Philippine Hokkien

HokkienHokkien ChinesePhilippines
福建話 (Hokkien: hok-kiàn-ōe [hok-kiàn-uē]; Mandarin: fújiànhuà) -- literally means "Fujianese language", this refers to all Fujianese varieties in Taiwan and Mainland China, however this term is a misnomer because in Fujian, China there are many other languages like Min Dong and Min Zhong. The use of -iak suffix where other variants have -ek [-ik], e.g. 色 siak or sek [sik], 綠色 lia̍k-siak or lia̍k-sek [lia̍k-sik], etc. The use of -i suffix where other variants have -u, e.g. 語 gí/gú, 做菜 chí/chú [tsí/tsú], etc. The use of -uiⁿ [-uinn] suffix where other variants have -eng [-ing] or -oaiⁿ [-uainn], e.g. 最先 suiⁿ [suinn], 高 kûiⁿ [kûinn], etc.

Tupi language

TupiOld TupiTupinambá
Vowels. i, y, u, ĩ, ỹ, ũ. e, o, õ, ẽ. a, ã. The tilde indicating nasalisation: a → ã. The circumflex accent indicating a semivowel: i → î. The acute accent indicating the stressed syllable: abá. The use of the letter x for the voiceless palatal fricative, a spelling convention common in the languages of the Iberian Peninsula but unusual elsewhere. The use of the digraphs yg (for Ŷ), gu (for ), ss (to make intervocalic S unvoiced), and of j to represent the semivowel.

Assimilation (phonology)

A related process is coarticulation, where one segment influences another to produce an allophonic variation, such as vowels acquiring the feature nasal before nasal consonants when the velum opens prematurely or becoming labialised as in "boot". This article describes both processes under the term assimilation. The physiological or psychological mechanisms of coarticulation are unknown; coarticulation is often loosely referred to as a segment being "triggered" by an assimilatory change in another segment. In assimilation, the phonological patterning of the language, discourse styles and accent are some of the factors contributing to changes observed.

Irish phonology

In Old Irish, the sonorants (those spelled ) were divided not only into broad and slender types, but also into fortis and lenis types. The precise phonetic definition of these terms is somewhat vague, but the coronal fortis sounds (those spelled ) were probably longer in duration and may have had a larger area of contact between the tongue and the roof of the mouth than the lenis sounds. Fortis m was probably a normal, while lenis m was a nasalized semivowel, perhaps tending towards a nasalized fricative or when palatalized.

Polish language

Some additional characteristic but less widespread regional dialects include: Polish has six oral vowels (all monophthongs) and two nasal vowels. The oral vowels are (spelled i), (spelled y), (spelled e), (spelled a), (spelled o) and (spelled u or ó). The nasal vowels are (spelled ę) and (spelled ą). The Polish consonant system shows more complexity: its characteristic features include the series of affricate and palatal consonants that resulted from four Proto-Slavic palatalizations and two further palatalizations that took place in Polish and Belarusian.

Varieties of Chinese

ChineseSiniticChinese varieties
The voiced initials of Middle Chinese are retained in Wu dialects such as Suzhou and Shanghai, as well as Old Xiang dialects, but have merged with voiceless initials elsewhere. The Middle Chinese retroflex initials are retained in many Mandarin dialects, including Beijing but not southwestern and southeastern Mandarin varieties. In many northern and central varieties there is palatalization of dental affricates, velars (as in Suzhou), or both. In some places, including Beijing, palatalized dental affricates and velars have merged to form a new palatal series. Languages of China. List of varieties of Chinese. Linguistic Atlas of Chinese Dialects. Hatano Tarō (1963–1972).

Diaeresis (diacritic)

In Seneca, are nasal vowels, though is, as in German umlaut. In Vurës (Vanuatu), and encode respectively and. In the Pahawh Hmong script, a double dot is used as one of several tone marks. The double dot was used in the early Cyrillic alphabet, which was used to write Old Church Slavonic. The modern Cyrillic Belarusian and Russian alphabets include the letter yo, although replacing it with the letter without the diacritic is allowed in Russian unless doing so would create ambiguity. Since the 1870s, the letter yi has been used in the Ukrainian alphabet for iotated ; plain і is not iotated . In Udmurt, ӥ is used for uniotated, with и for iotated.


For instance, an areal feature of the Pacific Northwest coast is that historical * has become palatalized in many languages, so that Saanich for example has and but no plain ; similarly, historical * in the Northwest Caucasian languages became palatalized to in Ubykh and in most Circassian dialects. The most frequent consonant (that is, the one appearing most often in speech) in many languages is. The following pages include consonant charts with links to audio samples. The manner of articulation is how air escapes from the vocal tract when the consonant or approximant (vowel-like) sound is made. Manners include stops, fricatives, and nasals.

Acute accent

acuteĺsíneadh fada
A graphically similar, but not identical, mark is indicative of a palatalized sound in several languages. In Polish, such a mark is known as a kreska (stroke) and is an integral part of several letters: four consonants and one vowel. When appearing in consonants, it indicates palatalization, similar to the use of the háček in Czech and other Slavic languages (e.g. sześć "six"). However, in contrast to the háček which is usually used for postalveolar consonants, the kreska denotes alveolo-palatal consonants. In traditional Polish typography, the kreska is more nearly vertical than the acute accent, and placed slightly right of center.


Hindi-languageHindi languageHindi हिंदी
The most frequent source languages in this category are Persian, Arabic, English and Portuguese. Examples are कमेटी kameṭī from English committee and साबुन sābun "soap" from Arabic. Hindi. अनुच्छेद 1 – सभी मनुष्यों को गौरव और अधिकारों के विषय में जन्मजात स्वतन्त्रता और समानता प्राप्त हैं। उन्हें बुद्धि और अन्तरात्मा की देन प्राप्त है और परस्पर उन्हें भाईचारे के भाव से बर्ताव करना चाहिए।. Transliteration (IAST):. ''Anucched 1 (ek) – Sabhī manuṣyõ ko gaurav aur adhikārõ ke viṣay mẽ janmajāt svatantratā aur samāntā prāpt hai. Unhẽ buddhi aur antarātmā kī den prāpt hai aur paraspar unhẽ bhāīcāre ke bhāv se bartāv karnā cāhie.''. Gloss (word-to-word):.


Arabic-languageArabArabic language
The last two share important isoglosses with later forms of Arabic, leading scholars to theorize that Safaitic and Hismaic are in fact early forms of Arabic and that they should be considered Old Arabic. Beginning in the 1st century CE, fragments of Northern Old Arabic are attested in the Nabataean script across northern Arabia. By the 4th century CE, the Nabataean Aramaic writing system had come to express varieties of Arabic other than that of the Nabataeans.

Galician language

GalicianGalician speakingGallego
Galician guides: Records, phonetic and dialectology: Corpora: Dictionaries: Texts: Newspapers in Galician: Other links related to Galician: The resolution of medieval nasalized vowels and hiatus: these sometimes turned into diphthongs in the east, while in the center and west the vowels in the hiatus were sometimes assimilated. Later, in the eastern—except Ancarese Galician—and central blocks, the nasal trait was lost, while in the west the nasal trait usually developed into an implosive nasal consonant . In general, these led to important dialectal variability in the inflection in genre and number of words ended in a nasal consonant.

Occitan language

OccitanProvençallangue d'oc
This also happened in Portuguese and Galician (and moreover also in Basque). Change of to, or word-finally (originally the voiceless palatal stop, but now generally either or, depending on the word). This is a unique characteristic of Gascon and of certain Aragonese dialects. Merging of syllable-final nasals to . This appears to represent a transitional stage before nasalization, and occurs especially in the southerly dialects other than Gascon (which still maintains different final nasals, as in Catalan). Former intervocalic (from Latin ) becomes /z/ (most dialects, but not Gascon).


POJHokkienHokkien POJ
Southern Min dialects also have an optional nasal property, which is written with a superscript and usually identified as being part of the vowel. A legitimate syllable in Hokkien takes the form, where items in parenthesis indicate optional components. The initials are: Vowels: Coda endings: POJ has a limited amount of legitimate syllables, although sources disagree on some particular instances of these syllables.

Gothic language

Long ā occurs only before the consonants, and represents Proto-Germanic nasalized < earlier, still non-nasal did not occur in Proto-Germanic. It is possible that the Gothic vowel still preserved the nasalization, or else that the nasalization was lost but the length distinction kept, as has happened with Lithuanian ą. Non-nasal and occurred in Proto-Germanic, however and so long ei and ū occur in all contexts.

Standard Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin Chinese
In Taiwan, the relationship between Standard Chinese and other varieties, particularly Taiwanese Hokkien, has been more politically heated. During the martial law period under the Kuomintang (KMT) between 1949 and 1987, the KMT government revived the Mandarin Promotion Council and discouraged or, in some cases, forbade the use of Hokkien and other non-standard varieties. This produced a political backlash in the 1990s. Under the administration of Chen Shui-Bian, other Taiwanese varieties were taught in schools. The former President, Chen Shui-Bian, often spoke in Hokkien during speeches, while after the late 1990s, former President Lee Teng-hui, also speaks Hokkien openly.


ShanghaiShanghai dialectShanghainese Wu
Alveolo-palatal initials are also present in Shanghainese. Voiced stops are phonetically voiceless with slack voice phonation in stressed, word initial position. This phonation (often referred to as murmur) also occurs in zero onset syllables, syllables beginning with fricatives, and syllables beginning with sonorants. These consonants are true voiced in intervocalic position. The table below lists the vowel nuclei of Shanghainese The following chart lists all possible finals (medial + nucleus + coda) in Shanghainese represented in IPA.

Tamil language

The evolution of Old Tamil into Middle Tamil, which is generally taken to have been completed by the 8th century, was characterised by a number of phonological and grammatical changes. In phonological terms, the most important shifts were the virtual disappearance of the aytam, an old phoneme, the coalescence of the alveolar and dental nasals, and the transformation of the alveolar plosive into a rhotic. In grammar, the most important change was the emergence of the present tense. The present tense evolved out of the verb, meaning "to be possible" or "to befall".

Gaulish language

Similarly one Gaulish word for "horse" was epos (in Old Breton eb and modern Breton keneb "pregnant mare") while Old Irish has ech, the modern Irish language and Scottish Gaelic each, and Manx egh, all derived from proto-Indo-European *h₁eḱwos. The retention or innovation of this sound does not necessarily signify a close genetic relationship between the languages; Goidelic and Brittonic are, for example, both Insular Celtic languages and quite closely related. The Proto-Celtic voiced labiovelar *gʷ (From PIE *gʷʰ) became w: *gʷediūmi → uediiumi "I pray" (but Old Irish guidim, Welsh gweddi "to pray"). PIE ds, dz became /tˢ/, spelled ð: *neds-samo → neððamon (cf.