New Zealand Wars

New ZealandLand WarsMaori Wars
Māori united under proven military commanders including Rewi Maniapoto and Tikaokao of Ngāti Maniapoto and Wiremu Tamihana of Ngāti Hauā. Campaigners on both sides of the New Zealand wars had developed distinctive war strategies and tactics. The British set out to fight a European-style war, based on engaging with the opposing forces, besieging and then capturing fortified positions. The British Army were professional soldiers who had experience fighting in various parts of the Empire, many from India and Afghanistan, and were led by officers who were themselves trained by men who had fought at Waterloo.

paMaori PaMāori pā
Recent studies have shown that in most cases, few people lived long term in a single pā, and that iwi maintained several pā at once, often under the control of a hapū (subtribe). The area in between pā were primarily common residential and horticultural sites. A tourist attraction of authentic pā engineering is Auckland's Maungawhau / Mount Eden. Traditional pā took a variety of designs. The simplest pā, the tuwatawata, generally consisted of a single wood palisade around the village stronghold, and several elevated stage levels from which to defend and attack.

Te Awamutu

OtawhaoMangatoatoaTe Maru o Ihowa
The local Mangatoatoa Marae and Te Maru o Ihowa meeting house is a meeting place for the Maniapoto hapū of Ngutu, Pare te Kawa and Parewaeono, and the Waikato Tainui hapū of Ngāti Ngutu and Ngāti Paretekawa. Te Awamutu literally means in English "The River's End". The town is on gently undulating land close to the banks of a tributary of the Waipa River. The Waikato Plains lie to the north and east, and the promontory of Mount Pirongia, 20 kilometres to the west, is easily visible. Inside the township are two streams called the Mangapiko Stream and the Mangaohoi Stream. The Mangaohoi ends and becomes the Tributary of the Mangapiko near Memorial park.

King Country

King-countryTe Rohe Potae
Prior to European settlement, the area was occupied by various Māori iwi, especially Ngāti Maniapoto, Ngāti Tama, and Ngāti Tuwharetoa. In July 1863, Governor Sir George Grey ordered the invasion of the Waikato by British troops, with support from small numbers of loyal Māori. The invasion was aimed at crushing Kingite power that was seen as a threat to British authority, and also at driving Waikato Māori from their territory in readiness for occupation and settlement by Europeans.

Treaty of Waitangi

Te Tiriti o WaitangiTreatyThe Treaty of Waitangi
Māori chiefs (rangatira) then debated the Treaty for five hours, much of which was recorded and translated by the Paihia missionary station printer, William Colenso. Rewa, a Catholic chief, who had been influenced by the French Catholic Bishop Pompallier, said "The Māori people don't want a governor! We aren't European. It's true that we've sold some of our lands. But this country is still ours! We chiefs govern this land of our ancestors". Moka 'Kainga-mataa' argued that all land unjustly purchased by Europeans should be returned. Whai asked: "Yesterday I was cursed by a white man. Is that the way things are going to be?".

New Zealand

Social organisation was largely communal with families (whānau), subtribes (hapū) and tribes (iwi) ruled by a chief (rangatira), whose position was subject to the community's approval. The British and Irish immigrants brought aspects of their own culture to New Zealand and also influenced Māori culture, particularly with the introduction of Christianity. However, Māori still regard their allegiance to tribal groups as a vital part of their identity, and Māori kinship roles resemble those of other Polynesian peoples. More recently American, Australian, Asian and other European cultures have exerted influence on New Zealand.


Waikato-TainuiTainui confederation of iwiTainui iwi
The first Māori king was the great Waikato warrior Te Wherowhero who came from a great line of rangatira. Tainui, who had conquered much Taranaki land, sent warriors to help fight the settlers and British soldiers in Taranaki to prevent minor chiefs selling land to the government. Missionaries at Te Awamutu told the Kīngitanga they would be considered rebels by the government after they refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Crown.


In 1831, thirteen rangatira from the Far North met at Kerikeri to compose a letter to King William IV, seeking protection from the French, "the tribe of Marion". Written in Māori, the letter used the word "pākehā" to mean "British European", and the words tau iwi to mean "strangers (non-British)"—as shown in the translation that year of the letter from Māori to English by the missionary William Yate. To this day, the Māori term for the English language is "reo pākehā". Māori also used other terms such as tupua ("supernatural", "object of fear, strange being"), kehua ("ghosts"), and maitai ("metal" or referring to persons "foreign") to refer to some of the earliest visitors.


mana whenuaimunumagic energy
Mana is a supernatural force or power in the culture of the Melanesians and Polynesians. The force is ascribed to spirits, persons, or objects and describes the posession of power, rather than being a source of power. It can either be a force of good or evil.

Taonui Hikaka

Taonui Hikaka (died 2 December 1892) was an Ariki and Rangatira Chief of the Ngāti Maniapoto iwi in New Zealand. He was born in Paripari, King Country, in the early 1840s. After his father Taonui (I) who was a Te Tiriti o Waitangi 1840 died in the 1860s Taonui (II) became the leader of Ngāti Rora, a hapū of Ngati Maniapoto. Along with two older men, Wahanui and Rewi Maniapoto, Taonui was a leading chief of Ngati Maniapoto and represented the tribe in dealings with government bodies.

Te Kooti

Te Kooti ArikirangiTe Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki
He was born at Te Pa-o-Kahu in the Gisborne region as a son of Hone Rangipatahi (father) and Hine Turakau (mother), of the Rongowhakaata subtribe (iwi). Their hapū was Ngati Maru, whose villages were situated near the Awapuni lagoon, where the Waipaoa River runs into the ocean. Arikirangi is thought to be the original name of Te Kooti. His birth date is thought to be approximately 1832. A matakite (visionary) of Nukutaurua on Mahia Peninsula, named Toiroa Ikariki (Ikarihi), prophesied the birth of Te Kooti (as well as the coming of the white men, the Pākehā): The song is dated 1766.

Waikato Tainui

WaikatoNgāti PouNgāti Koheriki
The iwi of Ngāti Mahuta is associated with 19 marae: The iwi of Ngāti Te Wehi is associated with 9 marae: The hapū of Ngāti Tai, Ngāti Kuiaarangi and Ngāti Whāwhākia are associated with 8 marae: The hapū of Tainui is associated with 7 marae: The hapū of Ngāti Tāhinga is associated with 6 marae: The hapū of Ngāti Apakura is associated with 6 marae: The hāpu of Ngāti Tiipa and Ngāti Āmaru are associated with 6 marae: The hāpu of Ngāti Hauā is associated with 5 marae: The hapū of Ngāti Korokī and Ngāti Raukawa are associated with 5 marae: The hapū of Ngāti Māhanga and Ngāti Tamainupo are associated with 4 marae: The hapū of Ngāi Tai, Ngāti Koheriki, and Ngāti Tamaoho are associated with 4 marae:

Ngāti Hauā

Ngāti HāuaNgāti Te OroNgāti Waenganui
The attacks were believed to be instigated by Rewi Maniapoto but Tamihana took part in at least one and his sons in several. The attacks were designed to win the Kingites time to build the Mere Mere line of defence. After the defeat at Meremere Wiremu Tamahana lead about 100 Ngati Haua into Rangiriri Pa to join other Waikato iwi notably Ngati Mahuta. After the defeat at Rangiriri Tamihana sent his greenstone mere to General Cameron as an indication of surrender but Cameron was not interested in talking to him about a limited surrender. The Ngati Haua retreated to Maungatautari where they began to rebuild Te Tiki pa on the slopes of the mountain to make it suitable for contemporary warfare.

List of marae in Waikato

List of marae in the Waikato Region
This is a list of marae (Māori meeting grounds) in the Waikato region of New Zealand.

Ngāti Mutunga

Ngati MutungaNgati MutangaNgāti Mutunga Claims Settlement Act 2006
Te Kooti who had been given sanctuary by the Maniapoto fighting chief Rewi Maniapoto, against the express wishes of the Maori king, allowed Te Kooti to go to the river mouth for seafood. Te Kooti tried to form an alliance with a local hapu to drive out the prospectors and their Ngati Mutunga guardians. During the conflict in Taranaki over land in the 1860s and subsequently, Ngāti Mutunga left en masse from the Chatham Islands, joined with other iwi in rebelling against the Crown's decision to purchase land from Maori. This led to at least 23 Ngāti Mutunga taking part in the Parihaka occupation of disputed land and their subsequent arrest.

Hauturu, Waikato

The local Rākaunui Marae is a meeting ground for the Maniapoto hapū of Kerapa, Takiari and Te Waha, and the Waikato Tainui hapū of Ngāti Ngutu and Ngāti Paretekawa. It includes the Moanakahakore meeting house. Hauturu School is a Year 1–8 co-educational state primary school. It is a decile 3 school with a roll of as of

Gilbert Mair (trader)

Gilbert Mair
During the attack on Auckland by the Ngāti Maniapoto and the Ngāti Hauā in 1863, Gilbert junior joined the Forest Rangers under William Jackson, as an ensign or trainee officer. He took part in the Invasion of Waikato against the rebel Māori Kīngitanga forces and became famous in late 1863 for entering into discussions with the rebels during the Battle of Orakau under a flag of truce. The government forces were aware that a number of women and children were in the stronghold and Mair pleaded with the rebels to let them out but they refused and shot Mair in the shoulder.

Māori King Movement

Māori KingKingitangaKīngitanga
Even within the movement there was said to be deep division: historian Keith Sinclair claimed "moderates" aligned themselves with Wiremu Tamihana and "anti-European extremists" followed Ngāti Maniapoto chief and warlord Rewi Maniapoto, although Belich and historian Vincent O'Malley dispute this, saying both factions were driven by shared objectives and concerns and that divisions had been exaggerated by historians. Tribal rivalries may also have weakened unity. Historian B.J. Dalton observed: "Outside the Waikato, the King Movement appealed most to the younger generation who could see no other way of gaining the mana their fathers had won in battle."

Māori people

MāoriMaoriNew Zealand Māori
Most Māori lived in villages, which were inhabited by several whānau (extended families) who collectively formed a hapū (clan or subtribe). Members of a hapū cooperated with food production, gathering resources, raising families and defence. Māori society across New Zealand was broadly stratified into three classes of people: rangatira, chiefs and ruling families; tūtūā, commoners; and mōkai, slaves. Tohunga also held special standing in their communities as specialists of revered arts, skills and esoteric knowledge. Shared ancestry, intermarriage and trade strengthened relationships between different groups.


King TāwhiaoTawhiaoKing Tawhiao
When Pōtatau died in 1860, Tāwhiao, his sister Te Paea Tiaho, and Wiremu Tamihana Tarapipipi of Ngāti Hauā were candidates to succeed him. Tāwhiao was chosen and reigned for thirty-four years during one of the most difficult and discouraging periods of Māori history. During this period there were two governments de jure; English law and governance prevailed within the British settlements and Māori custom over the rest of the country, although the influence of the King was largely confined to the Waikato and even there chiefs such as Rewi Maniapoto only cooperated with the king when it suited him.

Musket Wars

intertribal warfareinvasionsmusket war
However, soon after, members of the Ngāti Korokoro hapū of Ngāpuhi suffered severe losses in a raid on the Kai Tutae hapu despite outnumbering their foe ten to one, because the Kai Tutae were equipped with muskets. Under Hongi Hika's command, Ngāpuhi began amassing muskets and from about 1818 began launching effective raids on hapu throughout the North Island against whom they had grievances. Rather than occupy territory in areas they defeated their enemy, they seized taonga (treasures) and slaves, who they put to work to grow and prepare more crops—chiefly flax and potatoes—as well as pigs to trade for even more weapons.


tribeMāori tribeMāori tribes
Related but less important factors, are that a hapu may belong to more than one iwi, a particular hapu may have belonged to different iwi at different times, the tension caused by the social and economic power moving from the iwi down rather than from the hapu up, and the fact that many iwi do not recognise spouses and adoptees who do not have kinship links. In the 2006 census, 16 per cent of the 643,977 people who claimed Māori ancestry did not know their iwi. Another 11 per cent did not state their iwi, or stated only a general geographic region, or merely gave a waka name.

Tainui (canoe)

TainuiTainui canoeTainui waka
In Māori traditions, the Tainui waka was commanded by the chief Hoturoa. On its voyage the Tainui stopped at many Pacific islands, eventually arriving in New Zealand. Its first landfall was at Whangaparaoa Bay in the Bay of Plenty. Tainui continued on to Tauranga, the Coromandel Peninsula and Waitematā Harbour. From the Waitemata on the east coast, the canoe was carried by hand across the Tamaki isthmus (present-day Auckland) to Manukau Harbour on the west coast. From the Manukau, Tainui sailed north to Kaipara, then southwards to the west coast harbours of Whaingaroa (Raglan), Aotea and Kāwhia.


Te Wahanui
After war ended he became an important leader of Ngāti Maniapoto and a principal adviser to the Māori King, Tāwhiao. He was opposed to Ngāti Maniapoto and Waikato selling land, but he and fellow Ngāti Maniapoto leaders Rewi Maniapoto and Taonui eventually realised the inevitability of their territory, the King Country, being opened to Pākehā. Wahanui, Rewi and Taonui signed a petition which was presented to Parliament in 1883; they criticised the government for legislation which ran contrary to the Treaty of Waitangi. He was later offered a seat in the Legislative Council, but did not take it up.

Invasion of the Waikato

Invasion of WaikatoWaikato WarWaikato campaign
Ngati Maniapoto chief Winitana Tupotahi suggested at a runanga, or council of chiefs, that they abandon the pā, but Rewi rejected the proposal. At midday many attempted to break out of the pā through the cordon at the east, but were driven back twice, suffering the loss of one of their chiefs. One Kingite told Cowan: "We were in better spirits after our fight in the open; nevertheless we realized that our position was hopeless, short of food and water, short of lead, and surrounded by soldiers many times outnumbering our garrison, and with big guns throwing shells into our defences."