Cheese

cheesesrindCheese making
Elastic stringiness is a quality that is sometimes enjoyed, in dishes including pizza and Welsh rarebit. Even a melted cheese eventually turns solid again, after enough moisture is cooked off. The saying "you can't melt cheese twice" (meaning "some things can only be done once") refers to the fact that oils leach out during the first melting and are gone, leaving the non-meltable solids behind. As its temperature continues to rise, cheese will brown and eventually burn. Browned, partially burned cheese has a particular distinct flavor of its own and is frequently used in cooking (e.g., sprinkling atop items before baking them).

Italy

ItalianITAItalia
Italy (Italia ), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana ), is a European country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and surrounded by several islands. Italy is located in south-central Europe, and it is also considered a part of western Europe. Italy is grouped in both Southern and Western Europe depending on the context. Academic works describing Italy as a Western European country: The country covers a total area of 301340 km2 and shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino.

Campania

Campania RegionCampanianCampagnia
Pizza was conceived in Naples. Spaghetti is also a well-known dish from southern Italy and Campania. Campania produces wines including Lacryma Christi, Fiano, Aglianico, Greco di Tufo, Pere 'e palomma, Ischitano, Taburno, Solopaca, and Taurasi. The cheeses of Campania consist of Mozzarella di Bufala (buffalo mozzarella) (mozzarella made from buffalo milk), fiordilatte ("flower of milk") a mozzarella made from cow's milk, ricotta from sheep or buffalo milk, provolone from cow milk, and caciotta made from goat milk. Buffalo are bred in Salerno and Caserta. Several different cakes and pies are made in Campania. Pastiera pie is made during Easter.

List of stretch-curd cheeses

List of stretch-cured cheeses
Mozzarella – a traditionally southern Italian dairy product made by the pasta filata method. Mozzarella received a Traditional Speciality Guaranteed certification from the European Union in 1998. This protection scheme requires that mozzarella sold in the European Union is produced according to a traditional recipe. Bocconcini – small mozzarella cheese the size of an egg, it is prepared in the pasta filata manner by dipping curds into hot whey, and kneading, pulling and stretching. Buffalo mozzarella is made from the milk of Mediterranea Italiana buffalo. It is traditionally manufactured in Campania, especially in the provinces of Caserta and Salerno.

Calzone

calzonescalzoni
Fried versions of the calzone are typically filled with tomato and mozzarella: these are made in Apulia and are called panzerotti. The Sicilian cuddiruni or cudduruni pizza is distantly related to the calzone. This is a dish stuffed with onions (or sometimes other vegetables, such as potatoes or broccoli), anchovies, olives, cheese and mortadella; the rolled pizza dough is folded in two over the stuffing and the edges are sealed before the dish is fried. In the United States, calzones are typically made from pizza dough and stuffed with meats, cheeses, and vegetables.

List of cheeses

cheesesRussian cheesecheese types
They are similar in taste and are like a cross between mozzarella and an unsalted feta cheese. ''' * Džiugas The Netherlands is one of the major cheese producing countries of Europe, with a tradition of cheesemaking as shown by the Dutch cheese markets. Switzerland is home to about 450 varieties of cheese. Cows milk is used in about 99 percent of the cheeses produced. The remaining share is made up of sheep milk and goat milk. The British Cheese Board states that there are over 700 named British cheeses produced in the UK.

European Union

EUEuropeanEurope
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of 4,475,757 km2 and an estimated total population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development.

Neapolitan cuisine

NeapolitancuisineNaples
Pizza is the most popular and best known creation of all Neapolitan cuisine. It soon became very popular among the people as well as barons or princes: it was present in the Bourbon court. King Ferdinand I experienced cooking pizza in Capodimonte's porcelain ovens. After Italian unification, the new kings were also attracted by this southern food. The pizzaiolo Raffaele Esposito created in 1889, in honour to queen Margherita of Savoy a nationalistic pizza, where the colours of the Italian flag were represented by the mozzarella (white), tomato (red) and basil (green). Since then this pizza is called the pizza Margherita.

List of Italian dishes

Italian breadItalian dishesItalian-style roll
Insalata caprese – salad of tomatoes, Mozzarella di Bufala (buffalo mozzarella) and basil. Limoncello – Lemon liqueur. Maccheroni alla napoletana – macaroni with Neapolitan sauce; a sauce of braised beef, carrot, celery, onion, garlic, white wine, tomato paste and fresh basil. Melanzane a Scapece – Scapece eggplant; marinated eggplant with red pepper and olive oil. Melanzane al cioccolato – mid-August dessert; eggplants with chocolate and almonds. Mozzarella di Bufala Campana – Particular variety of cheese products made exclusively with milk from buffalo. Mozzarella in carrozza – fried mozzarella with slices of toasted bread and olive oil.

List of Italian cheeses

Italian cheeseCheesecheeses
Scamorza. Scamorza calabra – Calabria. Scamorza di bufala – Campania. Scamorza molisana – Molise. Scheggia. Schiz. Schlander. Scuete frante – Friuli Venezia Giulia. Scuete fumade or Ricotta affumicata – Friuli Venezia Giulia. Scimuda d'alpe – Lombardy. Scimudin – Lombardy. Scimut. Scodellato. Secondo sale. Seras – lower Aosta Valley; cows’ milk cheese known since 1267 and often eaten with polenta. Seré (see Seras). Seirass (see Seras). Seirass del Fen (see Seras) – Piedmont. Seirass del Lausun – Piedmont. Seirass di latte. Seirass di siero di pecora. Seirass stagionato. Semicotto. Semicotto caprino. Semicotto ovino. Semitenero loiano. Semuda. Sigarot. Sigarot cenese. Sigarot miele.

Italian food products

Buffalo mozzarella. Parmigiano-Reggiano. Pecorino Romano. Pecorino d'Abruzzo. Caciocavallo. Mozzarella. Scamorza. Stracchino. Capicola. Cotechino. Guanciale. Mortadella. Pancetta. Prosciutto. Prosciutto di Parma. Prosciutto San Daniele. Ventricina. Liver sausage. Wild pig's sausage. Prosecco. Asti spumante. Lambrusco. Montepulciano d'Abruzzo. Chianti. Verdicchio. Passerina. Piadina. Pizza. Breadstick. Bruschetta. Polenta. Spaghetti. Agnolotti. Tortellini. Orecchiette. Ravioli. Tagliatelle. Macaroni. Lasagne. Gnocchi. Bucatini. Penne. Bresaola. Beefsteak Florentine style. Tuna. Cacciucco. Mantis shrimp. Economy of Italy. Cuisine of Italy. Culture of Italy.

Provolone

provolone cheeseprovolone del Monacoprovola
In Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay, small discs of locally produced pulled-curd provolone of 10 to 15 cm in diameter and 1 to 2 cm in height are sometimes grilled until partially melted and eaten as a starter, often seasoned with herbs. The cheese when served this way is often called provoleta in Spanish. List of cheeses. List of stretch-curd cheeses. Pizza cheese.

Processed cheese

processedprocessed cheese slicesBrânză topită
Another type of processed cheese created in the United States is Provel pasteurized processed pizza cheese, which uses cheddar, Swiss, and provolone cheeses as flavorants. Provel cheese is commonly used in St. Louis-style pizza. A third variety of processed pizza cheeses are mozzarella-like imitation processed cheeses, which are sometimes used in frozen pizzas. Owing to its highly mechanized (i.e., assembly line) methods of production, and additive ingredients (e.g., oils, salts, or colors), some softer varieties of processed cheese cannot legally be labeled as actual "cheese" in many countries, even those in which slightly harder varieties can be.

List of water buffalo cheeses

Bocconcini – a small mozzarella cheese the size of an egg, like other mozzarellas, it is semi-soft, white and rindless unripened mild cheese which originated in Naples, Italy and was once made only from milk of water buffalo. Nowadays they are usually made from a combination of water buffalo and cow's milk. Buffalo mozzarella – a mozzarella made from the milk of Mediterranea Italiana buffalo. It is a dairy product traditionally manufactured in Campania, Italy, especially in the provinces of Caserta and Salerno. Burrata – a fresh Italian buffalo milk cheese prepared using the pasta filata method.

St. Louis-style pizza

local pizzasSt. Louis
Louis pizzerias—was a tile layer and cut his pizza accordingly. St. Louis-style pizza often includes a white processed cheese known as Provel. Provel is a trademark for three cheeses fused to form one (provolone, Swiss, and white Cheddar), used instead of (or, rarely, in addition to) the mozzarella or provolone common to other styles of pizza. Provel cheese was developed by the St. Louis firm Costa Grocery in the 1950s and is made in Wisconsin primarily for the St. Louis market. The cheese is not widely available outside the St. Louis area but can be made by combining Swiss, sharp cheddar and smoked provolone cheeses. The sauce is often seasoned with more oregano than other pizza types.

Cheese analogue

Soy cheesecheese substitutespizza topping
They may be formulated for processing with basic cheese-making equipment, but without the additional equipment and processing that mozzarella cheese requires, such as the processes of mixing and molding. They tend to have a soft texture and once melted, may have a slightly "stringy" quality when pulled or bitten into. They may lack in a fusion, or melt together when cooked. It has been stated that pizza cheese appears to be the leading type of cheese analogue produced globally. In 1987 it was asserted that—at that time—each year in the United States over 700 million frozen pizzas were sold, three quarters of which contain cheese substitutes. American. Blue. Cheddar. Cheshire. Cream cheese.

Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union

Protected Designation of OriginProtected Geographical IndicationPDO
Other products are protected in Europe but not elsewhere: Buffalo Mozzarella for instance is protected in Europe, but the name is used without restrictions by US dairy companies. The geographical limitations are strict: Newcastle Brown Ale was restricted to being brewed in the city of Newcastle upon Tyne in England. However, having obtained this protection for their product, the brewery decided in 2004 that it would move across the river Tyne to Gateshead. As Gateshead is a separate town—albeit only the width of the river apart—it does not fall within the required geographical restriction.

Naples

Naples, ItalyNapoliNeapolitan
Naples is traditionally credited as the home of pizza. This originated as a meal of the poor, but under Ferdinand IV it became popular among the upper classes: famously, the Margherita pizza was named after Queen Margherita of Savoy after her visit to the city. Cooked traditionally in a wood-burning oven, the ingredients of Neapolitan pizza have been strictly regulated by law since 2004, and must include wheat flour type "00" with the addition of flour type "0" yeast, natural mineral water, peeled tomatoes or fresh cherry tomatoes, mozzarella cheese, sea salt and extra virgin olive oil.

Ricotta

ricotta cheesericotta salatagjizë
Ricotta di Bufala Campana is made from the whey left over after the production of Mozzarella di Bufala Campana, a protected variety of buffalo mozzarella. Ricotta Romana is made from the whey of sheep milk. Fresh ricotta can be subject to extra processing to produce variants which have a much longer shelf life. These production methods include salting, baking, smoking, and further fermentation. Ricotta salata is a pressed, salted, dried, and aged variety of the cheese. It is milky-white and firm and used for grating or shaving. Ricotta salata is sold in wheels, decorated by a delicate basket-weave pattern.

Italian Mediterranean buffalo

Italian buffalobuffaloItalian water buffalo
The Mediterranea Italiana is now raised and selectively bred principally for the production of the buffalo milk used to make buffalo mozzarella, notably the Mozzarella di Bufala Campana of Campania, which has [[Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union#Protected designation of origin (PDO)|Denominazione di origine protetta]] (DOP) status. Other dairy products including burrata, caciotta di bufala, ricotta di bufala, scamorza di bufala, stracchino di bufala, stracciatella di bufala and yoghurt are also made from the milk. Lactation lasts on average 277 days, and usually yields of milk; yields of per lactation are not uncommon.

Southern Italy

MezzogiornoSouthern ItalianSouthern
Southern Italy (Sud Italia; 'o Sudde; Italia dû Sud) or Mezzogiorno (, literally "Midday" or "Noon"; in 'o Miezojuorno; in Mezzujornu) is a macroregion of Italy meant to broadly denote the southern half of the Italian state.

Lazio

LatiumLazio RegionRegion of Lazio
Lazio (, ; Latium) is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy. Situated in the central peninsular section of the country, it has almost 5.9 million inhabitants – making it the second most populated region of Italy (after Lombardy and just a little ahead of Campania) – and its GDP of more than 170 billion euros per annum means that it has the nation's second largest regional economy. The capital of Lazio is Rome, which is also Italy's capital and the country's largest city.

Neapolitan pizza

Neapolitanpizza napoletanapizza
Neapolitan pizza (Italian: pizza napoletana) also known as Naples style pizza, is a style of pizza made with tomatoes and mozzarella cheese. It must be made with either San Marzano tomatoes or Pomodorino del Piennolo del Vesuvio, which grow on the volcanic plains to the south of Mount Vesuvius, and Mozzarella di Bufala Campana, a protected designation of origin cheese made with the milk from water buffalo raised in the marshlands of Campania and Lazio in a semi-wild state and “Fior di Latte di Agerola”, a cow milk mozzarella made exclusively in the Agerola comune.

Apulia

PugliaApulianheel of Italy
Apulia (Puglia ; Pùglia ; Pulia; ) is a region of Italy, located in the southern peninsular section of the country, bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Otranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south. The region comprises 19345 sqkm, and its population is about four million.

Sicily

SicilianSiciliaSicilians
Sicily (Sicilia ; Sicilia ) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 20 regions of Italy. It is one of the five Italian autonomous regions, in Southern Italy along with surrounding minor islands, officially referred to as Regione Siciliana.