Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council

permanent membersfive permanent memberspermanent member
There have been two seat changes since then, although not reflected in Article 23 of the United Nations Charter as it has not been accordingly amended: Additionally, France reformed its provisional government into the French Fourth Republic in 1946 and later into the French Fifth Republic in 1958, both under the leadership of Charles de Gaulle. France maintained its seat as there was no change in its international status or recognition, although many of its overseas possessions eventually became independent. The five permanent members of the Security Council were the victorious powers in World War II and have maintained the world's most powerful military forces ever since.

List of countries by number of Internet users

Internet usersNumber of Internet usersBroadband Internet Access (Australia)
Below is a sort-able list of countries by number of Internet users as of 2016. Internet users are defined as persons who accessed the Internet in the last 12 months from any device, including mobile phones. The percentages on the list are the percentages of each country's population that are Internet users. Estimates are derived from either household surveys or from Internet subscription data.

Indo-Pakistani War of 1971

1971 war1971third war
It includes 257 Indians, 88 Americans, 41 Pakistanis, 39 Britons, 9 Russians, 18 Nepalese, 16 French and 18 Japanese. General: * Hayes, Jarrod. "Securitization, social identity, and democratic security: Nixon, India, and the ties that bind." International Organization 66.1 (2012): 63-93. online * Warner, Geoffrey. "Nixon, Kissinger and the breakup of Pakistan, 1971." International Affairs 81.5 (2005): 1097-1118.

War on Terror

Global War on TerrorismGlobal War on Terrorwar on terrorism
November 2015 Paris attacks on the 13th that left at least 137 dead and injured at least 352 civilians caused France to be put under a state of emergency, close its borders and deploy three French contingency plans.

Parliamentary republic

parliamentaryrepublicceremonial presidency
Following the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War, France once again became a republic – the French Third Republic – in 1870. The President of the Third Republic had significantly less executive powers than those of the previous two republics had. The Third Republic lasted until the invasion of France by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following the end of the war, the French Fourth Republic was constituted along similar lines in 1946.

Jinnah International Airport

KarachiKarachi AirportKarachi International Airport
Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan. Shaheen Airport Services. Transport in Pakistan. PIA Township. Official website. Jinnah International Airport at the Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan.

Western Bloc

Western AlliesWestWestern
. 🇫🇷 France. 🇩🇪 Germany (from 1990). West Germany (from 1955). 🇬🇷 Greece (from 1952). 🇮🇸 Iceland. 🇮🇹 Italy. 🇱🇺 Luxembourg. 🇳🇱 Netherlands. 🇳🇴 Norway. 🇵🇹 Portugal. 🇪🇸 Spain (from 1982). 🇹🇷 Turkey (from 1952). 🇬🇧 United Kingdom. 🇺🇸 United States. 🇦🇺 Australia. 🇳🇿 New Zealand. 🇺🇸 United States. 🇦🇺 Australia. 🇫🇷 France (until 1965). 🇳🇿 New Zealand. 🇵🇰 Pakistan (until 1972). 🇵🇭 Philippines. 🇹🇭 Thailand. South Vietnam (until 1975). 🇬🇧 United Kingdom. 🇺🇸 United States. Allies. Axis powers. Eastern Bloc. Free world. First World. Second World. Third World. Operation Condor. Western betrayal. Western world. Matloff, Maurice. Makers of Modern Strategy.


These traditional lions passant guardant appear in the Coat of arms of Dalmatia, coat of arms of England and many of its former colonies; more modern naturalistic (leopard-like) depictions appear on the coat of arms of several African nations including Benin, Malawi, Somalia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Gabon, which uses a black panther. Leopard domestication has also been recorded—several leopards were kept in a menagerie established by King John at the Tower of London in the 13th century; around 1235, three of these animals were given to Henry III by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II.

Köppen climate classification

Islamabad, Pakistan (Cwa). Sialkot, Pakistan (Cwa). New Delhi, India (Cwa). Patna, India (Cwa). Imphal, India (Cwa). Kathmandu, Nepal (Cwa). Haikou, China (Cwa). Zhengzhou, China (Cwa). Chengdu, Sichuan, China (Cwa). Hong Kong (Cwa). Taunggyi, Myanmar (Cwa). Hanoi, Vietnam (Cwa). Guadalajara, Mexico (Cwa). Paris, France (Cfb). Bordeaux, France (Cfb). Dunkirk, France (Cfb). Skagen, Denmark (Cfb, bordering on Dfb). Copenhagen, Denmark (Cfb). Bergen, Hordaland, Norway (Cfb). Berlin, Germany (Cfb). Cologne, Germany (Cfb). Munich, Bavaria, Germany (Cfb, bordering on Dfb). Vienna, Austria (Cfb). Zürich, Switzerland (Cfb, bordering on Dfb). Vaduz, Liechtenstein (Cfb). London, United Kingdom (Cfb).

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

CTBTComprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treatymoratorium
However, the Conference on Disarmament, in which negotiations were being held, did not succeed in reaching consensus on the adoption of the text. Under the direction of Prime Minister John Howard and Foreign Minister Alexander Downer, Australia then sent the text to the United Nations General Assembly in New York, where it was submitted as a draft resolution. On 10 September 1996, the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was adopted by a large majority, exceeding two-thirds of the General Assembly's Membership. (Article I): The Treaty was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996.

List of countries by credit rating

France's AAA credit ratingAAA credit ratingcountry ratings
This is a list of countries by credit rating, showing long-term foreign currency credit ratings for sovereign bonds as reported by the three major credit rating agencies: Standard & Poor's, Fitch, and Moody's. The ratings of DBRS, China Chengxin, Dagong and JCR are also included. The list also includes all country subdivisions issuing sovereign bonds, but it excludes regions, provinces and municipalities issuing sub-sovereign bonds.


commander in chiefSupreme Commandercommanders-in-chief
During World War II, Maréchal Philippe Pétain assumed power and held the supreme authority in Vichy France, while Général Charles De Gaulle, acting on behalf of the previous regime, founded the Free French Forces, upon which he held supreme authority all through the war. The following and short-lived Fourth Republic was a parliamentary system, which was replaced by the present Fifth Republic, a semi-presidential system.

Multi-party system

multi-partymulti-party democracymultiparty
Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Maldives, Mexico, Moldova, Nepal, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia and Ukraine are examples of nations that have used a multi-party system effectively in their democracies. In these countries, usually no single party has a parliamentary majority by itself. Instead, multiple political parties are compelled to form compromised coalitions for the purpose of developing power blocks and attaining legitimate mandate.

Muslim world

Islamic worldMuslim countriesIslamic civilization
The Three Non-Arab Islamic Empires (Iran, Turkey and Pakistan).

Pakistan Armed Forces deployments

Pakistan Armed Forces–Middle East CommandPakistan Armed Forces-Middle East CommandPakistan Armed Forces–Middle East
Pakistan Navy has been a major participant of Combined Task Force 150, based in Bahrain, established to monitor, inspect, board, and stop suspect shipping associated with terrorism in the Horn of Africa. This task force comprising warships of Italy, France, Germany, Pakistan, Canada, the United Kingdom and United States has also been commanded by a Pakistani Admiral. On the announcement of Pakistan taking the command, several other nations have also expressed their interests in participating in Combined Task Force 150 in some way. *United Nations peacekeeping * Ayub, Muhammad (2005). An army, Its Role and Rule: A History of the Pakistan Army from Independence to Kargil, 1947–1999.

Real estate

real-estateluxury real estateland
In North America, this intermediary is referred to as a real estate broker (or realtor), whilst in the United Kingdom, the intermediary would be referred to as an estate agent. In Australia the intermediary is referred to as a real estate agent or real estate representative or the agent. Major categories. Attached / multi-unit dwellings. Apartment (American English) or Flat (British English) – An individual unit in a multi-unit building. The boundaries of the apartment are generally defined by a perimeter of locked or lockable doors. Often seen in multi-story apartment buildings.

Development aid

development cooperationtechnical assistancedevelopment assistance
Gender Mainstreaming has been adopted by nearly all units of the UN with the UN Economic and Social Council adopting a definition which indicated an “ultimate goal… to achieve gender equality.” The UN included promoting gender equality and empowering women as one of eight Millennium Development Goals for developing countries. The EU integrated Women and Development thinking into its aid policy starting with the Lomé Convention in 1984. In 1992 the EU's Latin American and Asian development policy first clearly said that development programs should not have detrimental effects on the position and role of women.


European Organization for Nuclear ResearchEuropean Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)Physics community
The smaller accelerators are on the main Meyrin site (also known as the West Area), which was originally built in Switzerland alongside the French border, but has been extended to span the border since 1965. The French side is under Swiss jurisdiction and there is no obvious border within the site, apart from a line of marker stones. The SPS and LEP/LHC tunnels are almost entirely outside the main site, and are mostly buried under French farmland and invisible from the surface.

Asian black bear

black bearAsiatic black bearAsiatic black bears
Korean National Park Service announced on April 15, 2018 that eight mother bears gave birth to eleven babies. Six mother bears living in the wild gave birth to eight babies. Two mothers that were being taken care by the nature adaptation training center in Gurye, South Jeolla Province gave birth to three babies. Now there are 56 black bears living in the wild of Jirisan. If the Korea National Park Service release three cubs born in natural adaptation training centers at September this year, the number of black bears living in the wild will increase to 59. As a result, the restoration of the target of 50 black bears, or the minimum remaining population, will be achieved two years earlier.