Quebec French phonology

Quebec accentthat of Quebec
The velar nasal is found in loanwords (ping-pong ), but is often found as an allophone of the palatal nasal, the word ligne 'line' may be pronounced. In colloquial speech, the glottal fricatives are found as allophones of and, respectively. They can also be pronounced as and if the original fricatives are not entirely relaxed. That is particularly found in the Beauce region to the point where the pronunciation is frequently stereotyped, but it can be found throughout Quebec as well as other French-speaking areas in Canada.

Jamaican Patois

PatoisJamaicanJamaican Creole
They standardized the Jamaican alphabet as follows: Nasal vowels are written with -hn, as in kyaahn (can't) and iihn (isn't it?) h is written according to local pronunciation, so that hen (hen) and en (end) are distinguished in writing for speakers of western Jamaican, but not for those of central Jamaican. Jamaican Patois contains many loanwords, most of which are African in origin, primarily from Twi (a dialect of Akan). Many loanwords come from English, but are also borrowed from Spanish, Portuguese, Hindi, Arawak and African languages as well as Scottish and Irish dialects.

Trill consonant

A nasal trill has been described from some dialects of Romanian, and is posited as an intermediate historical step in rhotacism. However, the phonetic variation of the sound is considerable, and it is not clear how frequently it is actually trilled. A linguolabial trill is not known to be used phonemically, but occurs when blowing a raspberry. Snoring typically consists of vibration of the uvula and the soft palate (velum). Although the former part is simply a uvular trill, there is no standard linguistic term for the latter. It does not constitute a velar trill, because the velum is here the active articulator, not the passive; the tongue is not involved at all.

Taiwanese Romanization System

Tâi-lôTaiwanese RomanizationTai-lo
-nn forms the nasal vowels. There is also syllabic m and ng. ing pronounced [ɪəŋ], ik pronounced [ɪək̚].


Ã/ã (a with tilde) is a letter used in some languages, generally considered a variant of the letter A. In Portuguese, Ã/ã represents a nasal near-open central vowel, (its exact height varies from near-open to mid according to dialect). It appears on its own and as part of the diphthongs ãe and ão. The symbol is used for the nasal vowel in Guaraní, Kashubian and Taa. In Aromanian, the symbol is used for the mid-central vowel. In Vietnamese, it represents in a high breaking-rising tone. This also used in !Xóõ. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, stands for a nasal open front unrounded vowel, as in Quebec French maman and Jean.

Polish phonology

PolishPolish accentphonological
Non-palatal consonants are weakly palatalized when they precede. This is far less audible than it is in Russian. The approximants and may be regarded as non-syllabic vowels when not followed by a vowel. For example, raj ('paradise'), dał ('gave'), autor ('author'). Before fricatives, nasal consonants may be realized as nasalized semivowels, analogous to and (see § Vowels above). This occurs in loanwords, and in free variation with the typical consonantal pronunciation (e.g. instynkt 'instinct'). Similarly, the palatal nasal in coda position is in free variation with a nasalized palatal approximant.

Nepali grammar

Tildes denote nasalized vowels. Vowels and consonants are outlined in the tables below. Hovering the mouse cursor over them will reveal the appropriate IPA symbol, while in the rest of the article hovering the mouse cursor over underlined forms will reveal the appropriate English translation. Nepali nouns that denote male and female beings are sometimes distinguished by suffixation or through pairs of lexically differing terms.

Punjabi grammar

Tildes denote nasalized vowels, while grave and acute accents denote low and high tones respectively. Vowels and consonants are outlined in the tables below. The vowels table shows the character used in the article (ex. ī) followed by its IPA value in forward slashes (ex. /iː/). See Punjabi phonology for further clarification. Punjabi distinguishes two genders, two numbers, and five cases of direct, oblique, vocative, ablative, and locative/instrumental. The latter two cases are essentially now vestigial: the ablative occurs only in the singular, in free variation with oblique case plus ablative postposition, and the locative/instrumental is confined to set adverbial expressions.


Spanish retained it, however, in some specific cases, particularly to indicate the palatal nasal, the sound that is now spelt as ñ. The word tilde comes from Spanish, derived by metathesis of the word título as tidlo, this originally from Latin TITULUS "title" or "heading"; compare cabildo with Latin CAPITULUM. From spellings of anno abbreviated as ãno, as explained above, the tilde was thenceforth transferred to the n and kept as a useful expedient to indicate the new palatal nasal sound that Spanish had developed in that position: año.

Kwaza language

KwazaKoaiaKoaia (Kwaza)
For example: (1)Hãidi=hãi’di-tse Drip=drip-DEC ‘It is dripping’ (2)haka=ha’ka-hỹ-tɛ old=old-NOM-NOM ‘Very old thing’ (3)hy=hy ‘dwa-ki go=go-onto-DEC ‘He is walking (on) the path’ There is also another way in the Kwaza language where reduplication occurs to intensify meaning.


colloquial Singaporean EnglishEnglishliao
(positive, emphasis) Malays may also pronounce it without the l, not following the ia but rather a nasal aah. This particular form of usage is often seen in expressing emphasis. There is a further third application of it, in that a k is added at the end when it will then be pronounced saak with the same nasal quality only when ending the word. It is similarly used in emphasis. However, Singlish itself takes influence only from the general expression of the term without any negative implication, and non-Malay speakers (or Malays speaking to non-Malays) pronounce it either as a nasal sia or simply siah: /sâi/Also from Hokkien, it literally means excrement.

Southwestern Mandarin

SouthwesternYunnanese MandarinHo
If considered a language distinct from Mandarin, it would have the eighth-most native speakers in the world, behind Mandarin itself, Spanish, English, Hindi, Portuguese, Arabic and Bengali. Modern Southwestern Mandarin was formed by the waves of immigrants brought to the regions during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Because of this comparatively recent move, these dialects show more similarity to modern Standard Mandarin than to other varieties of Chinese like Cantonese or Hokkien.

Reforms of Portuguese orthography

spelling norms1990 spelling reformorthographic reform
Nasal vowels and nasal diphthongs usually appear before the orthographic nasal consonants n, m, in which case they do not need to be identified with diacritics, but the tilde was placed on nasal a and nasal o when they occurred before another letter, or at the end of a word. Although the vowel u can also be nasal before other vowels, this happens in so few words (mui, muito, muita, muitos, muitas) that marking its nasality was not considered necessary.

Exonym and endonym

In Old Irish, this word was applied to any foreign language, but by the medieval period it had come to be used exclusively for the English language. Exonyms and endonyms must not be confused with the results of geographical renaming as in the case of Saint Petersburg, which became Petrograd in 1914, Leningrad in 1924, and Saint Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург Sankt-Peterbúrg) again in 1991. In this case, although St Petersburg has a German etymology, it was never a German exonym for the city between 1914 and 1991, just as Nieuw Amsterdam, the Dutch name of New York City until 1664, is not its Dutch exonym.

Cabécar language

Cabécar uses a Latin alphabet with umlauts for, and tildes for (ã, ẽ, ĩ, õ, ũ). Cabécar has twelve vowels, five of which are nasalized. Cabécar has a canonical word order of subject–object–verb. * Recording of "2 children's chants of the Cabécar Indians" from the Indigenous Languages of Costa Rica Collection of Laura Cervantes at AILLA. Quesada, J. D. (2007). The Chibchan Languages. Editorial Tecnologica de CR. 259pp. Gavarrete, M. E. (2015). The challenges of mathematics education for Indigenous teacher training. Intercultural Education, 26(4), 326-337. Quesada, D. J. (2000). On Language Contact: Another Look at Spanish-speaking (Central) America.

List of Latin-script digraphs

See article. is used in French for, historically, as in ail "garlic". is used in Portuguese orthography for. is used in Portuguese orthography for before a consonant. is used in many languages to write a nasal vowel.

Latin spelling and pronunciation

Latinsonus mediusClassical Latin pronunciation
Vowels followed by a nasal consonant were allophonically realised as long nasal vowels in two environments: Those long nasal vowels had the same quality as ordinary long vowels. In Vulgar Latin, the vowels lost their nasalisation, and they merged with the long vowels (which were themselves shortened by that time). This is shown by many forms in the Romance languages, such as Spanish costar from Vulgar Latin cōstāre (originally constāre) and Italian mese from Vulgar Latin mēse (Classical Latin mensem).

Fusion (phonetics)

A common form of fusion is found in the development of nasal vowels, which frequently become phonemic when final nasal consonants are lost from a language. This occurred in French and Portuguese. Compare the French words un vin blanc "a white wine" with their English cognates, one, wine, blank, which retain the n's. Another example is the development of Greek bous "cow" from Indo-European *gʷous. Although *gʷ was already a single consonant, it had two places of articulation, a velar stop and labial secondary articulation . In Greek bous these elements have fused into a purely labial stop.

Irish grammar

Irish morphology: PronounsIrish past tensemorphology
A notable feature of Irish phonology is that consonants (except ) come in pairs, one "broad" (velarized, pronounced with the back of the tongue pulled back towards the soft palate) and one "slender" (palatalized, pronounced with the middle of the tongue pushed up towards the hard palate). Diphthongs:,,,. Is fear é. "He is a man." (Spanish Es un hombre, Portuguese (Ele) é um homem). Is duine fuar é. "He is cold (a cold-hearted person)." (Spanish Es frío, Portuguese (Ele) é frio). Tá sé/Tomás fuar. "He/Thomas is cold" (= feels cold) (Alt. Tá fuacht air [= "Cold is on him"]).


When "n" or "m" follow a vowel, the "n" or "m" becomes silent and causes the preceding vowel to become nasal (pronounced with the soft palate extended downward so as to allow part or all of the air to leave through the nostrils). Anunasika is sometimes called a subdot because of its IAST representation. In Devanagari and related orthographies, it is represented by the chandrabindu diacritic (example: मँ ). In Burmese, the anunasika, called and represented as, creates the nasalized ending when it is attached as a dot above a letter. The anunasika represents the -m final in Pali. Unicode encodes anusvara and anusvara-like characters for a variety of scripts: Chandrabindu. Tilde.


Since Teochew has high phonetic similarity with Hokkien, another Southern Min variety, Pe̍h-ōe-jī and Tai-lo can also be used to transcribe Teochew. The name "Peng'im" is a transcription of "" using this system. This system uses the Latin alphabet, but does not include f, j, q, v, w, x, or y. ê is letter e with circumflex. There are 18 initials. Syllables not starting with consonants are called zero initials. b and g can also be used as ending consonants. There are 59 finals : Symbols of tones are notated at the top right of consonants or vowels which have top loudness. For example: This is a list of differences in initials in Teochew dialect by regions.

Guarani alphabet

Guarani print alphabetGuaraní
The tilded versions of E, I, U, Y, and G are not available in ISO Latin-1 fonts, but can be represented in Unicode (except that tilded "G" is not available as a single precomposed letter, and must be encoded as a plain "G" plus a combining tilde). In digital environments where those glyphs are not available, the tilde is often postfixed to the base character ("E~", "I~", "U~", "Y~", "G~") or a circumflex is used instead . The acute accent "´" is used to indicate the stress (muanduhe), as in áva ("hair") and tái ("peppery"). When omitted, the stress falls on a nasalized vowel, or, if none, on the last syllable, as in syva ("forehead") and tata ("fire").