RomanticRomantic movementRomantic era
American Romanticism embraced the individual and rebelled against the confinement of neoclassicism and religious tradition. The Romantic movement in America created a new literary genre that continues to influence American writers. Novels, short stories, and poems replaced the sermons and manifestos of yore. Romantic literature was personal, intense, and portrayed more emotion than ever seen in neoclassical literature. America's preoccupation with freedom became a great source of motivation for Romantic writers as many were delighted in free expression and emotion without so much fear of ridicule and controversy.

Neoclassical architecture

NeoclassicalClassical Revivalneo-classical
Gabriel, Jean-François, Classical Architecture for the Twenty-first Century, Norton, 2004. Groth, Håkan, Neoclassicism in the North: Swedish Furniture and Interiors, 1770–1850. Honour, Hugh, Neoclassicism. Irwin, David, Neoclassicism (in series Art and Ideas) Phaidon, paperback, 1997. Lorentz, Stanislaw, Neoclassicism in Poland (Series History of art in Poland). McCormick, Thomas, Charles-Louis Clérisseau and the Genesis of Neoclassicism Architectural History Foundation, 1991. Praz, Mario. On Neoclassicism.

Classical antiquity

From the surviving fragments of classical antiquity, a revival movement was gradually formed from the 14th century onwards which came to be known later in Europe as the Renaissance, and again resurgent during various neo-classical revivals in the 18th and 19th centuries. The earliest period of classical antiquity takes place before the background of gradual re-appearance of historical sources following the Bronze Age collapse. The 8th and 7th centuries BC are still largely proto-historical, with the earliest Greek alphabetic inscriptions appearing in the first half of the 8th century.

Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe EnlightenmentFrench Enlightenment
At the same time, the Classical art of Greece and Rome became interesting to people again, since archaeological teams discovered Pompeii and Herculaneum. People took inspiration from it and revived the classical art into neo-classical art. This can be especially seen in early American art, where, throughout their art and architecture, they used arches, goddesses, and other classical architectural designs. * Roche, Daniel. France in the Enlightenment. (1998). * Yolton, John W. et al. The Blackwell Companion to the Enlightenment. (1992). 581 pp. * Schmidt, James, ed. What is Enlightenment?


Baroque styleBaroque eraBaroque period
They returned to Paris with a passion for classical art. Vandiéres became the Marquis of Marigny, and was named Royal Director of buildings in 1754. He turned official French architecture toward the neoclassical. Cochin became an important art critic; he denounced the petit style of Boucher, and called for a grand style with a new emphasis on antiquity and nobility in the academies of painting of architecture. The pioneer German art historian and archeologist Johann Joachim Winckelmann also condemned the baroque style, and praised the superior values of classical art and architecture. By the 19th century, Baroque was a target for ridicule and criticism.

Jacques-Louis David

DavidJacques Louis DavidLouis David
Another pupil of David's, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres became the most important artist of the restored Royal Academy and the figurehead of the Neoclassical school of art, engaging the increasingly popular Romantic school of art that was beginning to challenge Neoclassicism. David invested in the formation of young artists for the Rome Prize, which was also a way to pursue his old rivalry with other contemporary painters such as Joseph-Benoît Suvée, who had also started teaching classes. To be one of David's students was considered prestigious and earned his students a lifetime reputation.

Ancient Greece

Greekancient Greekancient Greeks
The Byzantine Empire inherited Classical Greek culture directly, without Latin intermediation, and the preservation of classical Greek learning in medieval Byzantine tradition further exerted strong influence on the Slavs and later on the Islamic Golden Age and the Western European Renaissance. A modern revival of Classical Greek learning took place in the Neoclassicism movement in 18th- and 19th-century Europe and the Americas. ; Notes * * Whitley, James. 2001. The archaeology of ancient Greece. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press. Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit et artis / intulit agresti Latio (Epistulae 2.1.156f.).


The Neoclassical style that arrived in the late 18th century gave great emphasis to sculpture. Jean-Antoine Houdon exemplifies the penetrating portrait sculpture the style could produce, and Antonio Canova's nudes the idealist aspect of the movement. The Neoclassical period was one of the great ages of public sculpture, though its "classical" prototypes were more likely to be Roman copies of Hellenistic sculptures. In sculpture, the most familiar representatives are the Italian Antonio Canova, the Englishman John Flaxman and the Dane Bertel Thorvaldsen.

Nicolas Poussin

PoussinNicholas PoussinN. Poussin
Cézanne appreciated Poussin's version of classicism. "Imagine how Poussin entirely redid nature, that is the classicism that I mean. What I don't accept is the classicism that limits you. I want that a visit to a master will help me find myself. Every time I leave a Poussin, I know better who I am." Cézanne was described in 1907 by Maurice Denis as "the Poussin of Impressionism". Georges Seurat was another Post-Impressionist artist who admired the formal qualities of Poussin's work. In the 20th century, some art critics suggested that the analytic Cubist experiments of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque were also founded upon Poussin's example.

Palladian architecture

PalladianPalladian styleNeo-Palladian
By the 1770s in Britain, such architects as Robert Adam and Sir William Chambers were in huge popular demand, but they were now drawing on a great variety of classical sources, including ancient Greece, so much so that their forms of architecture were eventually defined as neoclassical rather than Palladian. In Europe, the Palladian revival ended by the end of the 18th century. In North America, Palladianism lingered a little longer; Thomas Jefferson's floor plans and elevations owe a great deal to Palladio's Quattro libri. The term "Palladian" today is often misused, and tends to describe a building with any classical pretensions.

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres

IngresJean Auguste Dominique IngresDominique Ingres
Ingres and Eugène Delacroix became, in the mid-19th century, the most prominent representatives of the two great competing schools of art in France, neoclassicism and romanticism. Neo-classicism was based in large part on the philosophy of Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717–1768), who wrote that art should embody "noble simplicity and calm grandeur". Many painters followed this course, including Francois Gerard, Antoine-Jean Gros, Anne-Louis Girodet, and Jacques-Louis David, the teacher of Ingres. A competing school, romanticism, emerged first in Germany, and moved quickly to France. It rejected the idea of the imitation of classical styles, which it described as "gothic" and "primitive".

Cultural movement

culturalmovementcultural movements
Anti-classicist movement that sought to emphasize the feeling of the artist himself. See: Mannerism/Art. Baroque. Emphasizes power and authority, characterized by intricate detail and without the "disturbing angst" of Mannerism. Essentially is exaggerated Classicism to promote and glorify the Church and State. Occupied with notions of infinity. See: Baroque art — Baroque music. Rococo. Neoclassical (17th–19th centuries). Severe, unemotional movement recalling Roman and Greek ("classical") style, reacting against the overbred Rococo style and the emotional Baroque style. It stimulated revival of classical thinking, and had especially profound effects on science and politics.

History painting

history painterhistoryhistorical painting
An influential formulation of the hierarchy of genres, confirming the history painting at the top, was made in 1667 by André Félibien, a historiographer, architect and theoretician of French classicism became the classic statement of the theory for the 18th century: Celui qui fait parfaitement des païsages est au-dessus d'un autre qui ne fait que des fruits, des fleurs ou des coquilles.

The Raft of the Medusa

Raft of the MedusaLe Radeau de la MéduseMedusa
The unblemished musculature of the central figure waving to the rescue ship is reminiscent of the Neoclassical, however the naturalism of light and shadow, the authenticity of the desperation shown by the survivors and the emotional character of the composition differentiate it from Neoclassical austerity. It was a further departure from the religious or classical themes of earlier works because it depicted contemporary events with ordinary and unheroic figures.

Weimar Classicism

German ClassicismClassicalclassic" period
Centre for Intercultural Studies—Ernst Cassirer and Weimar Classicism. English Goethe Society. Goethe Society of North America.

1795–1820 in Western fashion

1795–1820 in fashionRegency fashions1795–1820
Waistlines became somewhat high by 1795, but skirts were still rather full, and neoclassical influences were not yet dominant. It was during the second half of the 1790s that fashionable women in France began to adopt a thoroughgoing Classical style, based on an idealized version of ancient Greek and Roman dress (or what was thought at the time to be ancient Greek and Roman dress), with narrow clinging skirts.

Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns

Ancients and ModernsQuerelle des anciens et des modernesAncient and Modern
He also restricted his tragedies by the classical unities, derived by the classicists from Aristotle's Poetics: the unities of place, time, and action (one scene location, 24 hours, and consistent actions respectively). The Quarrel of the Ancients and Moderns was a cover, often a witty one, for deeper opposed views. The very idea of Progress was under attack on the one side, and Authority on the other. The new antiquarian interests led to critical reassessment of the products of Antiquity that would eventually bring Scripture itself under the magnifying glass of some Moderns.

Ancient Rome

Oxford World's Classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 0-19-282296-9. Livy. The Rise of Rome, Books 1–5, translated from Latin by T.J. Luce, 1998. Oxford World's Classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 0-19-282296-9. Livy. The Rise of Rome, Books 1–5, translated from Latin by T.J. Luce, 1998. Oxford World's Classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 0-19-282296-9. Livy. The Rise of Rome, Books 1–5, translated from Latin by T.J. Luce, 1998. Oxford World's Classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 0-19-282296-9. Livy. The Rise of Rome, Books 1–5, translated from Latin by T.J. Luce, 1998. Oxford World's Classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Late antiquity

Late Antiqueancientantiquity
Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in Classics, a collaborative forum of Princeton and Stanford to make the latest scholarship on the field available in advance of final publication. The End of the Classical World, source documents from the Internet Medieval Sourcebook. Worlds of Late Antiquity, from the University of Pennsylvania. Age of spirituality : late antique and early Christian art, third to seventh century from The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Kenneth Clark

Sir Kenneth ClarkClark, KennethLord Clark
Romantic versus Classic Art (1973). The Romantic Rebellion (1973, book version of the television series). Another Part of the Wood: A Self-Portrait (1974 ). Henry Moore Drawings (1974). The Drawings by Sandro Botticelli for Dante’s Divine Comedy (1976). The Other Half: A Self-Portrait (1977). Animals and Men (1977). The Best of Aubrey Beardsley (1978). An Introduction to Rembrandt (1979). What is a Masterpiece? (1979). Feminine Beauty (1980). The Art of Humanism (1983). The Sir Kenneth Mackenzie Clark Collection at the Victoria University Library at the University of Toronto. The Sir Kenneth Mackenzie Clark Collection at the Victoria University Library at the University of Toronto.


the RenaissanceEarly RenaissanceEuropean Renaissance
The Latin language, for instance, had evolved greatly from the classical period and was still a living language used in the church and elsewhere. The Renaissance obsession with classical purity halted its further evolution and saw Latin revert to its classical form. Robert S. Lopez has contended that it was a period of deep economic recession. Meanwhile, George Sarton and Lynn Thorndike have both argued that scientific progress was perhaps less original than has traditionally been supposed. Finally, Joan Kelly argued that the Renaissance led to greater gender dichotomy, lessening the agency women had had during the Middle Ages.

Carolingian art

CarolingianCarolingian periodCarolingian manuscripts
There was for the first time a thoroughgoing attempt in Northern Europe to revive and emulate classical Mediterranean art forms and styles, that resulted in a blending of classical and Northern elements in a sumptuous and dignified style, in particular introducing to the North confidence in representing the human figure, and setting the stage for the rise of Romanesque art and eventually Gothic art in the West. The Carolingian era is part of the period in medieval art sometimes called the "Pre-Romanesque".

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects. The origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period. They have the same general outline, but differ in some of the detail.


opera singeroperasoperatic
However, operatic modernism's use of atonality also sparked a backlash in the form of neoclassicism. An early leader of this movement was Ferruccio Busoni, who in 1913 wrote the libretto for his neoclassical number opera Arlecchino (first performed in 1917). Also among the vanguard was the Russian Igor Stravinsky. After composing music for the Diaghilev-produced ballets Petrushka (1911) and The Rite of Spring (1913), Stravinsky turned to neoclassicism, a development culminating in his opera-oratorio Oedipus Rex (1927).


philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
The Renaissance period saw increasing focus on classic Greco-Roman thought and on a robust Humanism. Early modern philosophy in the Western world begins with thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes and René Descartes (1596–1650). Following the rise of natural science, modern philosophy was concerned with developing a secular and rational foundation for knowledge and moved away from traditional structures of authority such as religion, scholastic thought and the Church.