Greece

Greek🇬🇷Greeks
Some dishes can be traced back to ancient Greece like skordalia (a thick purée of walnuts, almonds, crushed garlic and olive oil), lentil soup, retsina (white or rosé wine sealed with pine resin) and pasteli (candy bar with sesame seeds baked with honey). Throughout Greece people often enjoy eating from small dishes such as meze with various dips such as tzatziki, grilled octopus and small fish, feta cheese, dolmades (rice, currants and pine kernels wrapped in vine leaves), various pulses, olives and cheese. Olive oil is added to almost every dish. Some sweet desserts include melomakarona, diples and galaktoboureko, and drinks such as ouzo, metaxa and a variety of wines including retsina.

Cultivar

cultivarsvarietycultivated variety
The term cultivar most commonly refers to an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characters that are maintained during propagation. More generally, cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). Most cultivars arose in cultivation, but a few are special selections from the wild.

Turkey

🇹🇷TurkishTUR
Yogurt salads, fish in olive oil, sherbet and stuffed and wrapped vegetables became Turkish staples. The empire, eventually spanning from Austria to northern Africa, used its land and water routes to import exotic ingredients from all over the world. By the end of the 16th century, the Ottoman court housed over 1,400 live-in cooks and passed laws regulating the freshness of food. Since the fall of the empire in World War I (1914–1918) and the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923, foreign food such as French hollandaise sauce and western fast food have made their way into the modern Turkish diet. The most popular sport in Turkey is association football (soccer).

Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union

protected designation of originPDOprotected geographical indication
These laws protect the names of wines, cheeses, hams, sausages, seafood, olives, olive oils, beers, balsamic vinegar, regional breads, fruits, raw meats and vegetables. Foods such as Gorgonzola, Parmigiano-Reggiano, feta, the Waterford blaas, Herve cheese, Melton Mowbray pork pies, Piave cheese, Asiago cheese, camembert, Herefordshire cider, cognac, armagnac and champagne can only be labelled as such if they come from the designated region.

Andalusia

AndalusianAndalucíaAutonomous Community of Andalusia
The Andalusian diet varies, especially between the coast and the interior, but in general is a Mediterranean diet based on olive oil, cereals, legumes, vegetables, fish, dried fruits and nuts, and meat; there is also a great tradition of drinking wine. Fried fish—pescaíto frito—and seafood are common on the coast and also eaten well into the interior under coastal influence. Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from the Almadraba areas of the Gulf of Cádiz, prawns from Sanlúcar de Barrameda (known as langostino de Sanlúcar), and deepwater rose shrimp () from Huelva are all highly prized.

California

CAState of CaliforniaCalifornia, USA
After the Portolà expedition of 1769–70, Spanish missionaries began setting up 21 California Missions on or near the coast of Alta (Upper) California, beginning in San Diego. During the same period, Spanish military forces built several forts (presidios) and three small towns (pueblos). The San Francisco Mission grew into the city of San Francisco, and two of the pueblos grew into the cities of Los Angeles and San Jose. Several other smaller cities and towns also sprang up surrounding the various Spanish missions and pueblos, which remain to this day.

International Olive Council

They are also allowed to mention their Award on bottles of extra virgin olive oil belonging to the same batch as the prize winner. * International Olive Council: official website. International organisations and institutions.

Frantoio

Frantoio and Leccino cultivars are the principal raw material for Italian olive oils from Tuscany. Frantoio is fruity, with a stronger aftertaste than Leccino. The Frantoio tree grows well in milder climates, but is not as tolerant of heat and cold as Spanish olive cultivars. The tree grows moderately and has an airy canopy. It tends to be highly productive in the right conditions and has a tendency to grow more like a tree than a bush, which is different from most olive trees. Average oil yield is 23-28% of the fruit.

Olive fruit fly

Bactrocera oleaeB. oleaemusca oleae
In northern Sardinia, an intervention threshold – for cultivars of oil – was reliably evaluated, with a weekly catch of 10 adults per sticky trap in summer and 30 adults per trap in October. Further reliable information used is the sampling of olives to estimate the extent of infestation. In this case, the threshold for intervention of an active infestation is recommended between 10-15% on cultivars for oil production and 5% for table cultivars. Sampling is carried out weekly and taken randomly over a large area for an olive tree at head height.

Ascolano (olive)

Ascolano
Ascolano is a cold-hardy table variety olive cultivar from the Marche and Tuscany regions of Italy that is also grown in California for olive oil. Harvesting and milling when overripe results in the olive oil exhibiting a fruity character of tropical fruit and peaches. The variety needs cross-pollination with varieties like Leccino or Pendolino. The leaves of the Ascolano are broad, elliptic-lanceolate shaped, and of medium length. The fruit is elliptically shaped, long, rounded at the apex, and with a truncated base.

Crete

CretanCretansKriti
Common trees on the island include the chestnut, cypress, oak, olive tree, pine, plane, and tamarisk. Trees tend to be taller to the west of the island where water is more abundant. There are a number of environmentally protected areas. One such area is located at the island of Elafonisi on the coast of southwestern Crete. Also, the palm forest of Vai in eastern Crete and the Dionysades (both in the municipality of Sitia, Lasithi), have diverse animal and plant life. Vai has a palm beach and is the largest natural palm forest in Europe. The island of Chrysi, 15 km south of Ierapetra, has the largest naturally-grown Juniperus macrocarpa forest in Europe.

Picholine

It is also used for extraction of oil, but gives only a medium yield. Normally 20–22% can be extracted, but plants under irrigation sometimes produce as little as 15–18%. The taste of the oil is fruity with a hint of bitterness. It is considered a cultivar of good, constant production. The tree is of medium size, and assumes a low, spread-out form when carrying fruit. It adopts well to different forms of soils and climates. It is generally agreed that the cultivar is only partially self-fertile, so it can take advantage of a certain presence of pollinators. Among the olive cultivars used for pollination are the Bouteillan, Leccino, Lucques, Manzanillo, and Sigoise.

Athena

PallasPallas AthenaAthene
The olive tree brought wood, oil, and food, and became a symbol of Athenian economic prosperity. Robert Graves was of the opinion that "Poseidon's attempts to take possession of certain cities are political myths", which reflect the conflict between matriarchal and patriarchal religions. Pseudo-Apollodorus records an archaic legend, which claims that Hephaestus once attempted to rape Athena, but she pushed him away, causing him to ejaculate on her thigh. Athena wiped the semen off using a tuft of wool, which she tossed into the dust, impregnating Gaia and causing her to give birth to Erichthonius. Athena adopted Erichthonius as her son and raised him.

Minoan civilization

MinoanMinoansMinoan Crete
Linear B tablets indicate the importance of orchards (figs, olives and grapes) in processing crops for "secondary products". Olive oil in Cretan or Mediterranean cuisine is comparable to butter in northern European cuisine. The process of fermenting wine from grapes was probably a factor of the "Palace" economies; wine would have been a trade commodity and an item of domestic consumption. Farmers used wooden plows, bound with leather to wooden handles and pulled by pairs of donkeys or oxen. Seafood was also important in Cretan cuisine.

Athens

AthenianAtheniansAthens, Greece
According to the ancient Athenian founding myth, Athena, the goddess of wisdom, competed against Poseidon, the god of the seas, for patronage of the yet-unnamed city; they agreed that whoever gave the Athenians the better gift would become their patron and appointed Cecrops, the king of Athens, as the judge. According to the account given by Pseudo-Apollodorus, Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring welled up. In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse. In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree.

Spain

🇪🇸SpanishESP
Other agricultural products that benefited from irrigation included grapes, cotton, sugar beets, potatoes, legumes, olive trees, mangos, strawberries, tomatoes, and fodder grasses. Depending on the nature of the crop, it was possible to harvest two successive crops in the same year on about 10% of the country's irrigated land. Citrus fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, olive oil, and wine—Spain's traditional agricultural products—continued to be important in the 1980s. In 1983 they represented 12%, 12%, 8%, 6%, and 4%, respectively, of the country's agricultural production.

Apulia

PugliaApulianheel of Italy
There is an estimated 50 to 60 million olive trees in Puglia and the region accounts for 40% of Italy's olive oil production. There are four specific Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) covering the whole region.

Morocco

🇲🇦MoroccanMAR
While spices have been imported to Morocco for thousands of years, many ingredients such as saffron from Tiliouine, mint and olives from Meknes, and oranges and lemons from Fez, are home-grown. Chicken is the most widely eaten meat in Morocco. The most commonly eaten red meat in Morocco is beef; lamb is preferred but is relatively expensive. The main Moroccan dish most people are familiar with is couscous, the old national delicacy. Beef is the most commonly eaten red meat in Morocco, usually eaten in a Tagine with vegetables or legumes. Chicken is also very commonly used in Tagines, knowing that one of the most famous tagine is the Tagine of Chicken, potatoes and olives.

Pseudomonas savastanoi

olive knotP. savastanoi
One of the first scientists who carried out scientific and modern research on the disease of olive trees caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi (la rogna dell'ulivo) was Giuseppe Maria Giovene (1753-1837), who explained his conclusions in his publication Sulla rogna degli ulivi (1789). * Type strain of Pseudomonas savastanoi at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. fraxini causes ash canker. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. nerii attacks oleander. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi causes olive knot. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola attacks Phaseolus (bean) plants.

Peloponnese

PeloponnesusPeloponnesianPeloponnesians
Kalamata (olive). Kolokythopita. Piperopita. Syglino (pork meat) (Mani Peninsula). Diples (dessert). Galatopita (dessert). Geography of Greece. List of Greek place names. Britannica.com. Official Regional Government Website. Greek Fire Survivors Mourn Amid Devastation in Peloponnese.

Polyphenol

polyphenolsphenolicphenolics
According to a 2005 review on polyphenols: The most important food sources are commodities widely consumed in large quantities such as fruit and vegetables, green tea, black tea, red wine, coffee, chocolate, olives, and extra virgin olive oil. Herbs and spices, nuts and algae are also potentially significant for supplying certain polyphenols. Some polyphenols are specific to particular food (flavanones in citrus fruit, isoflavones in soya, phloridzin in apples); whereas others, such as quercetin, are found in all plant products such as fruit, vegetables, cereals, leguminous plants, tea, and wine.

Bidni

One popular method is to crush Bidni olives in garlic-infused extra virgin olive oil, and then eat these with Maltese bread. Another method is to gently fry Bidni olives after preserving them in brine, and then serve these with seasonal herbs such as parsley or mint. On a different note, the leaves of the Bidni tree have been used to make tea which is believed to lower high blood pressure. This ancient remedy is "still used in rural communities in Malta".

Pausanias (geographer)

PausaniasPaus.Pausanius
It is mainly in the last section that Pausanias touches on the products of nature, such as the wild strawberries of Helicon, the date palms of Aulis, and the olive oil of Tithorea, as well as the tortoises of Arcadia and the "white blackbirds" of Cyllene. Pausanias is most at home in describing the religious art and architecture of Olympia and of Delphi. Yet, even in the most secluded regions of Greece, he is fascinated by all kinds of depictions of deities, holy relics, and many other sacred and mysterious objects.

Levant

the LevantLevantineNear East
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean, primarily in Western Asia. In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria. In its widest historical sense, the Levant included all of the eastern Mediterranean with its islands; that is, it included all of the countries along the Eastern Mediterranean shores, extending from Greece to Cyrenaica.

South Africa

🇿🇦South AfricanRepublic of South Africa
Economic Analysis and Policy Formulation for Post-Apartheid South Africa: Mission Report, Aug. 1991. International Development Research Centre. IDRC Canada, 1991. vi, 46 p. Without ISBN. Emerging Johannesburg: Perspectives on the Postapartheid City. Richard Tomlinson, et al. 2003. 336 pages. ISBN: 0-415-93559-8. Making of Modern South Africa: Conquest, Segregation and Apartheid. Nigel Worden. 2000. 194 pages. ISBN: 0-631-21661-8. South Africa: A Narrative History. Frank Welsh. Kodansha America. 1999. 606 pages. ISBN: 1-56836-258-7. South Africa in Contemporary Times. Godfrey Mwakikagile. New Africa Press. 2008. 260 pages. ISBN: 978-0-9802587-3-8. The Atlas of Changing South Africa. A. J.