The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin; wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor or in ancient Greece. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor, in the Levant, or somewhere in the Mesopotamian part of the Fertile Crescent. Archaeological evidence shows that olives were turned into olive oil by 6000 BC and 4500 BC at a now-submerged prehistoric settlement south of Haifa. Until 1500 BC, eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. Evidence also suggests that olives were being grown in Crete as long ago as 2500 BC.
oilextra virgin olive oilextra-virgin olive oil
Some dishes can be traced back to ancient Greece like skordalia (a thick purée of walnuts, almonds, crushed garlic and olive oil), lentil soup, retsina (white or rosé wine sealed with pine resin) and pasteli (candy bar with sesame seeds baked with honey). Throughout Greece people often enjoy eating from small dishes such as meze with various dips such as tzatziki, grilled octopus and small fish, feta cheese, dolmades (rice, currants and pine kernels wrapped in vine leaves), various pulses, olives and cheese. Olive oil is added to almost every dish. Some sweet desserts include melomakarona, diples and galaktoboureko, and drinks such as ouzo, metaxa and a variety of wines including retsina.
The term cultivar most commonly refers to an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characters that are maintained during propagation. More generally, cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). Most cultivars arose in cultivation, but a few are special selections from the wild.
Ascolano is a cold-hardy table variety olive cultivar from the Marche and Tuscany regions of Italy that is also grown in California for olive oil. Harvesting and milling when overripe results in the olive oil exhibiting a fruity character of tropical fruit and peaches. The variety needs cross-pollination with varieties like Leccino or Pendolino. The leaves of the Ascolano are broad, elliptic-lanceolate shaped, and of medium length. The fruit is elliptically shaped, long, rounded at the apex, and with a truncated base.
olive knotP. savastanoi
One of the first scientists who carried out scientific and modern research on the disease of olive trees caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi (la rogna dell'ulivo) was Giuseppe Maria Giovene (1753-1837), who explained his conclusions in his publication Sulla rogna degli ulivi (1789). * Type strain of Pseudomonas savastanoi at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. fraxini causes ash canker. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. nerii attacks oleander. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi causes olive knot. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola attacks Phaseolus (bean) plants.
Kalamata (olive). Kolokythopita. Piperopita. Syglino (pork meat) (Mani Peninsula). Diples (dessert). Galatopita (dessert). Geography of Greece. List of Greek place names. Britannica.com. Official Regional Government Website. Greek Fire Survivors Mourn Amid Devastation in Peloponnese.
Bactrocera oleaeB. oleaemusca oleae
The olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae, Dacus oleae) is a species of fruit fly, which belongs to the subfamily Dacinae. It is a phytophagous species, whose larvae feed on the fruit of olive trees, hence the common name. It is considered a serious pest in the cultivation of olives. Until 1998, the fly had not been detected in the United States, and its range coincided with the range of the olive tree in the Eastern Hemisphere: northern, eastern, and southern Africa, Southern Europe, the Canary Islands, India, and western Asia. In the Western Hemisphere, it is currently restricted to California, Baja California, and Sonora.
Frantoio and Leccino cultivars are the principal raw material for Italian olive oils from Tuscany. Frantoio is fruity, with a stronger aftertaste than Leccino. The Frantoio tree grows well in milder climates, but is not as tolerant of heat and cold as Spanish olive cultivars. The tree grows moderately and has an airy canopy. It tends to be highly productive in the right conditions and has a tendency to grow more like a tree than a bush, which is different from most olive trees. Average oil yield is 23-28% of the fruit.
CAState of CaliforniaCalifornia, USA
After the Portolà expedition of 1769–70, Spanish missionaries began setting up 21 California Missions on or near the coast of Alta (Upper) California, beginning in San Diego. During the same period, Spanish military forces built several forts (presidios) and three small towns (pueblos). The San Francisco Mission grew into the city of San Francisco, and two of the pueblos grew into the cities of Los Angeles and San Jose. Several other smaller cities and towns also sprang up surrounding the various Spanish missions and pueblos, which remain to this day.
🇿🇦South AfricanRepublic of South Africa
Economic Analysis and Policy Formulation for Post-Apartheid South Africa: Mission Report, Aug. 1991. International Development Research Centre. IDRC Canada, 1991. vi, 46 p. Without ISBN. Emerging Johannesburg: Perspectives on the Postapartheid City. Richard Tomlinson, et al. 2003. 336 pages. ISBN: 0-415-93559-8. Making of Modern South Africa: Conquest, Segregation and Apartheid. Nigel Worden. 2000. 194 pages. ISBN: 0-631-21661-8. South Africa: A Narrative History. Frank Welsh. Kodansha America. 1999. 606 pages. ISBN: 1-56836-258-7. South Africa in Contemporary Times. Godfrey Mwakikagile. New Africa Press. 2008. 260 pages. ISBN: 978-0-9802587-3-8. The Atlas of Changing South Africa. A. J.
Turkey has maintained forces in international missions under the United Nations and NATO since the Korean War, including peacekeeping missions in Somalia, Yugoslavia and the Horn of Africa. Turkey supported the coalition forces in the First Gulf War. Turkish Armed Forces contribute military personnel to the International Security Assistance Force, Kosovo Force, Eurocorps and EU Battlegroups. Turkey maintains a force of 36,000 troops in Northern Cyprus since 1974. In recent years, Turkey has assisted Peshmerga forces in northern Iraq and the Somali Armed Forces with security and training. Turkish Armed Forces have overseas military bases in Albania, Iraq, Qatar, and Somalia.
salt watersalt brinebrine water
Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water. In different contexts, brine may refer to salt solutions ranging from about 3.5% (a typical concentration of seawater, on the lower end of solutions used for brining foods) up to about 26% (a typical saturated solution, depending on temperature). Lower levels of concentration are called by different names: fresh water, brackish water, and saline water.
Among the olive cultivars used for pollination are the Bouteillan, Leccino, Lucques, Manzanillo, and Sigoise. It is vulnerable to certain organic pests, including Gloeosporium olivarum, Palpita unionalis and Liothrips oleae. It is also vulnerable to cold; while an adult tree can sustain temperatures down to −12 °C to −14 °C (+10 to 14 °F), young trees need much higher temperatures to survive. This can be a problem in the Gard and Provence regions, where winters can often be fierce. Hybridization of the Picholine and Manzanillo (Bellini et al 2002b) resulted in the newer cultivars Arno, Tevere, and Basento. *Lucques
Common trees on the island include the chestnut, cypress, oak, olive tree, pine, plane, and tamarisk. Trees tend to be taller to the west of the island where water is more abundant. There are a number of environmentally protected areas. One such area is located at the island of Elafonisi on the coast of southwestern Crete. Also, the palm forest of Vai in eastern Crete and the Dionysades (both in the municipality of Sitia, Lasithi), have diverse animal and plant life. Vai has a palm beach and is the largest natural palm forest in Europe. The island of Chrysi, 15 km south of Ierapetra, has the largest naturally-grown Juniperus macrocarpa forest in Europe.
protected designation of originPDOprotected geographical indication
These laws protect the names of wines, cheeses, hams, sausages, seafood, olives, olive oils, beers, balsamic vinegar, regional breads, fruits, raw meats and vegetables. Foods such as Gorgonzola, Parmigiano-Reggiano, feta, the Waterford blaas, Herve cheese, Melton Mowbray pork pies, Piave cheese, Asiago cheese, camembert, Herefordshire cider, cognac, armagnac and champagne can only be labelled as such if they come from the designated region.
AndalusianAndalucíaAutonomous Community of Andalusia
The most important tree crops are olives, especially in the Subbetic regions of the provinces of Córdoba and Jáen, where irrigated olive orchards constitute a large component of agricultural output. There are extensive vineyards in various zones such as Jerez de la Frontera (sherry), Condado de Huelva, Montilla-Moriles and Málaga. Fruits—mainly citrus fruits—are grown near the banks of the Guadalquivir; almonds, which require far less water, are grown on the high plains of Granada and Almería.
Olive oil may be either edible or industrial and is marketed in accordance with the following designations and definition : Virgin olive oils are the oils obtained from the fruit of the olive tree solely by mechanical or other physical means under conditions, particularly thermal conditions, that do not lead to alterations in the oil, and which have not undergone any treatment other than washing, decantation, centrifugation and filtration.
SylmarSylmar, CaliforniaSylmar, CA
One source stated in 1981 that it was the "Fusano family" who built a headquarters building for the olive association on Roxford and San Fernando in 1902 and that the first packing plant was built in 1909. The trees began bearing fruit in 1912. The first groves were planted with Mission, Nevadillo Blanco and Manzanillo olives. Some Sevillano and Ascolano varieties were planted for extra-large fruit. During the picking season in the early 1900s, an extra force of 300 Japanese was employed and housed in a village of tents. In 1927 the packing plant, which had been built in 1910, employed some five hundred workers during its busiest season, November through January.
In a founding myth reported by Pseudo-Apollodorus, Athena competed with Poseidon for the patronage of Athens. They agreed that each would give the Athenians one gift and that Cecrops, the king of Athens, would determine which gift was better. Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring sprang up; this gave the Athenians access to trade and water. Athens at its height was a significant sea power, defeating the Persian fleet at the Battle of Salamis—but the water was salty and undrinkable. In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse. Athena offered the first domesticated olive tree.
According to the ancient Athenian founding myth, Athena, the goddess of wisdom, competed against Poseidon, the god of the seas, for patronage of the yet-unnamed city; they agreed that whoever gave the Athenians the better gift would become their patron and appointed Cecrops, the king of Athens, as the judge. According to the account given by Pseudo-Apollodorus, Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring welled up. In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse. In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree.
The OdysseyHomer's OdysseyHomer's ''Odyssey
She is hesitant but recognizes him when he mentions that he made their bed from an olive tree still rooted to the ground. Many modern and ancient scholars take this to be the original ending of the Odyssey, and the rest to be an interpolation. The next day he and Telemachus visit the country farm of his old father Laertes, who likewise accepts his identity only when Odysseus correctly describes the orchard that Laertes had previously given him. The citizens of Ithaca have followed Odysseus on the road, planning to avenge the killing of the Suitors, their sons.
The IliadHomericHomer’s Iliad
Poseidon cautiously speaks: But come, let us ourselves get him away from death, for fear the son of Kronos may be angered if now Achilleus kills this man. It is destined that he shall be the survivor, that the generation of Dardanos shall not die ... Divinely aided, Aeneas escapes the wrath of Achilles and survives the Trojan War. Whether or not the gods can alter fate, they do abide it, despite its countering their human allegiances; thus, the mysterious origin of fate is a power beyond the gods. Fate implies the primeval, tripartite division of the world that Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades effected in deposing their father, Cronus, for its dominion.
Linear B SyllabaryLinear B tabletsMycenaean script
On the next page he mentioned that he was also including by permission of Federico Halbherr of the Italian Mission in Crete unpublished tablets from Hagia Triada written in a linear script of "Class A". To what degree if any Halbherr was responsible for Evans' division of the "linear script" into "Class A" and "Class B" is not stated. The Knossos tablets were of Class B, so that Evans could have perceived Class A only in tablets from elsewhere, and so recently that he needed permission to include the examples. Evans summarized the differences between the two scripts as "type" or "form of script;' that is, varieties in the formation and arrangement of the characters.
Due to these efforts, Kalamata has now fully recovered and developed into a modern provincial capital. Today, Kalamata has the second largest population and mercantile activity in Peloponnese. It makes important exports, particularly of local products such as raisins, olives and olive oil. It is also the seat of the Metropolitan Bishop of Messenia. The current Metropolitan Bishop is Chrysostomus III, since 15 March 2007.
They also cultivated grapes, figs and olives, grew poppies for seed and perhaps opium. The Minoans also domesticated bees. Vegetables, including lettuce, celery, asparagus and carrots, grew wild on Crete. Pear, quince, and olive trees were also native. Date palm trees and cats (for hunting) were imported from Egypt. The Minoans adopted pomegranates from the Near East, but not lemons and oranges. They may have practiced polyculture, and their varied, healthy diet resulted in a population increase. Polyculture theoretically maintains soil fertility and protects against losses due to crop failure.