vowelsvowel heightV
Nasalization refers to whether some of the air escapes through the nose. In nasal vowels, the velum is lowered, and some air travels through the nasal cavity as well as the mouth. An oral vowel is a vowel in which all air escapes through the mouth. French, Polish and Portuguese contrast nasal and oral vowels. Voicing describes whether the vocal cords are vibrating during the articulation of a vowel. Most languages have only voiced vowels, but several Native American languages, such as Cheyenne and Totonac, contrast voiced and devoiced vowels. Vowels are devoiced in whispered speech. In Japanese and in Quebec French, vowels that are between voiceless consonants are often devoiced.

Spanish language

Where Latin had -li- before a vowel (e.g. filius) or the ending -iculus, -icula (e.g. auricula), Old Spanish produced, that in Modern Spanish became the velar fricative (hijo, oreja, where neighboring languages have the palatal lateral (e.g. Portuguese filho, orelha; Catalan fill, orella). The Spanish phonemic inventory consists of five vowel phonemes and 17 to 19 consonant phonemes (the exact number depending on the dialect ). The main allophonic variation among vowels is the reduction of the high vowels and to glides— and respectively—when unstressed and adjacent to another vowel.

Guarani language

GuaraníGuaraniParaguayan Guaraní
The tilde is used with many letters that are considered part of the alphabet. In the case of Ñ/ñ, it differentiates the palatal nasal from the alveolar nasal (as in Spanish), whereas it marks stressed nasalisation when used over a vowel (as in Portuguese): ã, ẽ, ĩ, õ, ũ, ỹ. (Nasal vowels have been written with several other diacritics: ä, ā, â, ã.) The tilde also marks nasality in the case of G̃/g̃, used to represent the nasalized velar approximant by combining the velar approximant "G" with the nasalising tilde. The letter G̃/g̃, which is unique to this language, was introduced into the orthography relatively recently during the mid-20th century and there is disagreement over its use.


Lat.Latin languagelat
Old Latin had more diphthongs, but most of them changed into long vowels in Classical Latin. The Old Latin diphthong and the sequence became Classical. Old Latin and changed to Classical, except in a few words whose became Classical. These two developments sometimes occurred in different words from the same root: for instance, Classical poena "punishment" and pūnīre "to punish". Early Old Latin usually changed to Classical. In Vulgar Latin and the Romance languages, merged with. A similar pronunciation also existed during the Classical Latin period for less-educated speakers.

Index of phonetics articles

list of phonetics topics
Retroflex flap. Retroflex nasal. Retroflex lateral approximant. Retroflex lateral flap. Retroflex trill. Rhotic consonant. Rounded vowel. Sandhi. SAMPA. Semivowel. Sibilant consonant. Sj-sound. Slack voice. Sociophonetics. Sonorant. Source–filter model of speech production. Spectrogram. Speech organ. Speech perception. Stress accent. Stress (linguistics). Stricture. Syllable. Syncope. Table of vowels. Tap or flap consonant. Teeth. Tenseness. Tonal language. Tone sandhi. Tongue. Trill consonant. Triphthong. Unrounded vowel. Uvula. Uvular consonant. Uvular ejective. Uvular ejective affricate. Uvular ejective fricative. Uvular flap. Uvular nasal. Uvular trill. Velar approximant.

Stop consonant

Simple nasals are differentiated from stops only by a lowered velum that allows the air to escape through the nose during the occlusion. Nasals are acoustically sonorants, as they have a non-turbulent airflow and are nearly always voiced, but they are articulatorily obstruents, as there is complete blockage of the oral cavity. The term occlusive may be used as a cover term for both nasals and stops. A prenasalized stop starts out with a lowered velum that raises during the occlusion. The closest examples in English are consonant clusters such as the [nd] in candy, but many languages have prenasalized stops that function phonologically as single consonants.

Irish phonology

In Old Irish, the sonorants (those spelled ) were divided not only into broad and slender types, but also into fortis and lenis types. The precise phonetic definition of these terms is somewhat vague, but the coronal fortis sounds (those spelled ) were probably longer in duration and may have had a larger area of contact between the tongue and the roof of the mouth than the lenis sounds. Fortis m was probably a normal, while lenis m was a nasalized semivowel, perhaps tending towards a nasalized fricative or when palatalized.

Varieties of Chinese

ChineseSiniticChinese varieties
The voiced initials of Middle Chinese are retained in Wu dialects such as Suzhou and Shanghai, as well as Old Xiang dialects, but have merged with voiceless initials elsewhere. The Middle Chinese retroflex initials are retained in many Mandarin dialects, including Beijing but not southwestern and southeastern Mandarin varieties. In many northern and central varieties there is palatalization of dental affricates, velars (as in Suzhou), or both. In some places, including Beijing, palatalized dental affricates and velars have merged to form a new palatal series. Languages of China. List of varieties of Chinese. Linguistic Atlas of Chinese Dialects. Comparison of Cantonese and Standard Chinese.

Japanese language

For example, in the Japanese language up to and including the first half of the 20th century, the phonemic sequence was palatalized and realized phonetically as, approximately chi ; however, now and are distinct, as evidenced by words like tī "Western style tea" and chii "social status". The "r" of the Japanese language is of particular interest, ranging between an apical central tap and a lateral approximant. The "g" is also notable; unless it starts a sentence, it may be pronounced, in the Kanto prestige dialect and in other eastern dialects.

Portuguese phonology

PortuguesePortuguese dialectsepenthetic
All vowels are raised and advanced before alveolar, palato-alveolar and palatal consonants. Word-finally, as well as unstressed and are voiceless. romã ('pomegranade') : : final vowel is (phonemically) "nasal" and nasal approximants may not be pronounced. genro ('son-in-law') : or or : nasal consonant deleted; preceding vowel is (phonemically) "nasal" and nasal approximants may be pronounced. cem ('a hundred') : : nasal approximant must be pronounced. cantar ('to sing') : or possibly : nasal consonant remains because of the following plosive; preceding vowel is raised and nasalized non-phonemically.

Penang Hokkien

Taiwanese Hokkien. Singlish. Southern Malaysia Hokkien. Singaporean Hokkien. Medan Hokkien. Lan-nang (Philippine variant of Min Nan). Place and street names of Penang. Written Hokkien. Speak Hokkien Campaign. Penang Hokkien Podcast.

Standard Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin Chinese
In Taiwan, the relationship between Standard Chinese and other varieties, particularly Taiwanese Hokkien, has been more politically heated. During the martial law period under the Kuomintang (KMT) between 1949 and 1987, the KMT government revived the Mandarin Promotion Council and discouraged or, in some cases, forbade the use of Hokkien and other non-standard varieties. This produced a political backlash in the 1990s. Under the administration of Chen Shui-Bian, other Taiwanese varieties were taught in schools. The former President, Chen Shui-Bian, often spoke in Hokkien during speeches, while after the late 1990s, former President Lee Teng-hui, also speaks Hokkien openly.

Tupi language

TupiOld TupiTupinambá
Vowels. i, y, u, ĩ, ỹ, ũ. e, o, õ, ẽ. a, ã. The tilde indicating nasalisation: a → ã. The circumflex accent indicating a semivowel: i → î. The acute accent indicating the stressed syllable: abá. The use of the letter x for the voiceless palatal fricative, a spelling convention common in the languages of the Iberian Peninsula but unusual elsewhere. The use of the digraphs yg (for Ŷ), gu (for ), ss (to make intervocalic S unvoiced), and of j to represent the semivowel.

Chinese language

ChineseRegional dialectChinese:
Old Chinese was the language of the Western Zhou period (1046–771 BCE), recorded in inscriptions on bronze artifacts, the Classic of Poetry and portions of the Book of Documents and I Ching. Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese by comparing later varieties of Chinese with the rhyming practice of the Classic of Poetry and the phonetic elements found in the majority of Chinese characters. Although many of the finer details remain unclear, most scholars agree that Old Chinese differs from Middle Chinese in lacking retroflex and palatal obstruents but having initial consonant clusters of some sort, and in having voiceless nasals and liquids.

Philippine Hokkien

HokkienPhilippinesHokkien Chinese
Taiwanese Romanization System. Holopedia. Speak Hokkien Campaign.

Breton language

BretonOld BretonBreton-language
All vowels can also be nasalized, which is noted by appending an 'n' letter after the base vowel, or by adding a combining tilde above the vowel (most commonly and easily done for a and o due to the Portuguese letters), or more commonly by non-ambiguously appending an letter after the base vowel (this depends on the orthographic variant). Diphthongs are.

Manner of articulation

articulationmanners of articulationspeech
Nasal airflow may be added as an independent parameter to any speech sound. It is most commonly found in nasal occlusives and nasal vowels, but nasalized fricatives, taps, and approximants are also found. When a sound is not nasal, it is called oral. Laterality is the release of airflow at the side of the tongue. This can be combined with other manners, resulting in lateral approximants (such as the pronunciation of the letter L in the English word "let"), lateral flaps, and lateral fricatives and affricates. These are by far the most common fricatives. Fricatives at coronal (front of tongue) places of articulation are usually, though not always, sibilants.

Taiwanese Romanization System

Tâi-lôTaiwanese RomanizationTaiwanese
-nn forms the nasal vowels. There is also syllabic m and ng. ing pronounced [ɪəŋ], ik pronounced [ɪək̚].

Polish language

Some additional characteristic but less widespread regional dialects include: Polish has six oral vowels (all monophthongs) and two nasal vowels. The oral vowels are (spelled i), (spelled y), (spelled e), (spelled a), (spelled o) and (spelled u or ó). The nasal vowels are (spelled ę) and (spelled ą). The Polish consonant system shows more complexity: its characteristic features include the series of affricate and palatal consonants that resulted from four Proto-Slavic palatalizations and two further palatalizations that took place in Polish and Belarusian.


diacriticsdiacritical markdiacritical marks
Portuguese uses the circumflex and the acute accent to indicate stress and vowel height whenever it is in an unpredictable location within the word. They can also function as a way to distinguish a few homographs. The former is used over the stressed high vowels â /ɐ/, ê /e/, and ô /o/ in contrast with the latter, which is used over stressed low vowels á /a/, é /ɛ/, and ó /ɔ/ and in í /i/ and ú /u/. The tilde is used to indicate nasalization, such as in ã /ɐ̃/ and õ /õ/. The grave accent is used to indicate crasis, when two identical vowels are merged into one, thus affecting neither vowel quality nor stress, it is only used over a .

Fricative consonant

Fricativefricativesvoiceless fricative
Phonemically nasalized fricatives are rare. Some South Arabian languages have, Umbundu has, and Kwangali and Souletin Basque have. In Coatzospan Mixtec, appear allophonically before a nasal vowel, and in Igbo nasality is a feature of the syllable; when occur in nasal syllables they are themselves nasalized. H is not a fricative in English (see ). Until its extinction, Ubykh may have been the language with the most fricatives (29 not including ), some of which did not have dedicated symbols or diacritics in the IPA. This number actually outstrips the number of all consonants in English (which has 24 consonants).

Nasal palatal approximant

nasalized palatal approximantJ̃ j̇̃J̃ j̃ j̇̃
The nasal palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some oral languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is, that is, a j with a tilde. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is, and in the Americanist phonetic notation it is. The nasal palatal approximant is sometimes called a nasal yod; and may be called nasal glides. Features of the nasal palatal approximant:, written ny, is a common realization of before nasal vowels in many languages of West Africa that do not have a phonemic distinction between voiced nasal and oral stops, such as Ewe and Bini. Palatal nasal. Nasal labio-velar approximant.

Romance languages

RomanceRomance languageRomanic
Nasality: Portuguese marks nasal vowels with a tilde when they occur before other written vowels and in some other instances. Palatalization: some historical palatalizations are indicated with the cedilla in French, Catalan, Occitan and Portuguese. In Spanish and several other world languages influenced by it, the grapheme ñ represents a palatal nasal consonant. Separate pronunciation: when a vowel and another letter that would normally be combined into a digraph with a single sound are exceptionally pronounced apart, this is often indicated with a diaeresis mark on the vowel.

Sardinian language

Sardiniansrdindigenous language
Metaphony occurs with and, which in particular tend to be open-mid and when they are stressed and the following syllable does not contain or or a palatal. There are also nasal vowels,,,, in some varieties, and even nasal diphthongs when an intervocalic n is deleted like in beni. According to Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Sardinian has the following phonemes: There are three series of plosives or corresponding approximants: In Cagliari and neighboring dialects, the soft has become due to rhotacism: digitus > didu/diru "finger".

Hindustani grammar

see belowHindustani
colspan="2" | Post-alv./ Palatal ! colspan="2" | Velar ! Uvular ! colspan="2" | Glottal |- align=center ! Plosive ! Affricate | colspan="2" | ! Nasal | colspan="2" | m ! Fricative | (x) ! Tap or Flap | colspan="2" | ! Approximant ! Lateral approximant | colspan="2" | Hindustani distinguishes two genders (masculine and feminine), two noun types (count and non-count), two numbers (singular and plural), and three cases (direct, oblique, and vocative). Nouns may be further divided into two classes based on declension, called type-I (marked) and type-II (unmarked).