List of national anthems

national anthemsNational anthemanthem
Most nation-states have anthems, defined as "a song, as of praise, devotion, or patriotism"; most anthems are either marches or hymns in style. A hymn can become a national anthem by a provision in the state's constitution, by a law enacted by its legislature, or simply by tradition. A royal anthem is a patriotic song similar to a national anthem, but it specifically praises or prays for a monarch or royal dynasty. Such anthems are usually performed at public appearances by the monarch or during other events of royal importance. Some states use the royal anthem as the national anthem, such as the anthem of Jordan. There are multiple claimants to the position of oldest national anthem.

List of historical national anthems

national anthem
A royal or imperial anthem is a song that is similar in patriotic character to a national anthem, but which specifically praises a monarch, or royal dynasty. Some states have doubled their royal or imperial anthem as their national anthem. An anthem may fall out of use if the country that uses it ceases to exist, or because it adopts a new anthem; the rationale for a new national anthem is often political, perhaps based on a new ruling dynasty or system of government. For example, following the French Revolution, which overthrew the monarchy, "La Marseillaise", a republican revolutionary song, became France's national anthem in 1795.

John Stafford Smith

SmithStafford Smith
Smith is best known for writing the music for "The Anacreontic Song", which became the tune for the American patriotic song "The Star-Spangled Banner" following the War of 1812, and in 1931 was adopted as the national anthem of the United States. Smith was baptised in Gloucester Cathedral, England, on 30 March 1750, the son of Martin Smith, organist of Gloucester Cathedral from 1743 to 1782. He attended the Gloucester cathedral school, where he became a boy-singer. He furthered his career as a choir boy at the Chapel Royal, London, and also studied under Dr. William Boyce. By the 1770s he had gained a reputation as a composer and an organist.

To Anacreon in Heaven

The Anacreontic SongAnacreontic Songthe truth about
The combination of Key's poem and Smith's composition became known as "The Star-Spangled Banner", which was adopted as the national anthem of the United States of America in 1931. The Anacreontic Society was a gentlemen's club of the kind that was popular in London in the late eighteenth century. In existence from approximately 1766 to 1792, the Society was dedicated to the ancient Greek poet Anacreon, who was renowned for his drinking songs and odes to love. Its members, who consisted mainly of wealthy men of high social rank, would meet on Wednesday evenings to combine musical appreciation with eating and drinking. The Society met twelve times a year.

God Save the Queen

God Save the Kingnational anthemBritish national anthem
The national anthem of Imperial Russia from 1816 to 1833 was Molitva russkikh ("The Prayer of Russians"), which used the melody of "God Save the King" and lyrics by Vasily Zhukovsky. The American patriotic hymn "My Country, 'Tis of Thee", the lyrics of which were written by Samuel Francis Smith in 1831. The song is often quoted – alongside "Hail, Columbia" – as a de facto national anthem for the United States, before the de jure adoption of "The Star-Spangled Banner" in 1931. Rufst Du, mein Vaterland was a Swiss patriotic song by Johann Rudolf Wyss published in 1811, which became the Swiss national anthem following the formation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848.

O Canada

Canadian national anthemCanadiannational anthem
Weir's lyrics have been revised three times, most recently when An Act to amend the National Anthem Act (gender) was enacted in 2018. The French lyrics remain unaltered. "O Canada" had served as a de facto national anthem since 1939, officially becoming the country's national anthem in 1980 when Canada's National Anthem Act received royal assent and became effective on July 1 as part of that year's Dominion Day (today's Canada Day) celebrations. "O Canada" is a 28-bar song originally written in the key of G major for four voices and piano, as a march in 4/4 time to be played "maestoso è risoluto" ("majestic and resolved"). The original manuscript has been lost.

Olympic Games

The ROC refused a proposed compromise that would have still allowed them to use the ROC flag and anthem as long as the name was changed. Taiwan did not participate again until 1984, when it returned under the name of Chinese Taipei and with a special flag and anthem. In 1980 and 1984, the Cold War opponents boycotted each other's Games. The United States and sixty-five other countries boycotted the Moscow Olympics in 1980 because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. This boycott reduced the number of nations participating to 80, the lowest number since 1956. The Soviet Union and 15 other nations countered by boycotting the Los Angeles Olympics of 1984.

Fort McHenry

Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic ShrineFt. McHenryBombardment of Fort McHenry
C-SPAN American History TV "Birth of the Star-Spangled Banner" Tour at Fort McHenry. C-SPAN American History TV "After the Star-Spangled Banner" Tour at Fort McHenry. C-SPAN American History TV "Birth of the Star-Spangled Banner" Tour at Fort McHenry. C-SPAN American History TV "After the Star-Spangled Banner" Tour at Fort McHenry.

Hail, Columbia

Hail ColumbiaThe President's MarchSalve, Columbia
It was previously considered, with several other songs, one of the unofficial national anthems of the United States until 1931, when "The Star-Spangled Banner" was named as the official national anthem. Columbia is the poetic name for the national personification of the United States, which originated during the 18th century. The music was composed by Philip Phile in 1789 for the first inauguration of George Washington and titled "The President's March". It became the song "Hail, Columbia" when arranged with lyrics by Joseph Hopkinson in 1798.


regional anthemanthemsanthemic
Although the United States has "The Star-Spangled Banner" as its official national anthem, its constituent states and territories also has their own regional anthem (referred to by most US states as a "state song"), along with Washington, DC. A notable exception is New Jersey, which is the only US state to be without a regional anthem. In Yugoslavia, each of the country's constituent states (except for Bosnia and Herzegovina) had the right to have its own regional anthem, but only the Croatian one actually did so initially, later joined by the Slovene one on the brink of the breakup of Yugoslavia.

La Marseillaise

MarseillaiseFrench national anthemLa Marsellaise
It features in a 1944 film, into which the Italian conductor Arturo Toscanini also incorporated "The Internationale" for the Soviet Union and "The Star-Spangled Banner" representing the United States. Greek composer Pavlos Carrer quotes "La Marseillaise" in the overture of his 1873 opera Maria Antonietta (libretto by Count Georgios Romas). Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky quotes "La Marseillaise" to represent the invading French army in his 1812 Overture (1882). He also quotes the Russian national anthem he was familiar with to represent the Russian army. However, neither of these anthems was actually in use in 1812. In 1896, Umberto Giordano briefly quotes the anthem in his opera Andrea Chénier.


Japanese national anthemKimi ga YoNational Anthem of Japan
For example, an October 2003 directive by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government required teachers to stand during the national anthem at graduation ceremonies. While standing, the teachers are required to sing "Kimigayo" while facing the Hinomaru. United States military personnel are required by regulations to render honors with a hand salute, or when in civilian dress, to place their right hand over their heart when "Kimigayo", "The Star-Spangled Banner", or any other national anthem is performed. The Act on National Flag and Anthem also does not dictate when or where "Kimigayo" should be played.

Flag of the United States

American flagStars and StripesUnited States flag
It was the 15-star, 15-stripe flag that inspired Francis Scott Key to write "Defence of Fort M'Henry", later known as "The Star Spangled Banner", which is now the American national anthem. The flag is currently on display in the exhibition, "The Star-Spangled Banner: The Flag That Inspired the National Anthem" at the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History in a two-story display chamber that protects the flag while it is on view. On April 4, 1818, a plan was passed by Congress at the suggestion of U.S. Naval Captain Samuel C.

1918 World Series

1918World Series1918 Series
During the seventh-inning stretch of Game 1, the band began playing "The Star Spangled Banner" because the country was involved in World War I. The song would be named the national anthem of the United States in 1931, and during World War II its playing would become a regular pre-game feature of baseball games and other sporting events. The winning pitcher of Game 1 was Babe Ruth, who pitched a shutout. The 1918 championship would be the last Red Sox win until. The drought of 86 years was often attributed to the Curse of the Bambino.

Star-Spangled Banner (flag)

Star-Spangled BannerStar Spangled Banner FlagAmerican flag
The poem would be put to the music of a common tune, retitled "The Star-Spangled Banner", and a portion of it would later be adopted as the United States National Anthem. Since its arrival at the Smithsonian, the flag has undergone multiple preservation efforts. A 2-inch by 5-inch fragment of the flag—white and red, with a seam down the middle—was sold at auction in Dallas, TX on November 30, 2011, for $38,837: the snippet was, presumably, cut from the famous flag as a souvenir in the mid-19th century.

Amelia Fowler

By that time, the flag that inspired Francis Scott Key to write the United States national anthem was just "a frail piece of bunting." But Fowler called upon her patented preservation techniques to save it from further deterioration. She used dyed-to-match silk thread and employed ten assistants to reinforce the 1020 sqft relic. They anchored it onto Irish linen with 1.7 million of Fowler's special honeycomb patterned, six-sided stitches. It took eight weeks to finish the preservation process. Upon completion, she claimed the restored flag would "defy the test of time," and charged the government $1,243.

Defenders Day

Defenders' DayDefender's Day
It commemorates the successful defense of the city of Baltimore on September 12th-13th-14th, 1814 from an invading British force during the War of 1812, an event which led to the writing of the words of a poem, which when set to music a few days later, became known as "The Star-Spangled Banner", which in 1931 was designated as the national anthem of the United States.

Congreve rocket

Congreve rocketsrocketrockets
It was the use of ship-launched Congreve rockets by the British in the bombardment of Fort McHenry in the US in 1814 that inspired the fifth line of the first verse of the United States' National Anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner": "and the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air". fired the rockets from a 32-pound rocket battery installed below the main deck, which fired through portholes or scuttles pierced in the ship's side. In Canada, rockets were used by the British at the Second Battle of Lacolle Mills, March 30, 1814.

Independence Day (United States)

Independence DayFourth of July4th of July
Independence Day fireworks are often accompanied by patriotic songs such as the national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner"; "God Bless America"; "America the Beautiful"; "My Country, 'Tis of Thee"; "This Land Is Your Land"; "Stars and Stripes Forever"; and, regionally, "Yankee Doodle" in northeastern states and "Dixie" in southern states. Some of the lyrics recall images of the Revolutionary War or the War of 1812. Firework shows are held in many states, and many fireworks are sold for personal use or as an alternative to a public show. Safety concerns have led some states to ban fireworks or limit the sizes and types allowed.


the Palestinian national anthemFidā’īnational anthem
. * Mawtini MOFA Palestine. Himnuszok - A vocal version of the Anthem, featured in "Himnuszok" website. Palestine: Fida'i - Audio of the national anthem of Palestine, with information and lyrics.

Upper Marlboro, Maryland

Upper MarlboroUpper Marlboro, MDMarlboro, Maryland
William Beanes (1749–1828), a doctor who was indirectly responsible for precipitating the situation in which the U.S. national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner", was written. Jonathan Boucher, a loyalist English clergyman, teacher, preacher and philologist at St. Barnabas Church, Upper Marlboro, Maryland. Thomas Fielder Bowie (1808–1869), U.S. congressman. John Carroll, S.J. (1735–1815), first Roman Catholic bishop and archbishop in the United States and founder of Georgetown University. Thomas J. Clagett (1742–1816), first Episcopal bishop consecrated in the United States. William H. Clagett (1838–1901), U.S. Congressman from the Montana Territory, born in Upper Marlboro.

Whitney Houston

WhitneyBrownHouse ProductionsWhitney Huston
During the Persian Gulf War, on January 27, 1991, Houston performed "The Star-Spangled Banner", the US national anthem, at Super Bowl XXV at Tampa Stadium. Houston's vocals were pre-recorded, drawing criticism. Dan Klores, a spokesman for Houston, said: "This is not a Milli Vanilli thing. She sang live, but the microphone was turned off. It was a technical decision, partially based on the noise factor. This is standard procedure at these events." Nevertheless, a commercial single and video of the performance reached the Top 20 on the US Hot 100, giving Houston the biggest chart hit for a performance of the national anthem (José Feliciano's version reached No. 50 in November 1968).

Nuestro Himno

one version
Official Spanish (singable) translation of the Star Spangled Banner. Blog of Nuestro Himno creator, Adam Kidron of UBO. MP3 audio file of Nuestro Himno, provided by the New York Times. "An Immigrant's 'Star-Spangled Banner," by NPR Staff, October 10, 2012—Clotilde Arias' 1945 Spanish version of the National Anthem. NPR: A Spanish Version of 'The Star-Spangled Banner' – includes a link to a full version of the song (See relevant info about NPR's translation on the discussion page).

Twilight's Last Gleaming

feature film
The film's title, which functions on several levels, is taken from "The Star-Spangled Banner", the national anthem of the United States: :O say can you see, by the dawn's early light, / What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming? After escaping from a military prison, rogue Air Force General Lawrence Dell and accomplices Powell, Garvas, and Hoxey infiltrate a Montana ICBM complex that Dell helped design. Their goal is to gain control over its nine Titan nuclear missiles. The infiltration does not go as planned, as the impulsive Hoxey guns down an Air Force guard for trying to answer a ringing phone. Dell then shoots and kills Hoxey.

José Feliciano

Jose FelicianoJosé '''FelicianoAdiós Amor (José Feliciano song)
The event was held in Flag Hall, where the actual banner that flew over Fort McHenry in 1814, inspiring Francis Scott Key to write the poem which would become "The Star-Spangled Banner" is exhibited. At this same event a donation ceremony was held where Feliciano presented to the Smithsonian Museum his Candelas guitar with which he first rendered the "Star-Spangled Banner,", causing a national furor in 1968, along with other personal objects for the Smithsonian's permanent collection. On September 8, 2018, Feliciano was invited by the Detroit Tigers baseball team to return to their field and perform the "Star-Spangled Banner" again as he had in 1968. The Tigers were facing the St.