Jazz poetry

jazz poetpoet
Jazz poetry has long been something of an "outsider" art form that exists somewhere outside the mainstream, having been conceived in the 1920s by African Americans, maintained in the 1950s by counterculture poets like those of the Beat generation, and adapted in modern times into hip-hop music and live poetry events known as poetry slams. Poets have been drawn to jazz by the oral roots and oral power of jazz music, and often they recite their verses. They have come in search of the body, of rhythm and of sound, refugees from the printed page, seeking a popular voice and public ear denied to poetry of the page.

Old-school hip hop

old school hip hopold schoolold school hip-hop
The release of The Message in 1982 by Duke Bootee (who did nearly half the rapping and the rest by Melle Mel) and Melle Mel, although released as by Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, marked the arrival of hip hop as social commentary, making it possible for future artists like Public Enemy and N.W.A to create an identity based on socially conscious themes in later years. Old-school rappers are widely respected by current hip hop artists and fans, with many claiming they have contributed to the evolution of hip-hop. Old-school hip hop is noted for its relatively simple rapping techniques, compared to later hip hop music.

Licensed to Ill

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List of hip hop albums considered to be influential. Kamikaze, a 2018 Eminem album with a similar cover.

Public Enemy (band)

Public EnemyPublic Enemy (group)PE
The revolutionary influence of the band is seen throughout hip-hop and is recognized in society and politics. The band "rewrote the rules of hip-hop", changing the image, sound and message forever. Pro-black lyrics brought political and social themes to hardcore hip hop, with stirring ideas of racial equality, and retribution against police brutality, aimed at disenfranchised blacks, but appealing to all the poor and underrepresented. Before Public Enemy, hip hop music was seen as "throwaway entertainment", with trite sexist and homophobic lyrics. Public Enemy brought social relevance and strength to hip hop.

Thoroughbred racing

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Notable examples include the 2005 Epsom Derby winner Motivator, owned by the Royal Ascot Racing Club, 2003 Kentucky Derby winner Funny Cide, owned by a group of 10 partners organized as Sackatoga Stable. 2008 Kentucky Derby winner Big Brown, owned by IEAH stables, a horse racing hedgefund organization. Historically, most race horses were bred and raced by their owners. Beginning after World War II, the commercial breeding industry became significantly more important in North America, Europe and Australasia, with the result that a substantial portion of Thoroughbreds are now sold by their breeders, either at public auction or through private sales.

Electronic dance music

EDMdanceelectronic dance
Hip hop music has had some influence in the development of electronic dance music since the 1970s. Inspired by Jamaican sound system culture Jamaican-American DJ Kool Herc introduced large bass heavy speaker rigs to the Bronx. His parties are credited with having kick-started the New York hip-hop movement in 1973. A technique developed by DJ Kool Herc that became popular in hip hop culture was playing two copies of the same record on two turntables, in alternation, and at the point where a track featured a break. This technique was further used to manually loop a purely percussive break, leading to what was later called a break beat.

Sugar Hill Records (hip hop label)

Sugar Hill RecordsSugar HillSugarhill Records
The Sugar Hill label's first record was "Rapper's Delight" (1979) by The Sugarhill Gang, which was also the first Top 40 hip hop single. Afterwards Super Wolf, The Sequence, Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, Funky Four Plus One, Crash Crew, Treacherous Three, and the West Street Mob, joined the label. R&B group The Positive Force released record from Sugar Hill Records also. Sugar Hill's in-house producer and arranger was Clifton "Jiggs" Chase. The in-house recording engineer was Steve Jerome. They enjoyed several years of success.

Coke La Rock

La Rock himself has argued, in a reference to two pioneering New York City narcotics dealers, that "me and Herc were to hip-hop what Nicky Barnes and Frank Lucas were to drugs." As other nascent hip-hop groups patterned themselves after Herc and La Rock and improved on their formula, the popularity of Herc and the Herculoids began to wane as early as 1977. After Kool Herc was stabbed at a party, La Rock went looking to kill the perpetrator, who was part of the Executive Playhouse crew. He found the man's friends in a Bronx pool hall, but they had already moved their friend down south to avoid a confrontation.

Chuck D

Chuck D.Carlton RidenhourCarl Ridenhour
Chuck D and DMC on Hip Hop and America at The Real News Network.

Lovebug Starski

Love Bug Starski
He began his career as a record boy in 1971 as hip-hop first appeared in the Bronx, and he eventually became a DJ at the Disco Fever club in 1978. He is one of two people who may have come up with the term "hip-hop". Starski claimed that he coined the phrase while trading the two words back and forth while improvising lines with Cowboy of the Furious Five at a farewell party for a friend who was headed into the Army. Starski recorded his first single, "Positive Life," on the Tayster record label in 1981. (The British Group MARRS would sample this in 1987 with the #1 single "Pump Up the Volume".)

Here Comes the Judge (Pigmeat Markham song)

Here Comes the JudgeHere Comes the Judge" (Pigmeat Markham song)
Due to its rhythmic use of boastful dialogue, it is considered a precursor to hip hop music. The song contained background vocals from future soul singer Minnie Riperton, who was credited as Andrea Davis when she was recording for Chess Records, the label which released "Here Comes The Judge". Songs with the same name have been recorded by several artists; most notably, Shorty Long, whose 1968 Tamla Motown song "Here Comes the Judge" also entered the UK charts in July 1968 but only reached 30 as its highest position. Long's song is completely different from Markham's, however it was inspired by Markham's comic act involving a judge, which Markham performed on Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In.

Lotti Golden

Described as "the perfect instance of hip hop's contemporary ramifications," Golden and Scher worked "real emotion and intelligence into the world of experimental hip-hop and electro." Their records are ranked among the most iconic of the electro hip hop era. Among the early production teams utilizing the Roland TR-808 drum machine, Golden and Scher created a brand of "electo hip hop records with gorgeous textures and multiple layers." Newsweek's "Language Arts & Disciplines" highlighted Warp 9's experimental use of vocoders in Light Years Away.

King of Rock

Ego Trip – no. 8 at "Hip-Hop's Greatest Albums By Year 1979–85" (1999). XXL – "40 Years of Hip-Hop: Top 5 Albums by Year" (2014). Complex – no. 50 at "The Best Rap Albums of the '80s" (2017). King of Rock at Discogs. King of Rock at RapGenius.


Rammellzee was also an original hip hop artist who introduced specific vocal styles which date back to the early 1980s. His influence can be heard in artists such as Beastie Boys and Cypress Hill. His 12-inch single Beat Bop, in collaboration with rapper K-Rob and with cover art by Jean-Michel Basquiat, is considered by some to be the most valuable (meaning collectible) hip-hop record of all time. Beat Bop was also featured in the film Style Wars. Rammellzee makes a cameo appearance near the end of Jim Jarmusch's 1984 film Stranger Than Paradise.

Disc jockey

In hip hop music, the low percentage of women DJs and turntablists may stem from the overall male domination of the entire hip hop music industry. Most of the top rappers, MCs, DJs, record producers and music executives are men. There are a small number of high-profile women, but they are rare. In 2007 Mark Katz's article "Men, Women, and Turntables: Gender and the DJ Battle," stated that "very few women [do turntablism] battle[s]; the matter has been a topic of conversation among hip-hop DJs for years." In 2010 Rebekah Farrugia states "the male-centricity of EDM culture" contributes to "a marginalisation of women in these [EDM] spaces."


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Allmusic's Steve Huey declared Paid in Full one of hip hop's most influential albums and "essential listening" for those interested in the genre's "basic musical foundations". MTV ranked it at number one in "The Greatest Hip-Hop Albums of All Time", stating it raised the standards of hip hop "both sonically and poetically" and described it as "captivating, profound, innovative and instantly influential". The album is broken down track-by-track by Rakim in Brian Coleman's book Check the Technique.

Profile Records

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The label had numerous sub-labels such as Smile Communications (which later became independent and continued to be controlled by Plotnicki after Profile was acquired), Sea Bright Records, and Robert Hill's Zakia Records, the label that launched the career of King Sun and hip hop legends Eric B. & Rakim. Profile's biggest act was Run-D.M.C., which was introduced to Robbins when manager Russell Simmons sent him a demo cassette of "It's Like That". Robbins signed the group soon after. The partners' less than amicable split severed not only all business ties but all personal ones too.


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The leader spends less time with out-group members, they have fewer developmental experiences, and the leader tends to emphasize his/her formal authority to obtain compliance to leader requests. Research shows that out-group members are less satisfied with their job and organization, receive lower performance evaluations from the leader, see their leader as less fair, and are more likely to file grievances or leave the organization. Leadership can be perceived as a particularly emotion-laden process, with emotions entwined with the social influence process. In an organization, the leader's mood has some effects on his/her group.

Cypress Hill

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Cypress Hill is an American hip hop group from South Gate, California. Cypress Hill was the first Latino American hip hop recording group to have a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame and platinum and multi-platinum albums, selling over 20 million albums worldwide. They are considered to be among the main progenitors of West Coast rap and hip hop in the early 1990s, being critically acclaimed for their first four albums. The band has also advocated for medical and recreational use of cannabis in the United States. Senen Reyes (also known as Sen Dog) and Ulpiano Sergio Reyes (also known as Mellow Man Ace) are brothers born in Pinar del Río, Cuba.

List of Australian Group races

Group One
Group races, the European equivalent. Graded stakes race, the North American equivalent. Racing Australia Group & Listed Race Dates 2015-16. Racing and Sports Group Race Interactive database.

Arthur Baker (musician)

Arthur BakerCriminal Element OrchestraArthur Baker & the Backbeat Disciples
Arthur Baker (born April 22, 1955) is an American record producer and DJ best known for his work with hip hop artists like Afrika Bambaataa, Planet Patrol, and the British group New Order. He is also known for remixing the Jill Jones song "Mia Bocca" on the 12" single, taken from her self-titled debut album Jill Jones (1987), released on Prince's Paisley Park Records, as well as remixing the Pet Shop Boys song, "In The Night". His remix of the song was used as the main theme for the BBC TV programme The Clothes Show between 1986 and 1994.

African Americans

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This usage has been popularized by the rap and hip-hop music cultures and is used as part of an in-group lexicon and speech. It is not necessarily derogatory and, when used among black people, the word is often used to mean "homie" or "friend". Acceptance of intra-group usage of the word nigga is still debated, although it has established a foothold among younger generations. The NAACP denounces the use of both nigga and nigger. Mixed-race usage of nigga is still considered taboo, particularly if the speaker is white. However, trends indicate that usage of the term in intragroup settings is increasing even among white youth due to the popularity of rap and hip hop culture.

Pop music

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Craig, (2005) Hip Hop Matters: Politics, Pop Culture, and the Struggle for the Soul of a Movement, Beacon Press, ISBN: 0-8070-0982-2.

Gang Starr

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"Jazz and Hip-Hop" by Jared Pauley, ( Jazz.com).


Louis FreeseB RealB. Real
He is best known for being the lead rapper in the hip hop group Cypress Hill and one of two rappers in the rap rock supergroup Prophets of Rage. Born in L.A. to a Mexican father and a Cuban mother, B-Real moved with his sister and mother out of his father's home to South Gate, California at the age of five. He later ended up in the small town of Bell, California. Before dropping out of Bell High School, he befriended future Cypress Hill members Sen Dog and Mellow Man Ace (who later left the group to go solo) and became an active member of the Family Swan Bloods, known as the Neighborhood Family Bloods at that time.