doctormedical doctorphysicians
In France, Italy and Portugal, civilian physicians must be members of the Order of Physicians to practice medicine. In some countries, including the United Kingdom and Ireland, the profession largely regulates itself, with the government affirming the regulating body's authority. The best known example of this is probably the General Medical Council of Britain. In all countries, the regulating authorities will revoke permission to practice in cases of malpractice or serious misconduct. In the large English-speaking federations (United States, Canada, Australia), the licensing or registration of medical practitioners is done at a state or provincial level, or nationally as in New Zealand.

Domestic violence

domestic abusespousal abuseabusive
Studies have indicated that it is important to consider the effect of domestic violence and its psychophysiologic sequelae on women who are mothers of infants and young children. Several studies have shown that maternal interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can, despite a traumatized mother's best efforts, interfere with their child's response to the domestic violence and other traumatic events. Once victims leave their perpetrator, they can be stunned with the reality of the extent to which the abuse has taken away their autonomy.

Fédération Cynologique Internationale

FCIFederation Cynologique InternationaleFédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI)
The FCI was founded in 1911 by Germany, Austria, Belgium, France and the Netherlands, it was disbanded in World War I and recreated in 1921 by Belgium and France. The FCI divides breeds it recognises into ten groups based on various discriminators such as appearance or role: The FCI has members, associates and partners in 98 countries, but none in the United States, United Kingdom, or Canada.

Tamil language

During the modern period, words have also been adapted from European languages, such as Portuguese, French, and English. The strongest impact of purism in Tamil has been on words taken from Sanskrit. During its history, Tamil, along with other Dravidian languages like Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam etc., was influenced by Sanskrit in terms of vocabulary, grammar and literary styles, reflecting the increased trend of Sanskritisation in the Tamil country.

Save the Children State of the World's Mothers report

State of the World's Mothers reportState of the World's MothersMother's Index Rank
According to these statistics, every mother in Afghanistan is likely to lose a child. World Health Report. Maternal health. Save the Children State of the World's Mothers report, 2010. Save the Children State of the World's Mothers report, 2013.

Russian language

Blocks of specialized vocabulary were adopted from the languages of Western Europe. By 1800, a significant portion of the gentry spoke French daily, and German sometimes. Many Russian novels of the 19th century, e.g. Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace, contain entire paragraphs and even pages in French with no translation given, with an assumption that educated readers would not need one. The modern literary language is usually considered to date from the time of Alexander Pushkin in the first third of the 19th century.

Spanish language

Census Bureau, which estimates that the U.S. will have 138 million Spanish speakers by 2050, making it the biggest Spanish-speaking nation on earth, with Spanish the mother tongue of almost a third of its citizens.

Portuguese language

PortuguesePortuguese-languageBrazilian Portuguese
For some time, it was the language of preference for lyric poetry in Christian Hispania, much as Occitan was the language of the poetry of the troubadours in France. The Occitan digraphs lh and nh, used in its classical orthography, were adopted by the orthography of Portuguese, presumably by Gerald of Braga, a monk from Moissac, who became bishop of Braga in Portugal in 1047, playing a major role in modernizing written Portuguese using classical Occitan norms. Portugal became an independent kingdom in 1139, under King Afonso I of Portugal.


Reports from the Food Standards Agency have found that the known animal carcinogen acrylamide is generated in fried or overheated carbohydrate foods (such as french fries and potato chips). Studies are underway at the FDA and European regulatory agencies to assess its potential risk to humans. There is a strong association of smoking with lung cancer; the lifetime risk of developing lung cancer increases significantly in smokers. A large number of known carcinogens are found in cigarette smoke. Potent carcinogens found in cigarette smoke include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, such as [[Benzo(a)pyrene|benzo[a]pyrene]]), Benzene, and Nitrosamine.

Identity (social science)

identitysocial identityidentities
The description or representation of individual and group identity is a central task for psychologists, sociologists and anthropologists and those of other disciplines where "identity" needs to be mapped and defined. How should one describe the identity of another, in ways which encompass both their idiosyncratic qualities and their group memberships or identifications, both of which can shift according to circumstance?

Kidnapping of children by Nazi Germany

Kidnapping of Polish children by Nazi Germanykidnappedkidnapping of children
Himmler mused on initiating similar projects in German-occupied France. Hitler's Table Talk records him expressing his belief that "the French problem" would be best solved by yearly extractions of a number of racially healthy children, chosen from "France's Germanic population". He preferred they be placed in German boarding schools, in order to separate them from their "incidental" French nationality, and to make them aware of their "Germanic blood". Hitler responded that the "religious petit-bourgeois tendencies of the French people" would make it almost impossible to "salvage the Germanic elements from the claws of the ruling class of that country".


Canadian Association of French-speaking Sociologists and Anthropologists. European Sociological Association (ESA). French Sociological Association. German Sociological Association (DGS). Indian Sociological Society (ISS). International Institute of Sociology (IIS). International Sociological Association (ISA). Latin American Sociological Association (ALAS). Portuguese Sociological Association (APS). Sociological Association of Ireland (SAI).


After thoroughly reviewing the scientific data, the American Psychological Association adopted the same position in 1975, and urged all mental health professionals "to take the lead in removing the stigma of mental illness that has long been associated with homosexual orientations." The National Association of Social Workers has adopted a similar policy. Thus, mental health professionals and researchers have long recognized that being homosexual poses no inherent obstacle to leading a happy, healthy, and productive life, and that the vast majority of gay and lesbian people function well in the full array of social institutions and interpersonal relationships.


As of 2012, the statistical category of "single mothers"(defined as never married at the time of the birth) encompassed 28.3% of mothers, the category "divorced" (i.e. mothers who were unmarried at the time of birth, but had been previously married during their lives) encompassed 1%, while for 10% of mothers the marital status was unknown ("not stated"). There are, however, very significant differences by province/territory; for example in 2012, 77.8% of births in Nunavut were listed to "single mothers", by contrast, less than 20% of mothers in Ontario were listed in this category.


Since the mid-1990s, the divorce rate has increased to over 50% among baby boomers. More and more seniors are staying single; an analysis of census data conducted at Bowling Green State University predicted that divorce numbers will continue to rise. Baby boomers that remain unmarried are five times more likely to live in poverty compared to those who are married. They are also three times as likely to receive food stamps, public assistance or disability payments. Sociologists believe that the rise in the number of older Americans who are not married is a result of factors such as longevity and economics.


Hindus are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism. Historically, the term has also been used as a geographical, cultural, and later religious identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent.

Telugu language

Andhra is characterised as having its own mother tongue, and its territory has been equated with the extent of the Telugu language. The equivalence between the Telugu linguistic sphere and geographical boundaries of Andhra is also brought out in an eleventh century description of Andhra boundaries. Andhra, according to this text, was bounded in north by Mahendra mountain in the modern Ganjam District of Orissa and to the south by Kalahasti temple in Chittor District. But Andhra extended westwards as far as Srisailam in the Kurnool District, about halfway across the modern state. Page number-36.


However, "in case of necessity, baptism can be administered by a deacon or, in his absence or if he is impeded, by another cleric, a member of an institute of consecrated life, or by any other Christian faithful; even by the mother or father, if another person is not available who knows how to baptize." The discipline of the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy and the Assyrian Church of the East is similar to that of the Eastern Catholic Churches. They require the baptizer, even in cases of necessity, to be of their own faith, on the grounds that a person cannot convey what he himself does not possess, in this case membership in the Church.

Kennel club

kennel clubsNational Kennel Clubregistry body
In 1881, the French Société Centrale Canine was founded, followed by the Italian Ente Nazionale della Cinofilia Italiana (ENCI) in 1882, and the American Kennel Club in 1884. The United Kennel Club was established in 1898. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale was formed in 1911, under the auspices of the Austrian, Belgian, Dutch, French and German canine societies. The new kennel club rules reflected that pedigrees must be registered with their respective club. Clubs acted as a court of appeal so that wrongs could be set right and dishonesty was made both difficult and dangerous.


State of HawaiiHawaiʻiHI
Significant numbers of European immigrants and their descendants also speak their native languages; the most numerous are German, Portuguese, Italian and French. 5.4% of residents speak Tagalog—which includes non-native speakers of Filipino language, the national, co-official, Tagalog-based language; 5.0% speak Japanese and 4.0% speak Ilocano; 1.2% speak Chinese, 1.7% speak Hawaiian; 1.7% speak Spanish; 1.6% speak Korean; and 1.0% speak Samoan. The keyboard layout used for Hawaiian is QWERTY. The Hawaiian language has about 2,000 native speakers, about 0.15% of the total population.

Age of majority

majoritylegal majorityadult
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Italian language

Romanian /, Spanish ', French, Catalan and Portuguese catorze). Italian settimana "week" < Latin (cf. Romanian săptămână, Spanish and Portuguese semana, French semaine, Catalan setmana). Italian medesimo "same" < Vulgar Latin * (cf. Spanish mismo, Portuguese mesmo, French même, Catalan mateix; note that Italian usually uses the shorter stesso). Italian guadagnare "to win, earn, gain" < Vulgar Latin * < Germanic (cf. Spanish ganar, Portuguese ganhar, French gagner, Catalan guanyar). Little or no lenition of consonants between vowels, e.g. > vita "life" (cf. Romanian viață, Spanish vida, French vie), > piede "foot" (cf. Spanish pie, French pied ).


Birmingham, United KingdomBirmingham, EnglandCity of Birmingham
Independent schools in the city include the Birmingham Blue Coat School, King Edward VI High School for Girls and Edgbaston High School for Girls. Bishop Vesey's Grammar School was founded by Bishop Vesey in 1527. In Birmingham libraries, leisure centres, parks, play areas, transport, street cleaning and waste collection face cuts among other services. Albert Bore, leader of Birmingham City Council called on the government to change radically how local services are funded and provided. It is claimed government cuts to local authorities have hit Birmingham disproportionately.

Master's degree

mastermasters degreeMasters
In France, the master's degree (diplôme de master) takes two years and is worth 120 ECTS credits. The French master's degree is the combination of two individual years : the master 1 (M1) and master 2 (M2), following the Bologna Process. Depending on the goal of the student (a doctorate or a professional career) the master 2 can also be called a "Master Recherche" (research master) and a "Master Professionnel" (professional master), each with different requirements. To obtain a national diploma for the master 2 requires a minimum of one year of study after the master 1.