Foreign relations of Pakistan

foreign policyforeignForeign policy of Pakistan
In 2004, Pakistan became a Major non-NATO ally of the United States. Pakistan was a member of the Commonwealth from 1947 to 1956 under the name 'Dominion of Pakistan'. From 1956 to 1972, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan was a Commonwealth republic, when it was withdrawn in protest at the Commonwealth's support of East Pakistan's secession and Bangladesh's independence. In 1989, Pakistan regained its status as a Commonwealth republic, which remains the case, despite Pakistan's suspension from the Commonwealth of Nations between 1999 and 2008. Since 1947, Pakistan's relations have been difficult with neighbour India over the regional issues.

Education Index

educationenrollment in schoolUnited Nations Human Development Index
Education index UN HDR 2008.svg


TadjikistanTajikRepublic of Tajikistan
In recent years Tajikistan has pursued agreements with Iran and Pakistan to gain port access in those countries via Afghanistan. In 2009, an agreement was made between Tajikistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan to improve and build a 1,300 km (810 mi) highway and rail system connecting the three countries to Pakistan's ports. The proposed route would go through the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province in the eastern part of the country. And in 2012, the presidents of Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and Iran signed an agreement to construct roads and railways as well as oil, gas, and water pipelines to connect the three countries. The railroad system totals only 680 km of track, all of it broad gauge.

Working parent

working mothersworking motherworking parents
In Japan, according to data collected by the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare, 70.8% of total employed women are mothers whose children under the age of 18. Benefiting from policies that encourage mothers to work, more companies are adopting child care leave and shorter working time to attract more mothers as workers. However, according to Japan's Gender Equality Bureau, only 3.4% of executives at listed companies in Japan are women, while the percent is 17% in the United States and 30% in France. The battle between working mothers and stay-at-home moms has been named "mommy wars".


In French- (France, Quebec, Belgium, Luxembourg, French-speaking area of Switzerland) and Dutch-speaking countries (Netherlands, Belgium), legal professionals are addressed as Maître ..., abbreviated to M e ... (in French) or Meester ..., abbreviated to mr. ... (in Dutch). The title of doctor has never been used to address lawyers in England or other common law countries (with the exception of the United States). This is because until 1846 lawyers in England were not required to have a university degree and were trained by other attorneys by apprenticeship or in the Inns of Court.

Wild boar

boarSus scrofawild boars
The gestation period varies according to the age of the expecting mother. For first-time breeders, it lasts 114–130 days, while it lasts 133–140 days in older sows. Farrowing occurs between March and May, with litter sizes depending on the age and nutrition of the mother. The average litter consists of 4–6 piglets, with the maximum being 10–12. The piglets are whelped in a nest constructed from twigs, grasses and leaves. Should the mother die prematurely, the piglets are adopted by the other sows in the sounder. Newborn piglets weigh around 600–1,000 grams, lacking underfur and bearing a single milk incisor and canine on each half of the jaw.

Striped hyena

hyenaHyaena hyaenastriped hyaena
The winter coat is unusually long and uniform for an animal its size, with a luxuriant mane of tough, long hairs along the back from the occiput to the base of the tail. The coat is generally coarse and bristly, though this varies according to season. In winter, the coat is fairly dense, soft, and has well-developed underfur. The guard hairs are 50–75 mm long on the flanks, 150–225 mm long on the mane and 150 mm on the tail. In summer, the coat is much shorter and coarser, and lacks underfur, though the mane remains large. In winter, the coat is usually of a dirty-brownish grey or dirty grey colour.

Xinjiang re-education camps

treatment of Uyghursre-education campshuman rights abuses
In 2019, the United Nations ambassadors from 23 nations, including Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States signed a letter condemning China's mass detention of the Uyghurs and other minority groups, urging the Chinese government to close the camps. Conversely, a joint statement was signed by 54 states that voiced approval of China's counter-terrorism program in Xinjiang, including Algeria, the DR Congo, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iran, Pakistan, North Korea, Egypt, Nigeria, the Philippines and Sudan.

Exclusive economic zone

EEZexclusive economic zonesEconomic Exclusion Zone
Due to its numerous overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,691,000 km 2 (4,513,920 mi 2 ). The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth. Greece has claimed an exclusive economic zone, as it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law. According to published maps, the Israel government has recognized the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Greece and Cyprus.

Military history of Pakistan

Pakistanmilitary historyPakistan's military assistance to Sri Lanka
It turned to China, North Korea, Germany, Italy and France for military aid. China in particular gave Pakistan over 900 tanks, Mig-19 fighters and enough equipment for three infantry divisions. France supplied some Mirage aircraft, submarines. The Soviet Union gave Pakistan around 100 T-55 tanks and Mi-8 helicopters but that aid was abruptly stopped under intense Indian pressure. Pakistan in this period was partially able to enhance its military capability. Pakistan had sent numerous military advisers to Jordan and Syria to help in their training and military preparations for any potential war with Israel.

List of Nobel laureates by country

Nobel laureatesNobel Prize laureates1
Campbell, Physiology or Medicine, 2015. 2) John Hume, Peace, 1998. 3) David Trimble, Peace, 1998. 4) Séamus Heaney, Literature, 1995. 5) Mairead Corrigan, Peace, 1976. 6) Betty Williams, Peace, 1976. 7) Seán MacBride, born in France, Peace, 1974. 8) Samuel Beckett, Literature, 1969. 9) Ernest Walton, Physics, 1951. 10) George Bernard Shaw*, Literature, 1925. 11) W. B.

Prime minister

prime ministersPMchief minister
During the whole of the 18th Century, Britain was involved in a prolonged conflict with France, periodically bursting into all-out war, and Britons took outspoken pride in their "Liberty" as contrasted to the "Tyranny" of French Absolute Monarchy; therefore, being implicitly compared with Richelieu was no compliment to Walpole. Over time, however, the title became honorific and remains so in the 21st century. The monarchs of England and the United Kingdom had ministers in whom they placed special trust and who were regarded as the head of the government.

Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council

permanent membersfive permanent memberspermanent members of the Security Council
There have been two seat changes since then, although not reflected in Article 23 of the United Nations Charter as it has not been accordingly amended: Additionally, France reformed its provisional government into the French Fourth Republic in 1946 and later into the French Fifth Republic in 1958, both under the leadership of Charles de Gaulle. France maintained its seat as there was no change in its international status or recognition, although many of its overseas possessions eventually became independent. The five permanent members of the Security Council were the victorious powers in World War II and have maintained the world's most powerful military forces ever since.

Alton, Illinois

AltonAlton, ILUpper Alton, Illinois
Marquette Catholic High School, named after the French explorer, Father Jacques Marquette, serves the area as well. Its sports teams are called the Explorers. Alton was home to Shurtleff College from 1827 to 1957 and prominent military prep school Western Military Academy from 1879 to 1971. The Shurtleff campus is now the site of the Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine. * Eliza Oddy, A Mississippi Diary: From St Paul, Minnesota to Alton, Illinois, October 1894 to May 1895. Edited by Andrew Hook, with an Afterword by Heather Eggins. (The Grimsay Press, 2013). * The Piasa Bird painting, reproduction of original on the face of a cliff north-west of the city. Elijah P.

State religion

Established Churchofficial religionestablished
of the Constitution of Pakistan: "Islam shall be the State religion of Pakistan.".

Islam in France

Muslims in FranceMuslimFrance
The numbers of French Muslims and Muslims in France are exaggerated 12 January 2013. . France's burka bill – background, Radio France Internationale in English.

Western Bloc

Western AlliesWestWestern
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Inter-Services Intelligence

ISIInter Services IntelligenceDirectorate for Inter-Services Intelligence
Wang is accused of conspiring to export and re-export, and exporting and re-exporting specially designed, high-performance epoxy coatings to the Chashma 2 Nuclear Power Plant in Pakistan. Wang and her co-conspirators agreed upon a scheme to export and re-export the high-performance epoxy coatings from the United States to Pakistan's Chashma II plant, via a third-party distributor in People's Republic of China. US officials and Pakistani journalists and scholars say the ISI has a systematic campaign to threaten those who speak critically of the Pakistan military. Critics of the ISI say that it has become a state within a state and not accountable enough.

Couples therapy

relationship counselingmarriage counselingmarital therapy
Licensed couple therapist may refer to a psychiatrist, clinical social workers, counseling psychologists, clinical psychologists, pastoral counsellors, marriage and family therapists, and psychiatric nurses. The duty and function of a relationship counselor or couples therapist is to listen, respect, understand and facilitate better functioning between those involved.


North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationNorth Atlantic Treaty OrganisationNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
French Algeria was however covered until their independence on 3 July 1962. Twelve of these twenty-nine are original members who joined in 1949, while the other seventeen joined in one of seven enlargement rounds. From the mid-1960s to the mid-1990s, France pursued a military strategy of independence from NATO under a policy dubbed "Gaullo-Mitterrandism". Nicolas Sarkozy negotiated the return of France to the integrated military command and the Defence Planning Committee in 2009, the latter being disbanded the following year.

Middle power

middle powersforeign actorsmiddle
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Jinnah International Airport

Karachi AirportKarachiKarachi International Airport
The Jinnah Terminal was completed in 1992 at a cost of US$100 million – at the time the most expensive civil construction project in Pakistan. NESPAK (National Engineering Services Pakistan) and Airconsult (Frankfurt, Germany) were responsible for the architecture and planning of the terminal. Sogea Construction, a French company, was the contractor. Mukhtar Husain and Abdul Malik (NESPAK) were the Chief Engineers for the new terminal. In Karachi, the CIP Lounge can be used by all first and business class passengers on all outbound flights. Barclays, UBL and airblue have also introduced their dedicated lounges in the international terminal of the airport.

Parliamentary republic

parliamentaryrepublicceremonial presidency
Following the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War, France once again became a republic – the French Third Republic – in 1870. The President of the Third Republic had significantly less executive powers than those of the previous two republics had. The Third Republic lasted until the invasion of France by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following the end of the war, the French Fourth Republic was constituted along similar lines in 1946.

Indo-Pakistani War of 1971

Indo-Pakistan War of 19711971 war1971
India successfully led a diplomatic campaign to isolate Pakistan and skilfully manipulate Pakistan's supporting countries to limit the extent of support to Pakistan. In addition, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's state visit to United Kingdom and France further helped break ice with the United States, and blocked any pro-Pakistan resolution in the United Nations. There was also a meeting between Prime Minister Gandhi and President Nixon in November 1971, where she rejected the US advice against intervening in the conflict.

War on terror

War on TerrorismGlobal War on TerrorismGlobal War on Terror
November 2015 Paris attacks on the 13th that left at least 137 dead and injured at least 352 civilians caused France to be put under a state of emergency, close its borders and deploy three French contingency plans.