vowelsvowel heightV
Nasalization refers to whether some of the air escapes through the nose. In nasal vowels, the velum is lowered, and some air travels through the nasal cavity as well as the mouth. An oral vowel is a vowel in which all air escapes through the mouth. French, Polish and Portuguese contrast nasal and oral vowels. Voicing describes whether the vocal cords are vibrating during the articulation of a vowel. Most languages have only voiced vowels, but several Native American languages, such as Cheyenne and Totonac, contrast voiced and devoiced vowels. Vowels are devoiced in whispered speech. In Japanese and in Quebec French, vowels that are between voiceless consonants are often devoiced.


Lat.Latin languagelat
Old Latin had more diphthongs, but most of them changed into long vowels in Classical Latin. The Old Latin diphthong and the sequence became Classical. Old Latin and changed to Classical, except in a few words whose became Classical. These two developments sometimes occurred in different words from the same root: for instance, Classical poena "punishment" and pūnīre "to punish". Early Old Latin usually changed to Classical. In Vulgar Latin and the Romance languages, merged with. A similar pronunciation also existed during the Classical Latin period for less-educated speakers.

English language

English: cheese, church; West Frisian: tsiis, tsjerke; ("ch" and "ts" from palatalization). Low German: Keese, Kark; Dutch: kaas, kerk; German: Käse, Kirche ("k" without palatalization). Foxas habbað holu and heofonan fuglas nest. Fox-as habb-að hol-u and heofon-an fugl-as nest-∅. fox- have- hole- and heaven- bird- nest-. "Foxes have holes and the birds of heaven nests". lenis stops: bin, about, nib. fortis stops: pin ; spin ; happy ; nip or. clear l: RP light. dark l: RP and GA full, GA light. voiceless sonorants: clay ; snow RP, GA. syllabic sonorants: paddle, button. Singular: cat, dog. Plural: cats, dogs. Singular: man, woman, foot, fish, ox, knife, mouse.

Spanish language

Where Latin had -li- before a vowel (e.g. filius) or the ending -iculus, -icula (e.g. auricula), Old Spanish produced, that in Modern Spanish became the velar fricative (hijo, oreja, where neighboring languages have the palatal lateral (e.g. Portuguese filho, orelha; Catalan fill, orella). The Spanish phonemic inventory consists of five vowel phonemes and 17 to 19 consonant phonemes (the exact number depending on the dialect ). The main allophonic variation among vowels is the reduction of the high vowels and to glides— and respectively—when unstressed and adjacent to another vowel.

Guarani language

GuaraníGuaraniParaguayan Guaraní
The tilde is used with many letters that are considered part of the alphabet. In the case of Ñ/ñ, it differentiates the palatal nasal from the alveolar nasal (as in Spanish), whereas it marks stressed nasalisation when used over a vowel (as in Portuguese): ã, ẽ, ĩ, õ, ũ, ỹ. (Nasal vowels have been written with several other diacritics: ä, ā, â, ã.) The tilde also marks nasality in the case of G̃/g̃, used to represent the nasalized velar approximant by combining the velar approximant "G" with the nasalising tilde. The letter G̃/g̃, which is unique to this language, was introduced into the orthography relatively recently during the mid-20th century and there is disagreement over its use.

Malay language

MalayBahasa MelayuMalaysian
The language spoken by the Peranakan (Straits Chinese, a hybrid of Chinese settlers from the Ming Dynasty and local Malays) is a unique patois of Malay and the Hokkien Chinese, which is mostly spoken in the former Straits Settlements of Penang and Malacca in Malaysia, and the Indonesian Archipelago. --> The history of the Malay language can be divided into five periods: Old Malay, the Transitional Period, the Malacca Period (Classical Malay), Late Modern Malay and modern Malay. It is not clear that Old Malay was actually the ancestor of Classical Malay, but this is thought to be quite possible.

Approximant consonant

Iaai has an unusually large number of them, with contrasting with (as well as a large number of voiceless nasals). Attested voiceless approximants are: (Not to be confused with 'nasal continuant', which is a synonym for nasal consonant) Examples are: In Portuguese, the nasal glides and historically became and in some words. In the Edo, the nasalized allophones of the approximants and are nasal occlusives, and. What are transcribed as nasal approximants may include non-syllabic elements of nasal vowels or diphthongs. Because of the articulatory complexities of the American English rhotic, there is some variation in its phonetic description.

French language

Old French doit > French doigt "finger" (Latin digitus). Old French pie > French pied "foot" [Latin pes (stem: ped-)]. Nasal: n and m. When n or m follows a vowel or diphthong, the n or m becomes silent and causes the preceding vowel to become nasalized (i.e., pronounced with the soft palate extended downward so as to allow part of the air to leave through the nostrils). Exceptions are when the n or m is doubled, or immediately followed by a vowel. The prefixes en- and em- are always nasalized. The rules are more complex than this but may vary between dialects.


diacriticsdiacritical markdiacritical marks
The acute and the grave indicate stress and vowel height, the cedilla marks the result of a historical palatalization, the diaeresis indicates either a hiatus, or that the letter u is pronounced when the graphemes gü, qü are followed by e or i, and the interpunct distinguishes the different values of nh/n·h and sh/s·h (i.e., that the letters are supposed to be pronounced separately, not combined into "ny" and "sh"). Portuguese has the following composite characters: à, á, â, ã, ç, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú.

Taiwanese Hokkien

The vowels may be either plain or nasal: is non-nasal, and is the same vowel with concurrent nasal articulation. This is similar to French, Portuguese, Polish, and many other languages. There are two pronunciations of vowel. In the south (e.g., Tainan and Kaohsiung) it is ; in the north (e.g., Taipei) it is. Due to development of transportation and communication, both pronunciations are common and acceptable throughout the country. In the traditional analysis, there are eight “tones”, numbered from 1 to 8. Strictly speaking, there are only five tonal contours. But as in other Chinese varieties, the two kinds of stopped syllables are considered also to be tones and assigned numbers 4 and 8.


A somewhat different example is found in English, with the three nasal phonemes. In word-final position these all contrast, as shown by the minimal triplet sum, sun, sung . However, before a stop such as (provided there is no morpheme boundary between them), only one of the nasals is possible in any given position: before, before or, and before, as in limp, lint, link. The nasals are therefore not contrastive in these environments, and according to some theorists this makes it inappropriate to assign the nasal phones heard here to any one of the phonemes (even though, in this case, the phonetic evidence is unambiguous).

Velar consonant

Normal velar consonants are dorso-velar: The dorsum (body) of the tongue rises to contact the velum (soft palate) of the roof of the mouth. In disordered speech there are also velo-dorsal stops, with the opposite articulation: The velum lowers to contact the tongue, which remains static. In the extensions to the IPA for disordered speech, these are transcribed by reversing the IPA letter for a velar consonant, e.g. ⟨ ⟩ for a voiceless velodorsal stop. Velarization. Place of articulation. List of phonetics topics.

Japanese language

Ikeda, he is forty-two years old." Others in the group may also be of that age. Absence of wa often means the subject is the focus of the sentence. : Ikeda-san ga yonjū-ni sai da. "It is Mr. Ikeda who is forty-two years old." This is a reply to an implicit or explicit question, such as "who in this group is forty-two years old?" Japanese has an extensive grammatical system to express politeness and formality. This reflects the hierarchical nature of Japanese society. The Japanese language can express differing levels in social status.

German language

(The old man gave me yesterday the book; normal order). Das Buch gab mir gestern der alte Mann. (The book gave [to] me yesterday the old man). Das Buch gab der alte Mann mir gestern. (The book gave the old man [to] me yesterday). Das Buch gab mir der alte Mann gestern. (The book gave [to] me the old man yesterday). Gestern gab mir der alte Mann das Buch. (Yesterday gave [to] me the old man the book, normal order). Mir gab der alte Mann das Buch gestern. ([To] me gave the old man the book yesterday (entailing: as for you, it was another date)). Der Direktor betrat gestern um 10 Uhr mit einem Schirm in der Hand sein Büro.

Stop consonant

Simple nasals are differentiated from stops only by a lowered velum that allows the air to escape through the nose during the occlusion. Nasals are acoustically sonorants, as they have a non-turbulent airflow and are nearly always voiced, but they are articulatorily obstruents, as there is complete blockage of the oral cavity. The term occlusive may be used as a cover term for both nasals and stops. A prenasalized stop starts out with a lowered velum that raises during the occlusion. The closest examples in English are consonant clusters such as the [nd] in candy, but many languages have prenasalized stops that function phonologically as single consonants.


There was an active push by the colonisers to increase the Portuguese presence: villages were eradicated along the Amazon, and there was an effort to replace Língua Geral Amazônica with Portuguese. There were different varieties of Tupinambá within the different communities along the Amazon, but these varieties were large replaced by Portuguese at the beginning of the 19th century. 1822 marked Brazil’s independence; after which there was a large revolt, called the Cabanagem, against the Europeans. This involved Indians, caboclos and blacks, over a decade, and much blood was shed. 40,000 lives were lost; all of which were from the Nheengatu-speaking community.

Breton language

BretonOld BretonBreton-language
All vowels can also be nasalized, which is noted by appending an 'n' letter after the base vowel, or by adding a combining tilde above the vowel (most commonly and easily done for a and o due to the Portuguese letters), or more commonly by non-ambiguously appending an letter after the base vowel (this depends on the orthographic variant). Diphthongs are.

Chinese language

ChineseRegional dialectChinese:
Old Chinese was the language of the Western Zhou period (1046–771 BCE), recorded in inscriptions on bronze artifacts, the Classic of Poetry and portions of the Book of Documents and I Ching. Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese by comparing later varieties of Chinese with the rhyming practice of the Classic of Poetry and the phonetic elements found in the majority of Chinese characters. Although many of the finer details remain unclear, most scholars agree that Old Chinese differs from Middle Chinese in lacking retroflex and palatal obstruents but having initial consonant clusters of some sort, and in having voiceless nasals and liquids.


Portuguese dialect and allophonic variance. Turkish. Kurdish. Danish realizes /d/ in some environments as a velarized [ð]. Irish has velarized consonants that systematically contrast with palatalized consonants. Russian has velarized consonants as allophones before. Scottish Gaelic has a three-way contrast in nasals and laterals between and. Kurdish has three velarized consonants (, and ) which contrast with plain ones.

Romance languages

RomanceRomance languageRomance philologist
Nasality: Portuguese marks nasal vowels with a tilde when they occur before other written vowels and in some other instances. Palatalization: some historical palatalizations are indicated with the cedilla in French, Catalan, Occitan and Portuguese. In Spanish and several other world languages influenced by it, the grapheme ñ represents a palatal nasal consonant. Separate pronunciation: when a vowel and another letter that would normally be combined into a digraph with a single sound are exceptionally pronounced apart, this is often indicated with a diaeresis mark on the vowel.

Nasal palatal approximant

J̃ j̃ j̇̃J̃ j̇̃nasalized palatal approximant
The nasal palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some oral languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is, that is, a j with a tilde. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is, and in the Americanist phonetic notation it is. The nasal palatal approximant is sometimes called a nasal yod; and may be called nasal glides. Features of the nasal palatal approximant:, written ny, is a common realization of before nasal vowels in many languages of West Africa that do not have a phonemic distinction between voiced nasal and oral stops, such as Ewe and Bini. Palatal nasal. Nasal labio-velar approximant.

Fricative consonant

Fricativefricativesvoiceless fricative
Phonemically nasalized fricatives are rare. Some South Arabian languages have, Umbundu has, and Kwangali and Souletin Basque have. In Coatzospan Mixtec, appear allophonically before a nasal vowel, and in Igbo nasality is a feature of the syllable; when occur in nasal syllables they are themselves nasalized. H is not a fricative in English (see ). Until its extinction, Ubykh may have been the language with the most fricatives (29 not including ), some of which did not have dedicated symbols or diacritics in the IPA. This number actually outstrips the number of all consonants in English (which has 24 consonants).