Chinese language

ChineseChinese:Regional dialect
Old Chinese was the language of the Western Zhou period (1046–771 BCE), recorded in inscriptions on bronze artifacts, the Classic of Poetry and portions of the Book of Documents and I Ching. Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese by comparing later varieties of Chinese with the rhyming practice of the Classic of Poetry and the phonetic elements found in the majority of Chinese characters. Although many of the finer details remain unclear, most scholars agree that Old Chinese differs from Middle Chinese in lacking retroflex and palatal obstruents but having initial consonant clusters of some sort, and in having voiceless nasals and liquids.

Korean language

Some linguists concerned with the issue, including Vovin, have argued that the indicated similarities between Japanese and Korean are not due to any genetic relationship, but rather to a sprachbund effect and heavy borrowing, especially from ancient Korean into Western Old Japanese. A good example might be Middle Korean sàm and Japanese asá, meaning "hemp". This word seems to be a cognate, but although it is well attested in Western Old Japanese and Northern Ryukyuan languages, in Eastern Old Japanese it only occurs in compounds, and it is only present in three dialects of the Southern Ryukyuan language group.


Portuguese dialect and allophonic variance. Turkish. Kurdish. Danish realizes in some environments as a velarized. Irish has velarized consonants that systematically contrast with palatalized consonants. Russian has velarized consonants as allophones before. Scottish Gaelic has a three-way contrast in nasals and laterals between and. Kurdish has three velarized consonants (, and ) which contrast with plain ones.

Alveolar consonant

A few languages on Bougainville Island and around Puget Sound, such as Makah, lack nasals and therefore, but have. Colloquial Samoan, however, lacks both and, but it has a lateral alveolar approximant. (Samoan words written with t and n are pronounced with and in colloquial speech.) In Standard Hawaiian, is an allophone of, but and exist. In labioalveolars, the lower lip contacts the alveolar ridge. Such sounds are typically the result of a severe overbite. In the Extensions to the IPA for disordered speech, they are transcribed with the alveolar diacritic on labial letters:. * Index of phonetics articles. Perception of English /r/ and /l/ by Japanese speakers. Place of articulation.

Romance languages

RomanceRomance languageRomanic
Nasality: Portuguese marks nasal vowels with a tilde when they occur before other written vowels and in some other instances. Palatalization: some historical palatalizations are indicated with the cedilla in French, Catalan, Occitan and Portuguese. In Spanish and several other world languages influenced by it, the grapheme ñ represents a palatal nasal consonant. Separate pronunciation: when a vowel and another letter that would normally be combined into a digraph with a single sound are exceptionally pronounced apart, this is often indicated with a diaeresis mark on the vowel.

Vietnamese language

VietnameseVietnamese nameVietnamese-language
Palatal ! Velar ! Glottal |-! colspan="2" | Nasal |-! rowspan="3" | Stop |-! rowspan="2" | Fricative |-! colspan="2" | Approximant |-! colspan="2" | Rhotic |} occurs only at the end of a syllable. This symbol, "Latin small letter B with flourish", looks like:.

Latin script

LatinLatin alphabetRoman script
Old English, for example, was rarely written with even proper nouns capitalized; whereas Modern English of the 18th century had frequently all nouns capitalized, in the same way that Modern German is written today, e.g. Alle Schwestern der alten Stadt hatten die Vögel gesehen ("All of the sisters of the old city had seen the birds"). Words from languages natively written with other scripts, such as Arabic or Chinese, are usually transliterated or transcribed when embedded in Latin-script text or in multilingual international communication, a process termed Romanization.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
A nasal stop appears after the reduplication in some verbs. The earliest extant examples of ancient Greek writing (circa 1450 BC) are in the syllabic script Linear B. Beginning in the 8th century BC, however, the Greek alphabet became standard, albeit with some variation among dialects. Early texts are written in boustrophedon style, but left-to-right became standard during the classic period. Modern editions of ancient Greek texts are usually written with accents and breathing marks, interword spacing, modern punctuation, and sometimes mixed case, but these were all introduced later.

Portuguese orthography

PortuguesePortuguese alphabetorthography of Portuguese
The digraphs lh and nh, of Occitan origin, denote palatal consonants that do not exist in English. The digraphs rr and ss are used only between vowels. The pronunciation of the digraph rr varies with dialect (see the note on the phoneme, above). Portuguese makes use of five diacritics: the cedilha, acute accent, circumflex accent, tilde, and grave accent (à, and rarely è, ì, ò, and ù). ! style="font-size:80%" | Grapheme ! style="font-size:80%" | Pronunciation The cedilha indicates that ç is pronounced (from a historic palatalization).

Velar nasal

ŋvelar ng ''' [ŋ
An example of a language that lacks a phonemic or allophonic velar nasal is Russian, in which is pronounced as laminal denti-alveolar even before velar consonants. Some languages have the pre-velar nasal, which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical velar nasal, though not as front as the prototypical palatal nasal - see that article for more information. Conversely, some languages have the post-velar nasal, which is articulated slightly behind the place of articulation of a prototypical velar nasal, though not as back as the prototypical uvular nasal. Features of the velar nasal: * * Index of phonetics articles. Eng (letter).

Tupi language

TupiOld TupiOld Tupi language
Vowels. i, y, u, ĩ, ỹ, ũ. e, o, õ, ẽ. a, ã. The tilde indicating nasalisation: a → ã. The circumflex accent indicating a semivowel: i → î. The acute accent indicating the stressed syllable: abá. The use of the letter x for the voiceless palatal fricative, a spelling convention common in the languages of the Iberian Peninsula but unusual elsewhere. The use of the digraphs yg (for Ŷ), gu (for ), ss (to make intervocalic S unvoiced), and of j to represent the semivowel.

Portuguese phonology

PortugueseBrazilian Portugueseepenthetic
Nasalization and height increase noticeably with time during the production of a single nasal vowel in BP in those cases that are written with nasal consonants ⟨m n⟩, so that may be realized as or. This creates a significant difference between the realizations of ⟨am⟩ and ⟨ã⟩ for some speakers: compare for instance ranço real (PT) or (BR) ('royal rancidness') and rã surreal (PT) or (BR) ('surreal frog'). (Here [ɰ̃] means a velar nasal approximant.) At the end of a word ⟨em⟩ is always pronounced with a clear nasal palatal approximant (see below). Whenever a nasal vowel is pronounced with a nasal coda (approximant or occlusive) the (phonetic) nasalization of the vowel itself is optional.

Index of phonetics articles

List of phonetics topicsList of phonetic topicsIndex of phonetics topics
Labial-palatal approximant. Labial-palatal consonant. Labial-velar approximant. Labial-velar consonant. Labial-velar nasal. Labiodental approximant. Labiodental consonant. Labiodental ejective fricative. Labiodental flap. Labiodental nasal. Lateral click. Laminal consonant. Lateral consonant. Length (phonetics). Lenis. Lexical stress. Lilias Armstrong. Linguolabial consonant. Lips. Liquid consonant. List of consonants. List of vowels. Luciano Canepari. Ludmilla A. Chistovich. Manner of articulation. Mark Liberman. Metathesis. Mid central vowel. Mid vowel. Monophthong. Nasal consonant. Nasal stop. Nasal vowel. Nasalization. Near-close back rounded vowel. Near-close front rounded vowel.

Thai language

ThaiThai:Central Thai
Furthermore, the six tones that resulted after the three tones of Old Thai were split have since merged into five in standard Thai, with the lower variant of former tone 2 merging with the higher variant of former tone 3, becoming the modern "falling" tone. Early Old Thai also apparently had velar fricatives as distinct phonemes. These were represented by the now-obsolete letters ฃ kho khuat and ฅ kho khon, respectively. During the Old Thai period, these sounds merged into the corresponding stops, and as a result the use of these letters became unstable. At some point in the history of Thai, a palatal nasal phoneme also existed, inherited from Proto-Tai.

Distinctive feature

distinctive featuresfeaturefeatures
[−cont] segments, on the other hand, have such an obstruction, and so occlude the air flow at some point of articulation. 2) [+/− nasal] This feature describes the position of the velum. [+nas] segments are produced by lowering the velum so that air can pass through the nasal tract. [−nas] segments conversely are produced with a raised velum, blocking the passage of air to the nasal tract and shunting it to the oral tract. 3) [+/− strident] The strident feature applies to obstruents only and refers to a type of friction that is noisier than usual.

Slavic languages

SlavicSlavonicSlavic language
(NOTE: *ą *ę etc. indicates a nasalized vowel.). 9) In a cluster of obstruent (stop or fricative) + another consonant, the obstruent is deleted unless the cluster can occur word-initially. 10) (occurs later, see below) Monophthongization of diphthongs. 11) (occurs much later, see below) Elimination of liquid diphthongs (e.g.


geminategeminatedgeminate consonant
In Latin, consonant length was distinctive, as in anus "old woman" vs. annus "year". Vowel length was also distinctive in Latin, but was not reflected in the orthography. Geminates inherited from Latin still exist in Italian, in which anno and ano contrast with regard to and as in Latin. It has been almost completely lost in French and completely in Romanian. In West Iberian languages, former Latin geminate consonants often evolved to new phonemes, including some instances of nasal vowels in Portuguese and Old Galician as well as most cases of and in Spanish, but phonetic length of both consonants and vowels is no longer distinctive.

Official romanisation scheme for Taiwanese Hokkien

Tâi-lôTaiwanese Romanization SystemTaiwanese Romanization
-nn forms the nasal vowels. There is also syllabic m and ng. ing pronounced [ɪəŋ], ik pronounced [ɪək̚].


Urdu languageUrdu:Hindi
There are also a smaller number of borrowings from Chagatai, and Portuguese. Some examples for Portuguese words borrowed into Urdu are cabi ("chave": key), girja ("igreja": church), kamra ("cámara": room), qamīz ("camisa": shirt), mez ("mesa": table). Although the word Urdu is derived from the Turkic word ordu (army) or orda, from which English horde is also derived, Turkic borrowings in Urdu are minimal and Urdu is also not genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words.

Quebec French phonology

Quebec accentthat of Quebec
The velar nasal is found in loanwords (ping-pong ), but is often found as an allophone of the palatal nasal, the word ligne 'line' may be pronounced. In colloquial speech, the glottal fricatives are found as allophones of and, respectively. They can also be pronounced as and if the original fricatives are not entirely relaxed. That is particularly found in the Beauce region to the point where the pronunciation is frequently stereotyped, but it can be found throughout Quebec as well as other French-speaking areas in Canada.


Tilde. English terms with diacritical marks. Gn (digraph). Nh (digraph). Nj (letter). Ny (digraph). Ɲ. Ń. Њ. Ň. (IPA symbol). Ã. Ẽ. G̃. Ĩ. M̃. Õ. P̃. Ũ. Ṽ.

Hindustani grammar

grammarGrammar of Modern Standard HindiHindi grammar
IAST), these are its salient features: subscript dots for retroflex consonants; macrons for etymologically, contrastively long vowels; h for aspirated plosives; and tildes for nasalized vowels. The vowels used in Hindustani are the following: a, ā, i, ī, u, ū, e, o, ai, au. Note that the vowels a ai au normally have the pronunciations. Consonants are outlined in the table below. Hovering the mouse cursor over them will reveal the appropriate IPA symbol, while in the rest of the article hovering the mouse cursor over underlined forms will reveal the appropriate English translation. !! colspan="2" | Bilabial ! Labio- dental ! colspan="2" | Dental ! colspan="2" | Alveolar !

Nasal labialized velar approximant

Nasal labio-velar approximantW̃ w̃
The nasal labio-velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is, that is, a w with a tilde. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is. The nasal approximants and may also be called nasal glides. In some languages like Portuguese, they form a second element of nasal diphthongs. Features of the nasal labio-velar approximant: * * Palatal nasal. Nasal palatal approximant. Labiodental nasal, which may be an approximant in the one language in which it is phonemic. Voiceless nasal glottal approximant. Index of phonetics articles.


When "n" or "m" follow a vowel, the "n" or "m" becomes silent and causes the preceding vowel to become nasal (pronounced with the soft palate extended downward so as to allow part or all of the air to leave through the nostrils). Anunasika is sometimes called a subdot because of its IAST representation. In Devanagari and related orthographies, it is represented by the chandrabindu diacritic (example: मँ ). In Burmese, the anunasika, called and represented as, creates the nasalized ending when it is attached as a dot above a letter. The anunasika represents the -m final in Pali. Unicode encodes anusvara and anusvara-like characters for a variety of scripts: * Chandrabindu. Tilde.