AcadianAcadian settlersFrench
The Acadians (Acadiens, ) are the descendants of French colonists who settled in Acadia during the 17th and 18th centuries, some of whom are also descended from the Indigenous peoples of the region. The colony was located in what is now Eastern Canada's Maritime provinces (Nova Scotia, New one) Canadians, Acadia was a distinctly separate colony of New France. It was geographically and administratively separate from the French colony of Canada (modern-day Quebec). As a result, the Acadians and Québécois developed two distinct histories and cultures. They also developed a slightly different French language.

Seven Years' War

French and Indian WarSeven Year WarThird Silesian or Seven Years' War
Faced with the choice of regaining either New France or its Caribbean island colonies of Guadeloupe and Martinique, France chose the latter to retain these lucrative sources of sugar, writing off New France as an unproductive, costly territory. France also returned Menorca to the British. Spain lost control of Florida to Great Britain, but it received from the French the Île d'Orléans and all of the former French holdings west of the Mississippi River. The exchanges suited the British as well, as their own Caribbean islands already supplied ample sugar, and, with the acquisition of New France and Florida, they now controlled all of North America east of the Mississippi.


federalfederal governmentfederal state
Canada (since 1982). Malaysia. State of Haiti (1806–1811). United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1825). Confederate States of America (1861–1865). Confederate Ireland (1642–1652). Federal State of Austria (1934–1938). Federal Republic of Cameroon (1961–1972). United Provinces of Central America (1823 – circa 1838). United States of Colombia (1863–1886). Democratic Republic of the Congo (1964–1967). Czechoslovakia (1969–1992). Republic of Kenya (1963–1964). Federated Dutch Republic (1581–1795). Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea (1952–1962). French Equatorial Africa (1910–1934). French Indochina (1887–1954). French West Africa (1904–1958).

Cape Breton Island

Cape BretonCape Breton, Nova ScotiaC'''ape Breton Island
In addition to Cape Breton Island, the French colony of Île Royale also included Île Saint-Jean, today called Prince Edward Island, and Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine. Louisbourg itself was one of the most important commercial and military centres in New France. Louisbourg was captured by New Englanders with British naval assistance in 1745 and by British forces in 1758. The French population of Île Royale was deported to France after each siege. While French settlers returned to their homes in Île Royale after the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was signed in 1748, the fortress was demolished after the second siege.

Samuel de Champlain

ChamplainChamplain Monumentde Champlain, Samuel
There, he wrote an account of his life from 1604 to 1612 and his journey up the Ottawa river, his Voyages and published another map of New France. In 1614, he formed the "Compagnie des Marchands de Rouen et de Saint-Malo" and "Compagnie de Champlain", which bound the Rouen and Saint-Malo merchants for eleven years. He returned to New France in the spring of 1615 with four Recollects in order to further religious life in the new colony. The Roman Catholic Church was eventually given en seigneurie large and valuable tracts of land, estimated at nearly 30% of all the lands granted by the French Crown in New France.

Canada (New France)

CanadaColony of CanadaNew France
Francophone Quebecers will therefore often use the term New France (Nouvelle-France) when referring to Canada (New France), and the term Canadien, at one time used to refer to the French-speaking populations of colonial Canada, was replaced by the term Canadien-Français (French-Canadian), and more recently by Québécois. Descendants of the original French-speaking "Canadien" population of Canada (New France) now living outside of Quebec are now often referred to by reference to their current province of residence, such as Franco-Ontarian.

Coureur des bois

coureurs des boisvoyageurvoyageurs
While the French had been trading and living among the natives since the earliest days of New France, coureurs des bois reached their apex during the second half of the 17th century. After 1681, the independent coureur des bois was gradually replaced by state-sponsored voyageurs, who were workers associated with licensed fur traders. They traveled extensively by canoe. Coureurs des bois lost their importance in the fur trade by the early 18th century. However, even while their numbers were dwindling, the coureur des bois developed as a symbol of the colony, creating a lasting myth that would continue to define New France for centuries.

Jacques Cartier

CartierCartier, JacquesFrench navigator and explorer
. * Timeline of New France history (1534 to 1607) * Guitard, Michèle (1984). Jacques Cartier in Canada. Ottawa: National Library of Canada. Text in English and in French, in parallel columns. ISBN: 0-662-52832-8 Grande Hermine. Built: France 1534; given in 1535 to Cartier by the King of France; used in the 1535–1536 and 1541–1542 voyages; replica 1967 built for "Expo 67" in Montréal; abandoned in 2001 from Saint-Charles River (Québec City). Petite Hermine. Built: France; used in the 1535–1536 voyage and abandoned in 1536 springtime by Cartier in Saint-Charles River because too many of his sailors died in Québec City during last wintertime. Émérillon.


Dieppe, FranceDieppe areaDieppe International Film Festival
On July 23, 1632, 300 colonists heading to New France departed from Dieppe. At the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, Dieppe lost 3,000 of its Huguenot citizens, who fled abroad. Dieppe was an important target in wartime; the town was largely destroyed by an Anglo-Dutch naval bombardment in 1694. It was rebuilt after 1696 in a typical French classical style by Ventabren, an architect, who gave it its unique feature for a sea port. It was popularised as a seaside resort following the 1824 visit of the widowed Duchess of Berry, daughter-in-law of Charles X.

Adam Dollard des Ormeaux

Dollard des OrmeauxAdam Dollard, Sieur des OrmeauxDollard
Histoire de la colonie française au Canada, 1865. E.R. Adair. "A Re-Interpretation of Dollard's Exploit" Canadian Historical Review 13 no. 2, 1932. E.Z. Massicotte. Dollard des Ormeaux et ses compagnons, Montréal: Le Comité du Monument Dollard des Ormeaux, 1920. François Dollier de Caisson. Histoire du Montréal, 1640-1672, Eusèbe Sénécal, Montréal, 1871. Édition conforme au manuscrit de Paris. Francis Parkman. The Old Regime in Canada, 1874. François-Xavier Garneau. Histoire du Canada depuis sa découverte jusqu'à nos jours, 1845. Gustave Lanctot. "Was Dollard the Saviour of New France?" Canadian Historical Review 13 no. 2, 1932. John A. Dickinson.


Trois-Rivières, QuebecThree RiversTrois-Rivières, QC
Trois-Rivières is a city in the Mauricie administrative region of Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Saint-Maurice and Saint Lawrence rivers, on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River across from the city of Bécancour. It is part of the densely populated Quebec City–Windsor Corridor and is approximately halfway between Montreal and Quebec City. Trois-Rivières is the economic and cultural hub of the Mauricie region. The settlement was founded by French colonists on July 4, 1634, as the second permanent settlement in New France, after Quebec City in 1608.

Cardinal Richelieu

RichelieuCardinal de RichelieuArmand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu
Unlike the other colonial powers, France encouraged a peaceful coexistence in New France between Natives and Colonists and sought the integration of Indians into colonial society. Samuel de Champlain, governor of New France at the time of Richelieu, saw intermarriage between French and Indians as a solution to increase population in its colony.

Alexander Tilloch Galt

Sir Alexander Tilloch GaltAlexander GaltGalt
Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt, (September 6, 1817 – September 19, 1893), was a politician and a father of Canadian Confederation. Galt was born in Chelsea, England on September 6, 1817. He was the son of John Galt, a Scottish novelist and colonizer, and Elizabeth (née Tilloch) Galt. His mother was the only daughter of Alexander Tilloch, the journalist and inventor who founded Philosophical Magazine. He was a first cousin of Sir Hugh Allan of Montreal, the owner of the Allan Shipping Line which was the largest privately owned shipping empire in the world in 1882. He was a member of the Great Coalition government in the Province of Canada that secured Confederation between 1864 and 1867.

Responsible government

responsibleresponsible self-governmentself-governing
It was only in the decades leading up to Canadian Confederation in 1867 that the governing councils of those British North American colonies became responsible to the elected representatives of the people. Responsible government was a major element of the gradual development of Canada towards independence. The concept of responsible government is associated in Canada more with self-government than with parliamentary accountability; hence there is the notion that the Dominion of Newfoundland "gave up responsible government" when it suspended its self-governing status in 1933, as a result of financial problems.

King's Daughters

filles du roiFilles de RoyKing's Daughter
By 1672, the population of New France had risen to 6,700, from 3,200 in 1663. The idea that the filles du roi were prostitutes has been a rumour ever since the inception of the program in the 17th century. It seems to have arisen from a couple of misconceptions, both contemporary and modern, about immigration to French colonies in the New World. The first of these, which took root long before the first fille du roi emigrated, was that Canada was a penal colony. While there were two campaigns in the mid-16th century that involved the immigration of French criminals to Canada in exchange for their records being expunged, they were both short-lived.

British North America

BritishNorth AmericaCanada
The Canadas were united into the Province of Canada in 1841. On 1 July 1867, the Confederation of Canada was created by the British North America Act. The new Dominion of Canada joined the provinces of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The former Province of Canada was split back into its two parts, with Canada East (Lower Canada) being renamed Quebec, and Canada West (Upper Canada) renamed Ontario. In 1870, Rupert's Land was annexed to Canada as the Northwest Territories (NWT) and the new province of Manitoba.

French colonization of the Americas

FrenchFrench colonistsFrench colony
Former colonies and territories in Canada. French and Indian Wars. Franco-Indian alliance. French colonial empire. French in Canada. French in the United States. French intervention in Mexico. Illinois Country. List of French possessions and colonies. List of French forts in North America. Military of New France. Timeline of imperialism#Colonization of North America. Canadian French. Brecher, Frank W. Losing a Continent: France's North American Policy, 1753-1763 (1998). Dechêne, Louise Habitants and Merchants in Seventeenth-Century Montreal (2003). Eccles, W. J. The Canadian Frontier, 1534-1760 (1983). Eccles, W. J. Essays on New France (1988). Eccles, W.J.

First Nations

First NationNorth American IndianIndian
The citizens of New France received slaves as gifts from their allies among First Nations peoples. Slaves were prisoners taken in raids against the villages of the Fox nation, a tribe that was an ancient rival of the Miami people and their Algonquian allies. Native (or "pani", a corruption of Pawnee) slaves were much easier to obtain and thus more numerous than African slaves in New France, but were less valued. The average native slave died at 18, and the average African slave died at 25 (the average European could expect to live until the age of 35 ).

Third Treaty of San Ildefonso

Treaty of San IldefonsoSt. Ildefonso treatyceded ownership
A third was the restoration of New France in North America, lost after the 1756-1763 Seven Years' War, with Louisiana providing raw materials for French plantations in the Caribbean. The combination of French ambition and Spanish weakness made the return of Louisiana attractive to both, especially as Spain was being drawn into disputes with the US over navigation rights on the Mississippi River. Talleyrand claimed French possession of Louisiana would allow them to protect Spanish South America from both Britain and the US. The Treaty was negotiated by French general Louis-Alexandre Berthier and the Spanish former Chief Minister Mariano Luis de Urquijo.