History of Canada

Canadian historyCanadahistory
After Champlain’s death in 1635, the Roman Catholic Church and the Jesuit establishment became the most dominant force in New France and hoped to establish a utopian European and Aboriginal Christian community. In 1642, the Sulpicians sponsored a group of settlers led by Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, who founded Ville-Marie, precursor to present-day Montreal. In 1663 the French crown took direct control of the colonies from the Company of New France. Although immigration rates to New France remained very low under direct French control, most of the new arrivals were farmers, and the rate of population growth among the settlers themselves had been very high.

Constitution of Canada

Canadian constitutionConstitutionconstitutional
The act renamed the northeasterly portion of the former French province of New France as Province of Quebec, roughly coextensive with the southern third of contemporary Quebec. The proclamation, which established an appointed colonial government, was the constitution of Quebec until 1774, when the British parliament passed the Quebec Act, which expanded the province's boundaries to the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, which was one of the grievances listed in the United States Declaration of Independence.

Province of Quebec (1763–1791)

Province of QuebecQuebecBritish Province of Quebec
During the war, Great Britain's forces conquered French Canada. As part of terms of the Treaty of Paris peace settlement, France gave up its claim to Canada and negotiated to keep the small but rich sugar island of Guadeloupe instead. By Britain's Royal Proclamation of 1763, Canada (part of New France) was renamed the Province of Quebec. The new British province extended from the coast of Labrador on the Atlantic Ocean, southwest through the Saint Lawrence River Valley to the Great Lakes and beyond to the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.

Placentia, Newfoundland and Labrador

PlacentiaPlaisancePlacentia Bay
The French garrisons at Plaisance were small, but despite that fact, the soldiers and French privateers managed to hold their own in the face of numerous English attacks during the two major conflicts of the Nine Years' War and the War of the Spanish Succession, which marked the colony's history. Recollect (Franciscan) friars from New France built a friary here in 1689, which lasted until the expulsion of the French in 1714. In 1692, Louis-Armand de Lom d'Arce de Lahontan, Baron de Lahontan defended the French port.

Rupert's Land

country within the limits of the Hudson's Bay CompanyNorthern and a big part of Western CanadaRupert’s Land
Former colonies and territories in Canada. Hudson's Bay Company Archives. Royal eponyms in Canada. The Centre for Rupert's Land Studies - The University of Winnipeg. "Canada Buys Rupert's Land", CBC.

Halifax, Nova Scotia

HalifaxHalifax Regional MunicipalityHalifax, NS
To guard against Mi'kmaq, Acadian and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax (Citadel Hill) (1749), Bedford (Fort Sackville) (1749), Dartmouth (1750), and Lawrencetown (1754), all areas within the modern-day Regional Municipality. St. Margaret's Bay was first settled by French-speaking Foreign Protestants at French Village, Nova Scotia who migrated from Lunenburg, Nova Scotia during the American Revolution. December 1917 saw one of the greatest disasters in Canadian history, when the, a French cargo ship carrying munitions, collided with the Belgian Relief vessel in "The Narrows" between upper Halifax Harbour and Bedford Basin.

List of Governors General of Canada

Governor General of CanadaGovernor General of British North AmericaList of Governors General of CGovernor General
The following is a list of Administrators of the Government (and Justices of the Supreme Court of Canada), who were acting governors appointed as the result of the death or prolonged absence of the sitting viceroy, or for any other reason: Governors General of Canada timeline. List of viceregal consorts of Canada. List of Canadian monarchs. Viceregal eponyms in Canada. List of vicereines in Canada. Governor General of Canada > Former Governors General. Department of Canadian Heritage > A Crown of Maples – Appendices > Governors/Governors General of Canada.


SKSASProvince of Saskatchewan
According to the Canada 2011 Census, the largest ethnic group in Saskatchewan is German (28.6%), followed by English (24.9%), Scottish (18.9%), Canadian (18.8%), Irish (15.5%), Ukrainian (13.5%), French (Fransaskois) (12.2%), First Nations (12.1%), Norwegian (6.9%), and Polish (5.8%). The largest denominations by number of adherents according to the 2001 census were the Roman Catholic Church with 286,815 (30%); the United Church of Canada with 187,450 (20%); and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada with 78,520 (8%). 148,535 (15.4%) responded "no religion".

Constitution Act, 1867

British North America Act'', 1867British North America Act, 1867British North America Act
These rights are duplicated in respect to the federal government, but not Quebec, and extended to New Brunswick, by section 17, section 18, and section 19 of the Charter of Rights; section 16 and section 20 of the Charter elaborate by declaring English and French to be the official languages and allowing for bilingual public services. The anniversary of the Acts entry into force on 1 July 1867 is celebrated annually in Canada as Canada Day, Canada's national holiday. ;Bibliography ;Notes * Browne, G. P., ed. Documents on the Confederation of British North America (2nd ed., McGill-Queen's University Press, 2009), 377pp; primary sources Gwyn, Richard J. Nation Maker: Sir John A.

United States

During the Seven Years' War (in the United States, known as the French and Indian War), British forces seized Canada from the French, but the francophone population remained politically isolated from the southern colonies. Excluding the Native Americans, who were being conquered and displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.1 million in 1770, about one-third that of Britain. Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the 1770s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas.

American Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary WarRevolutionary
The North American theater of the Seven Years' War is commonly known as the French and Indian War in the United States; it removed France as a major player in North American affairs and led to the territory of New France being ceded to Great Britain. Lawrence Henry Gipson writes: "It may be said as truly that the American Revolution was an aftermath of the Anglo-French conflict in the New World carried on between 1754 and 1763." The Royal Proclamation of 1763 may also have played a role in the separation of the Thirteen Colonies from England, as colonists wanted to continue migrating west to lands awarded by the Crown for their wartime service. The Proclamation, however, cut them off.


governor generalgovernors-generalgovernors general
From 1887 to 1945 the French appointed a governor-general to govern French Indo-China (now Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia); the function of High commissioner in the Pacific Ocean, from 22 March 1907 held by the Governors of New Caledonia, was used to coordinate that colony, the other French settlements in Oceania and the governors-general of French Indochina and the Resident commissioners of the New Hebrides and the Residents of Wallis and Futuna were subordinated to him. Governor General of New France was the vice-regal post in New France from 1663 until 1760 and was the last French vice-regal post.

Military history of Canada

Canadian military historyCanadian militiaCanada's military history
The early military of New France consisted of a mix of regular soldiers from the French Army (Carignan-Salières Regiment) and French Navy (Troupes de la marine and Compagnies Franches de la Marine) supported by small local volunteer militia units (Colonial militia). Most early troops were sent from France, but localization after the growth of the colony meant that, by the 1690s, many were volunteers from the settlers of New France, and by the 1750s most troops were descendants of the original French inhabitants.

Outline of Canada

Former Colonies and Territories in Canada. Constitutional history of Canada. History of immigration to Canada. Economic history of Canada. Fires in Canada. Military history of Canada. History of monarchy in Canada. Persons of National Historic Significance. Territorial evolution of Canada (1867–present). Pre-Columbian era (Canada). 1534–1763: New France. 1764-1867: Canada under British Imperial Control. 1867-1914: Post-Confederation Canada. 1914-1945: Canada in the World Wars and Interwar Years. 1945-1960. 1960-1981. 1982-1992. 1992–present. History of Alberta. History of British Columbia. History of Vancouver (city). History of Manitoba. History of New Brunswick.

History of the Canadian Army

Canadian ArmyArmyCanadian
Prior to Canadian Confederation in 1867, defence for the colonies that comprise present-day Canada was dependent on the armies of colonial powers. The military of New France (1608–1763) was dependent on the French Royal Army. Conversely, the defence of the English/British colonies of Newfoundland (1610–1907), and Nova Scotia (1654–1867) was dependent on the English/British Army. After the British conquest of New France in 1760, defence for the French colony of Canada (present-day Ontario, and Quebec), and St. John's Island was also reliant on the British Army. Both the British and French Armies were augmented by locally recruited regulars, fencibles, and the Canadian militia.

History of monarchy in Canada

Monarchs of Canadian territories1964 Truncheon Saturday riotan unbroken chain of sovereigns of Canada
The French monarch also moved quickly and it was in 1602 that Aymar de Chaste was appointed as Viceroy of Canada to represent King Henry IV. In 1615, Quebec City was, on the recommendation of Samuel de Champlain, made a royal capital of the French empire in the Americas, with Champlain—who had been representative of, or lieutenant governor to, most Viceroys of Canada —installed as the first viceregal representative of the King in New France. Some 60 years later, New France was designated as a royal province of France itself, ruled by the King through his appointed Conseil souverain, which included the governor general as the monarch's stand-in.

Immigration to Canada

immigrationimmigrantsimmigrants to Canada
According to data from the 2016 census by Statistics Canada, 21.9% of the Canadian population reported they were or had ever been a landed immigrant or permanent resident in Canada – nearly the 22.3% recorded during the 1921 Census, which was the highest level since the 1867 Confederation of Canada. More than one in five Canadians were born abroad, and 22.3% of the population belonged to visible minorities, of whom 3 in 10 were born in Canada. In 2013–2014, most of the Canadian public, as well as the major political parties, supported either sustaining or increasing the current level of immigration.

Northern Ontario

NorthernNew OntarioNorth Ontario
(In French, however, the region may still be referred to as Nouvel Ontario, although le Nord de l'Ontario and Ontario-Nord are now more commonly used.) Those areas which formed part of New France in the pays d'en haut, essentially the watersheds of the Ottawa River, Lake Huron and Lake Superior, had been acquired by the British by the Treaty of Paris (1763) and became part of Upper Canada in 1791, and then the Province of Canada between 1840 and 1867. At the time of Canadian Confederation in 1867, the portion of Northern Ontario lying south of the Laurentian Divide was part of Ontario, while the portion north of the divide was part of the separate British territory of Rupert's Land.

Canada under British rule

British CanadaCanadaBritish Era
Canada was under British rule beginning with the 1763 Treaty of Paris, when New France, of which the colony of Canada was a part, formally became a part of the British Empire. Gradually, other territories, colonies and provinces that were part of British North America would be added to Canada, along with land through the use of treaties with First Peoples (for example, see the Post-Confederation or Numbered Treaties). The Royal Proclamation of 1763 enlarged the colony of Canada under the name of the Province of Quebec, which with the Constitutional Act 1791 became known as the Canadas. With the Act of Union 1840, Upper and Lower Canada were joined to become the United Province of Canada.