Chamorro language

This process, which began in the 17th century and ended in the early 20th century, meant a profound change from the old Chamorro (paleo-Chamorro) to modern Chamorro (neo-Chamorro) in its grammar, phonology and vocabulary. Chamorro has 24 phonemes: 18 are consonants and 6 are vowels. Chamorro has at least 6 vowels, which include: Below is a chart of Chamorro consonants; all are unaspirated. Chamorro Alphabet Additionally, some letter combinations in Chamoru sometimes represent single phonemes. For instance, "ci+[vowel]" and "ti+[vowel]" are both pronounced, as in "hustisia" (justice) and the surname Concepcion (Spanish influence).

Middle Chinese

Early Middle ChineseLate Middle ChineseMC
There were five series of coronal obstruents, with a three-way distinction between dental (or alveolar), retroflex and palatal among fricatives and affricates, and a two-way dental/retroflex distinction among stop consonants. The following table shows the initials of Early Middle Chinese, with their traditional names and approximate values: Old Chinese had a simpler system with no palatal or retroflex consonants; the more complex system of EMC is thought to have arisen from a combination of Old Chinese obstruents with a following and/or. Bernhard Karlgren developed the first modern reconstruction of Middle Chinese.

Asturian language

Masculine neuters have a masculine form and take a masculine article: el fierro vieyo (old iron). Feminine neuters have a feminine form and take a feminine article: la lleche frío (cold milk). Pure neuters are nominal groups with an adjective and neuter pronoun: lo guapo d’esti asuntu ye... (the interesting [thing] about this issue is ...). Masculine nouns ending in -u → -os: texu (yew) → texos. Feminine nouns ending in -a → -es: vaca (cow) → vaques. Masculine or feminine nouns ending in a consonant take -es: animal (animal) → animales; xabón (soap) → xabones.

Languages of India

Indian languagesIndianregional languages of India
The Northern Indian languages from the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European family evolved from Old Indic by way of the Middle Indic Prakrit languages and Apabhraṃśa of the Middle Ages. The Indo-Aryan languages developed and emerged in three stages — Old Indo-Aryan (1500 BCE to 600 BCE), Middle Indo-Aryan stage (600 BCE and 1000 CE) and New Indo-Aryan (between 1000 CE and 1300 CE). The modern north Indian Indo-Aryan languages all evolved into distinct, recognisable languages in the New Indo-Aryan Age. Persian, or Farsi, was brought into India by the Ghaznavids and other Turko-Afghan dynasties as the court language.

Glottal stop

ʔGlottalglottal stops
The glottal stop or glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is.


That happened with many loanwords, such as skirt in this example, which was borrowed from Old Norse during the Danelaw. Sometimes both doublets come from other languages, often the same one but at different times. For example, the word chief (meaning the leader of any group) comes from the Middle French chef ("head"), and its modern pronunciation preserves the Middle French consonant sound; the word chef (the leader of the cooks) was borrowed from the same source centuries later, but by then, the consonant had changed to a "sh" sound in French.

Names given to the Spanish language

Castilianalso known as Castiliancommonly known as "Spanish
The Old Spanish form españon is documented in works of the 13th and 14th centuries. It is suggested that the final /n/ of this form changed to /l/ by dissimilation from the previous nasal consonant, ñ. This sporadic sound change is observed in some other words: Menéndez Pidal cites Barcelona (from Barcinone) and delante (from de in ante); Lathrop adds ingle (from ing[ui]ne) and sangre (from sang[ui]ne). According to the Occitan scenario, advanced by Rafael Lapesa, the Spanish borrowed the Occitan name for themselves, which was the name España plus the diminutive suffix -ol, from the Latin -olus.

Wolof language

WolofwolClassical Wolof
The English language is believed to have adopted some Wolof words, such as banana, via Spanish or Portuguese, and nyam in several Caribbean English Creoles meaning "to eat" (compare Seychellois Creole nyanmnyanm, also meaning "to eat"). Wolof is spoken by more than 10 million people and about 40 percent (approximately 5 million people) of Senegal's population speak Wolof as their native language. Increased mobility, and especially the growth of the capital Dakar, created the need for a common language: today, an additional 40 percent of the population speak Wolof as a second or acquired language.

Phonological change

mergerphonemic splitmerged
A simple example is the rise of the contrast between nasal and oral vowels in French. A full account of this history is complicated by the subsequent changes in the phonetics of the nasal vowels, but the development can be compendiously illustrated via the present-day French phonemes /a/ and /ã/: In modern French, for example, vowels before a nasal are oral. That they used to be nasalized, like the vowels before lost nasals, is indicated by certain phonetic changes not always reflected in the orthography: Fr. femme "woman" /fam/ (with the lowering of (nasalized ) to *ã prior to denasalization).

Albanian language

The palatal nasal corresponds to the Spanish ñ and the French and Italian gn. It is pronounced as one sound, not a nasal plus a glide. The ll sound is a velarised lateral, close to English dark L. The letter ç is sometimes written ch due to technical limitations because of its use in English sound and its analogy to the other digraphs xh, sh, and zh. Usually it is written simply c or more rarely q with context resolving any ambiguities. The position of q and gj sound is not clear. Many speakers merge them into the palatoalveolar sounds ç and xh. This is especially common in Northern Gheg, but is increasingly the case in Tosk as well.

Old English

Anglo-SaxonSaxonAnglo Saxon
Modern editions of Old English manuscripts generally introduce some additional conventions. The modern forms of Latin letters are used, including in place of the insular G, for long S, and others which may differ considerably from the insular script, notably, and. Macrons are used to indicate long vowels, where usually no distinction was made between long and short vowels in the originals. (In some older editions an acute accent mark was used for consistency with Old Norse conventions.) Additionally, modern editions often distinguish between velar and palatal and by placing dots above the palatals:,.

Odia language

OdiaOriyaOriya language
All vowels except also have nasal counterparts, but these are not always contrastive. Final vowels are standard and pronounced, e.g. Odia contra Bengali "flower". The velar nasal is given phonemic status in some analyses. Nasals assimilate for place in nasal–stop clusters. have the flap allophones in intervocalic position and in final position (but not at morpheme boundaries). Stops are sometimes deaspirated between and a vowel or an open syllable +vowel and a vowel. Some speakers distinguish between single and geminate consonants.

French phonology

FrenchFrench pronunciationphonology
Standard French contrasts up to 13 oral vowels and up to 4 nasal vowels (Parisian French has 10 oral vowels and 3 nasal vowels). The schwa (in the center of the diagram next to this paragraph) is not necessarily a distinctive sound. Even though it often merges with one of the mid front rounded vowels, its patterning suggests that it is a separate phoneme (see the sub-section Schwa below). Many dialects do not contrast all of these vowels - see below. Note: vowels between parentheses are not distinguished by Parisian French. In contrast with the mid vowels, there is no tense–lax contrast in close vowels.

Khoekhoe language

The Namaqua instead cover the whole of the palate with the tongue and produce the sound "as far back in the palate as possible". Lexical root words consist of two or rarely three moras, in the form CVCV(C), CVV(C), or CVN(C). (The initial consonant is required.) The middle consonant may only be w r m n (w is b~p and r is d~t), while the final consonant (C) may only be p, s, ts. Each mora carries tone, but the second may only be high or medium, for six tone "melodies": HH, MH, LH, HM, MM, LM. Oral vowel sequences in CVV are. Due to the reduced number of nasal vowels, nasal sequences are.

Brahmic scripts

Indic scriptsBrahmicBrahmic family
Nasalization and aspiration of a consonant's dependent vowel is also noted by separate signs. The alphabetical order is: vowels, velar consonants, palatal consonants, retroflex consonants, dental consonants, bilabial consonants, approximants, sibilants, and other consonants. Each consonant grouping had four stops (with all four possible values of voicing and aspiration), and a nasal consonant. The charts are not comprehensive. Glyphs may be unrepresented if they don't derive from any Brahmi character, but are later inventions. The pronunciations of glyphs in the same column may not be identical.

Franco-Provençal language

Franco-ProvençalArpitanArpitan language
Vowels followed by nasal consonants "m" and "n" are normally nasalized in a similar manner to those in French, for example, chantar and vin in Franco-Provençal, and "chanter" and "vin" in French. However, in the largest part of the Franco-Provençal domain, nasalized vowels retain a timbre that more closely approaches the un-nasalized vowel sound than in French, for example, pan and vent in Franco-Provençal, compared to "pain" and "vent" in French. Aimé Chenal and Raymond Vautherin wrote the first comprehensive grammar and dictionary for any variety of Franco-Provençal.

Cherokee language

CherokeeCherokee-languageMyths of the Cherokee
In other dialects, the affricate is a palatal (like ch in "church"), and a lateral affricate (like tl in ‘Nahuatl’) may also be present. There are six short vowels and six long vowels in the Cherokee inventory. As with all Iroquoian languages, this includes a nasalized vowel (Lounsbury 1978:337). In the case of Cherokee, the nasalized vowel is a mid central vowel usually represented as v and is pronounced, as "a" in unstressed "comma" plus the nasalization found in French un. Other vowels, when ending a word, are often also nasalized. Oklahoma Cherokee has six phonemic tones, two of which are level (low, high) and the other four of which are contour (rising, falling, highfall, lowfall).

Basque language

So, etzi "the day after tomorrow" is distinguished from etsi "to give up"; atzo "yesterday" is distinguished from atso "old woman". In the westernmost parts of the Basque country, only the apical and the alveolar affricate are used. Basque also features postalveolar sibilants (, written, and, written ), sounding like English sh and ch. There are two palatal stops, voiced and unvoiced, as well as a palatal nasal and a palatal lateral (the palatal stops are not present in all dialects). These and the postalveolar sounds are typical of diminutives, which are used frequently in child language and motherese (mainly to show affection rather than size).

Mandarin Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin dialects
The alveolo-palatal sibilants are the result of merger between the historical palatalized velars and palatalized alveolar sibilants . In about 20% of dialects, the alveolar sibilants did not palatalize, remaining separate from the alveolo-palatal initials. (The unique pronunciation used in Peking opera falls into this category.) On the other side, in some dialects of eastern Shandong, the velar initials did not undergo palatalization. Many southwestern Mandarin dialects mix and, substituting one for the other in some or all cases. For example, fei "to fly" and hui "grey" may be merged in these areas. In some dialects, initial and are not distinguished.

Nasal release

nasalnasally releasedpost-nasalized
Prestopped nasals and prenasalized stops occur when the oral cavity is closed and the nasal cavity is opened by lowering the velum, but the timing of both events does not coincide. A prenasalized stop starts out with a lowered velum that raises during the occlusion, much like the [nd] in candy. A postnasalized stop or prestopped nasal begins with a raised velum that lowers during the occlusion. That causes an audible nasal release, as in English sudden. The Slavic languages are most famous for having (non-phonemic) prestopped nasals. That can be seen in place names such as the Dniester River.

Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants

lalveolar lateral approximantdark L
It has a secondary articulation of velarization or pharyngealization, meaning that the back or root of the tongue approaches the soft palate (velum), or the back of the throat, respectively. Index of phonetics articles. Lateral consonant. Velarization. l-vocalization. Ł.

Genitive case

Examples (In Yale transcription): The Hokkien possessive is constructed by using the suffix ê (的 or 个 or 兮) to make the genitive case. For example: It also uses the suffix chi for classical or official cases. For example: :Kun put kiàn Hông-hô chi súi thian-siōng lâi? 君不見黃河之水天上來 ("Don't you see the water of Yellow River falls down from the sky?") Some of the Hokkien singular pronouns play the roles of possessive determiners with their nasalized forms. For example: (see Hokkien pronouns) Still, suffix ê is available for pronouns to express the genitive. For example: In Mandarin Chinese, the genitive case is made by use of the particle 的 (de). For instance: 我的猫 wǒ de māo (my cat).

Taíno language

TaínoTainoaboriginal name
There was a parallel set of nasal vowels. The only consonant at the end of a syllable or of a word was. Taíno is not well attested. However, from what can be gathered, nouns appear to have had noun-class suffixes, as in other Arawakan languages. Attested Taíno possessive prefixes are da- 'my', wa- 'our', li- 'his' (sometimes with a different vowel), and to-, tu- 'her'. Verb-designating affixes are a-, ka-, -a, -ka, -nV in which "V" is an unknown or changeable vowel. This suggests that, like many other Arawakan languages, verbal conjugation for a subject resembled the possessive prefixes on nouns.

Aspirated consonant

French, Standard Dutch, Tamil, Italian, Russian, Spanish, Modern Greek, Portuguese and Latvian are languages that do not have phonemic aspirated consonants. Standard Chinese (Mandarin) has stops and affricates distinguished by aspiration: for instance,. In pinyin, tenuis stops are written with letters that represent voiced consonants in English, and aspirated stops with letters that represent voiceless consonants. Thus d represents, and t represents. Wu Chinese and Southern Min has a three-way distinction in stops and affricates:. In addition to aspirated and unaspirated consonants, there is a series of muddy consonants, like.

Trill consonant

A nasal trill has been described from some dialects of Romanian, and is posited as an intermediate historical step in rhotacism. However, the phonetic variation of the sound is considerable, and it is not clear how frequently it is actually trilled. A linguolabial trill is not known to be used phonemically, but occurs when blowing a raspberry. Snoring typically consists of vibration of the uvula and the soft palate (velum). Although the former part is simply a uvular trill, there is no standard linguistic term for the latter. It does not constitute a velar trill, because the velum is here the active articulator, not the passive; the tongue is not involved at all.