United Kingdom

BritishUKBritain
The English monarchs, through inheritance of substantial territories in France and claims to the French crown, were also heavily involved in conflicts in France, most notably the Hundred Years War, while the Kings of Scots were in an alliance with the French during this period. Early modern Britain saw religious conflict resulting from the Reformation and the introduction of Protestant state churches in each country. Wales was fully incorporated into the Kingdom of England, and Ireland was constituted as a kingdom in personal union with the English crown.

Marriage

married couplesopposite-sex married couplesmarried
However, this was not the case in the Roman Catholic Church before the 1184 Council of Verona officially recognized it as such. Before then, no specific ritual was prescribed for celebrating a marriage: "Marriage vows did not have to be exchanged in a church, nor was a priest's presence required. A couple could exchange consent anywhere, anytime." The Church only formally recognized the union and it was finalized with the couple together partaking Holy Communion. Decrees on marriage of the Roman Catholic Council of Trent (twenty-fourth session of 1563) made the validity of marriage dependent on the wedding occurring in the presence of a priest and two witnesses.

Netherlands

DutchThe NetherlandsHolland
In 1672 – known in Dutch history as the Rampjaar (Disaster Year) – the Dutch Republic was at war with France, England and three German Bishoprics simultaneously. At sea it could successfully prevent the English and French navy entering the western shores. On land, however, it was almost taken over internally by the advancing French and German armies coming from the east.

Canada

CanadianCANCanadians
A multitude of languages are used by Canadians, with English and French (the official languages) being the mother tongues of approximately 56 percent and 21 percent of Canadians, respectively. As of the 2016 Census, just over 7.3 million Canadians listed a non-official language as their mother tongue. Some of the most common non-official first languages include Chinese (1,227,680 first-language speakers), Punjabi (501,680), Spanish (458,850), Tagalog (431,385), Arabic (419,895), German (384,040), and Italian (375,645).

Italy

ItalianITAItalia
According to the Italian National Institute of Statistics, Romanian is the most common mother tongue among foreign residents in Italy: almost 800,000 people speak Romanian as their first language (21.9% of the foreign residents aged 6 and over). Other prevalent mother tongues are Arabic (spoken by over 475,000 people; 13.1% of foreign residents), Albanian (380,000 people) and Spanish (255,000 people). In 2017, the proportion of Italians who identified themselves as Roman Catholic Christians was 74.4%. Since 1985, it is no longer officially the state religion. The Holy See, the episcopal jurisdiction of Rome, contains the central government of the Roman Catholic Church.

Sexual revolution

sexual liberationsexually liberatedsexual
The Roman Catholic Church's Index Librorum Prohibitorum carried great weight among Catholics and amounted to an effective and instant boycott of any book appearing on it. Boston's Watch and Ward Society, a largely Protestant creation inspired by Anthony Comstock, made "banned in Boston" a national by-word. In 1959 Grove Press published an unexpurgated version of Lady Chatterley's Lover by D. H. Lawrence. The U.S. Post Office confiscated copies sent through the mail. Lawyer Charles Rembar sued the New York City Postmaster, and won in New York and then on federal appeal.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
On 10 June, Italy invaded France, declaring war on both France and the United Kingdom. The Germans turned south against the weakened French army, and Paris fell to them on 14June. Eight days later France signed an armistice with Germany; it was divided into German and Italian occupation zones, and an unoccupied rump state under the Vichy Regime, which, though officially neutral, was generally aligned with Germany. France kept its fleet, which the United Kingdom attacked on 3July in an attempt to prevent its seizure by Germany. The Battle of Britain began in early July with Luftwaffe attacks on shipping and harbours.

Legitimacy (family law)

illegitimatebastardillegitimacy
For example, canon 1137 of the Roman Catholic Church's Code of Canon Law specifically affirms the legitimacy of a child born to a marriage that is declared null following the child's birth. The Catholic Church is also changing its attitude toward unwed mothers and baptism of the children. In criticizing the priests who refused to baptize out-of-wedlock children, Pope Francis argued that the mothers had done the right thing by giving life to the child and should not be shunned by the church: "In our ecclesiastical region there are priests who don't baptise the children of single mothers because they weren't conceived in the sanctity of marriage. These are today's hypocrites.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
According to a 2014 survey, 70.6% of adults in the United States identified themselves as Christians; Protestants accounted for 46.5%, while Roman Catholics, at 20.8%, formed the largest single denomination. In 2014, 5.9% of the U.S. adult population claimed a non-Christian religion. These include Judaism (1.9%), Islam (0.9%), Hinduism (0.7%), and Buddhism (0.7%). The survey also reported that 22.8% of Americans described themselves as agnostic, atheist or simply having no religion—up from 8.2% in 1990.

Parental leave

maternity leavepaternity leavepaid family leave
Parental leave in France (Congé Parental) refers to the system of leave that is guaranteed to both fathers and mothers in cases of either childbirth or adoption. The maternity leave, the number of weeks a biological mother is allowed to leave work is 16 weeks in France—6 weeks before birth and 10 weeks post birth. Maternity leave is mandatory and complete renouncement of the leave is forbidden .The paid parental and home care leave that is available to French mothers is 26 weeks which raises the total leave weeks for women to 42 weeks.

Mother's Day

Mothers DayMothers' DayMother’s Day
In the Roman Catholic Church, the holiday is strongly associated with revering the Virgin Mary. In some Catholic homes, families have a special shrine devoted to the Blessed Virgin Mary. In many Eastern Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches, a special prayer service is held in honor of the Theotokos Virgin Mary. In Islam there is no concept of Mother's Day, but the Quran teaches that children should give priority to loving their mother over their father. In Hindu tradition, Mother's Day is called "Mata Tirtha Aunshi" or "Mother Pilgrimage fortnight", and is celebrated in countries with a Hindu population, especially in Nepal, where mothers are honored with special foods.

South Africa

South AfricanRepublic of South AfricaRSA
French is spoken in South Africa by migrants from Francophone Africa. According to the 2001 census, Christians accounted for 79.8% of the population, with a majority of them being members of various Protestant denominations (broadly defined to include syncretic African initiated churches) and a minority of Roman Catholics and other Christians. Christian category includes Zion Christian (11.1%), Pentecostal (Charismatic) (8.2%), Roman Catholic (7.1%), Methodist (6.8%), Dutch Reformed (Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk; 6.7%), and Anglican (3.8%). Members of remaining Christian churches accounted for another 36% of the population.

Child marriage

child marriageschild brideearly marriage
Similarly, the custom of watta satta has been cited as a cause of child marriages in Pakistan. According to Population Council, 35% of all females in Pakistan become mothers before they reach the age of 18, and 67% have experienced pregnancy – 69% of these have given birth – before they reach the age of 19. Less than 4% of married girls below the age of 19 had some say in choosing her spouse; over 80% were married to a near or distant relative. Child marriage and early motherhood is common in Pakistan. Though the legal age of marriage in Iran is 13 years for girls and 15 for boys, there are cases of girls below the age of 10 being married.

England

🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿EnglishENG
This Celtic Church was gradually joined to the Catholic hierarchy following the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by St Augustine. The established church of England is the Church of England, which left communion with Rome in the 1530s when Henry VIII was unable to annul his divorce to the aunt of the king of Spain. The church regards itself as both Catholic and Protestant. There are High Church and Low Church traditions and some Anglicans regard themselves as Anglo-Catholics, following the Tractarian movement.

Age of majority

majoritylegal majorityadult
Christianity (including Roman Catholic Church): 18 years of age. Age of candidacy. Age of consent. Age of criminal responsibility. Emancipation of minors. Legal drinking age. Marriageable age. Mature minor doctrine. Secular coming-of-age ceremony. Voting age. Youth rights. Youth suffrage. Youth.

List of United States presidential firsts

distinctions achieved during presidenciesfirst
First president born after World War II, and first from the "Baby Boomer" generation. First president to visit Ukraine, Belarus, Latvia, Kuwait, the Czech Republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Denmark, Ghana, Uganda, Rwanda, post-apartheid South Africa, Botswana, Senegal, Slovenia, the Republic of Macedonia, Norway, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Bangladesh, Oman, Tanzania, Brunei, as well as the Palestinian National Authority and reunited Vietnam while in office. First president to send an email. First president to earn a Rhodes Scholarship to attend the University of Oxford. First president whose inauguration was streamed on the internet. First president to win a Grammy Award.

List of people who disappeared mysteriously: post-1970

List of people who disappeareddisappearedLists of people who disappeared
This is a list of people who disappeared mysteriously post-1970 and of people whose current whereabouts are unknown or whose deaths are not substantiated, except for people who disappeared at sea. Since the 1970s, many individuals around the world have disappeared, whose whereabouts and condition have remained unknown. Many who disappear are eventually declared dead in absentia, but the circumstances and dates of their deaths remain a mystery. Some of these people were possibly subjected to forced disappearance, but in some cases information on their subsequent fates is insufficient.

Spain

SpanishESPKingdom of Spain
In the following reigns the Catholic kings of France assumed the role of protectors of the Hispano-Roman Catholics against the Arianism of the Visigoths, and in the wars which ensued Alaric II and Amalaric lost their lives. Athanagild, having risen against King Agila, called in the Byzantines and, in payment for the succour they gave him, ceded to them the maritime places of the southeast (554). Liuvigild restored the political unity of the peninsula, subduing the Suebians, but the religious divisions of the country, reaching even the royal family, brought on a civil war. St.

List of Seventh-day Adventists

Iya Villania -Filipina host, actress and performer, married to Drew Arellano, a Catholic. She was already excommunicated by the church before her marriage. Paul Wei - Chinese evangelist of the True Jesus Church. Richard Wright (1908-1960) - author whose autobiography Black Boy mentions clashes with his Adventist family. Malcolm X (1925-1965) - American Muslim minister and human rights activist, raised Adventist by his mother.

In vitro fertilisation

IVFin vitro fertilizationin-vitro fertilization
Pope Benedict XVI had publicly re-emphasised the Catholic Church's opposition to in vitro fertilisation, saying that it replaces love between a husband and wife. The Catechism of the Catholic Church, in accordance with the Catholic understanding of natural law, teaches that reproduction has an "inseparable connection" to the sexual union of married couples. In addition, the church opposes IVF because it might result in the disposal of embryos; in Catholicism, an embryo is viewed as an individual with a soul that must be treated as a person.

Conscription

conscripteddrafteddraft
Scharnhorst advocated adopting the levée en masse, the military conscription used by France. The Krümpersystem was the beginning of short-term compulsory service in Prussia, as opposed to the long-term conscription previously used. In the Russian Empire, the military service time "owed" by serfs was 25 years at the beginning of the 19th century. In 1834 it was decreased to 20 years. The recruits were to be not younger than 17 and not older than 35. In 1874 Russia introduced universal conscription in the modern pattern, an innovation only made possible by the abolition of serfdom in 1861.

Same-sex marriage

gay marriagemarriage equalitysame sex marriage
Opponents of same-sex marriage who want marriage to be restricted to pairings of a man and a woman, such as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Catholic Church, and the Southern Baptist Convention, use the term traditional marriage to mean opposite-sex marriage.

India

IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
After the 1965 war with Pakistan, India began to pursue close military and economic ties with the Soviet Union; by the late 1960s, the Soviet Union was its largest arms supplier. Aside from ongoing its special relationship with Russia, India has wide-ranging defence relations with Israel and France. In recent years, it has played key roles in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and the World Trade Organization. The nation has provided 100,000 military and police personnel to serve in 35 UN peacekeeping operations across four continents. It participates in the East Asia Summit, the G8+5, and other multilateral forums.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
The resulting stresses almost caused the disintegration of the French kingdom during the early years of the war. In the early 15th century, France again came close to dissolving, but in the late 1420s the military successes of Joan of Arc (d. 1431) led to the victory of the French and the capture of the last English possessions in southern France in 1453. The price was high, as the population of France at the end of the Wars was likely half what it had been at the start of the conflict. Conversely, the Wars had a positive effect on English national identity, doing much to fuse the various local identities into a national English ideal.

Philippines

FilipinoPhilippinePhilippine Islands
Brunei had also conquered the northern third and the southern third of the Philippines but failed to conquer the Visayas islands even though Sultan Bolkiah himself was half-Visayan from his Visayan mother. Sultan Bolkiah is associated with the legend of Nakhoda Ragam the singing captain, a myth about a handsome, virile, strong, musically gifted and angelic voiced prince who is known for his martial exploits.