the Moravian Church and French Huguenots played a significant role in trade and industry, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept a low religious profile.

Netherlands

DutchThe NetherlandsHolland
The provinces of North Brabant and Limburg have historically been strongly Roman Catholic, and some of their people might still consider the Catholic Church as a base for their cultural identity. Protestantism in the Netherlands consists of a number of churches within various traditions. The largest of these is the Protestant Church in the Netherlands (PKN), a United church which is Reformed and Lutheran in orientation. It was formed in 2004 as a merger of the Dutch Reformed Church, the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands and a smaller Lutheran Church. Several orthodox Reformed and liberal churches did not merge into the PKN.

Divorce

divorceddivorceedivorcée
Since the mid-1990s, the divorce rate has increased to over 50% among baby boomers. More and more seniors are staying single; an analysis of census data conducted at Bowling Green State University predicted that divorce numbers will continue to rise. Baby boomers that remain unmarried are five times more likely to live in poverty compared to those who are married. They are also three times as likely to receive food stamps, public assistance or disability payments. Sociologists believe that the rise in the number of older Americans who are not married is a result of factors such as longevity and economics.

Native Americans in the United States

Native AmericanNative AmericansAmerican Indian
Many Nations, such as the Haudenosaunee Five Nations and the Southeast Muskogean tribes, have matrilineal or Clan Mother systems, in which property and hereditary leadership are controlled by and passed through the maternal lines. In these Nations, the children are considered to belong to the mother's clan. In Cherokee culture, women own the family property. When traditional young women marry, their husbands may join them in their mother's household. Matrilineal structures enable young women to have assistance in childbirth and rearing, and protect them in case of conflicts between the couple. If a couple separates or the man dies, the woman has her family to assist her.

Democratic Party (United States)

DemocraticDemocratDemocratic Party
Throughout the decade of the 2000s, 60% or more of Hispanic Roman Catholics who were registered to vote identified as either Democratic or leaning towards the Party. Unaffiliated Hispanic advocacy groups that often support progressive candidates and causes include the National Council of La Raza and the League of United Latin American Citizens. In the House of Representatives, the Democratic caucus of Hispanic Americans is the Congressional Hispanic Caucus. The Democratic Party also has strong support among the Native American population, particularly in Arizona, New Mexico, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington, Alaska, Idaho, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Oklahoma and North Carolina.

Canada

CanadianCANCanadians
According to the 2011 census, 67.3 percent of Canadians identify as Christian; of these, Roman Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 38.7 percent of the population. Much of the remainder is made up of Protestants, who accounted for approximately 27 percent in a 2011 survey. The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada (accounting for 6.1% of Canadians), followed by Anglicans (5.0%), and Baptists (1.9%). Secularization has been growing since the 1960s. In 2011, 23.9 percent declared no religious affiliation, compared to 16.5 percent in 2001.

Surrogacy

surrogate mothersurrogategestational surrogacy
The Catholic Church is generally opposed to surrogacy which it views as immoral and incompatible with Biblical texts surrounding topics of birth, marriage, and life. Paragraph 2376 of the Catechism of the Catholic Church states that: "Techniques that entail the dissociation of husband and wife, by the intrusion of a person other than the couple (donation of sperm or ovum, surrogate uterus), are gravely immoral." Many proponents of this stance express concern that the sanctity of marriage may be compromised by the insertion of a third party into the marriage contract.

Voluntary childlessness

childfreechildless by choicechoose not to have children
Feminist author Daphne DeMarneffe links larger feminist issues to both the devaluation of motherhood in contemporary society, as well as the delegitimization of "maternal desire" and pleasure in motherhood. In third-wave handbook Manifesta: Young Women, Feminism, and the Future, authors Jennifer Baumgardner and Amy Richards explore the concept of third-wave feminists reclaiming "girlie" culture, along with reasons why women of Baby Boomer and Generation X ages may reject motherhood because, at a young and impressionable age, they witnessed their own mothers being devalued by society and family.

Parent

parentspaternitybiological parent
. – A Roman Catholic view of the position of parents.

Cook County, Illinois

Cook CountyCookCook counties
Western Springs. Wheeling. Willow Springs. Wilmette. Winnetka. Worth. Central Stickney. Hines. La Grange Highlands. Nottingham Park. Sag Bridge. Sutton. Thornton Township – 169,326. Wheeling Township – 153,630. Worth Township – 152,633. Proviso Township – 151,704. Maine Township – 135,772. Schaumburg Township – 131,288. Palatine Township – 112,994. Lyons Township – 111,688. Bremen Township – 110,118. Niles Township – 105,882. Hanover Township – 99,538. Orland Township – 97,558. Elk Grove Township – 92,905. Leyden Township – 92,890. Bloom Township – 90,922. Northfield Township – 85,102. Cicero Township – 83,891. Rich Township – 76,727. Berwyn Township – 56,657. New Trier Township – 55,424.

List of municipalities in Illinois

VillageCityTown
Illinois is a state located in the Midwestern United States. According to the 2010 United States Census, Illinois is the 6th most populous state with inhabitants but the 24th largest by land area spanning 55518.93 sqmi of land. Illinois is divided into 102 counties and contains 1,299 incorporated municipalities consisting of cities, towns, and villages.

Parenting

parenthoodchild rearingchild-rearing
Along with this, they believe in the idea of putting family above the individual, and emphasize the values of the catholic church. (Gonzales). [35] The Kipsigis people of Kenya value children who are not only smart, but who employ that intelligence in a responsible and helpful way, which they call ng/om. Other cultures, such as Sweden and Spain, value more personal values such as being sociable, having security, and happiness. Parents in East Asia come from a culture that values nurturing and governance within families; this is called “guan” [gw-an]. They believe that good parenting comes from order within a household.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
Women took part in aristocratic society mainly in their roles as wives and mothers of men, with the role of mother of a ruler being especially prominent in Merovingian Gaul. In Anglo-Saxon society the lack of many child rulers meant a lesser role for women as queen mothers, but this was compensated for by the increased role played by abbesses of monasteries. Only in Italy does it appear that women were always considered under the protection and control of a male relative. Peasant society is much less documented than the nobility.

Mary, mother of Jesus

Virgin MaryMaryBlessed Virgin Mary
According to the 4th-century heresiologist Epiphanius of Salamis the Virgin Mary was worshipped as a mother goddess in the Christian sect of Collyridianism, which was found throughout Arabia sometime during the 300s AD. Collyridianism had women performing priestly acts. They made bread offerings to the Virgin Mary. The group was condemned as heretical by the Roman Catholic Church and was preached against by Epiphanius of Salamis, who wrote about the group in his writings titled Panarion. The adoption of the mother of Jesus as a virtual goddess may represent a reintroduction of aspects of the worship of Isis.

Adoption in the United States

adoptedadoptionUnited States
Public foster care adoptions frequently incur zero costs, though the U.S. average is $2,622 according to a 2015 survey done by Adoptive Families Magazine. Independently-arranged adoptions, orchestrated by a private attorney, can vary greatly in costs. The arrangements are generally setup between prospective adopters and an expecting mother. While some independent adoption arrangements may stay low cost due to nature of the agreement, costs still average $31,890.