List of minor Old Testament figures, A–K

The first appearance describes Ezra, a Jewish reformer, standing up to give a speech, with thirteen other people standing beside him. Anaiah is listed as one of those standing by. The second appearance of the name is in a list of people who signed a covenant between God and the Jewish people. Anak was the father of Ahiman, Sheshai, and Talmai in Numbers 13:22 Anan was one of the Israelites who sealed the covenant after the return from Babylon. Anani is a name which appears in a genealogy in Chronicles. It refers to a descendant of Zerubbabel. According to the Masoretic Text Anani was born six generations after Zerubbabel.

Hellenistic period

Antiochus then banned key Jewish religious rites and traditions in Judea. He may have been attempting to Hellenize the region and unify his empire and the Jewish resistance to this eventually led to an escalation of violence. Whatever the case, tensions between pro and anti-Seleucid Jewish factions led to the 174–135 BC Maccabean Revolt of Judas Maccabeus (whose victory is celebrated in the Jewish festival of Hanukkah). Modern interpretations see this period as a civil war between Hellenized and orthodox forms of Judaism. Out of this revolt was formed an independent Jewish kingdom known as the Hasmonaean Dynasty, which lasted from 165 BC to 63 BC.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
For the Greek language used during particular eras; see Proto-Greek, Mycenaean Greek, Ancient Greek, Koine Greek, Medieval Greek and Modern Greek.

Alexander the Great

AlexanderAlexander of MacedonAlexander III
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of 20. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, and he created one of the largest empires of the ancient world by the age of thirty, stretching from Greece to northwestern India. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders.


Jason and the ArgonautsGiasoneJason and the Golden Fleece
Jason (Ancient Greek: Ἰάσων Iásōn ) was an ancient Greek mythological hero who was the leader of the Argonauts whose quest for the Golden Fleece featured in Greek literature. He was the son of Aeson, the rightful king of Iolcos. He was married to the sorceress Medea. He was also the great-grandson of the messenger god Hermes, through his mother's side.

Antigonid dynasty

AntigonidAntigonidsAntigonid Kingdom
The Antigonid dynasty was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed").


Apollo CarneiusPhoebusApollo Pythius
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (GEN Ἀπόλλωνος) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The national divinity of the Greeks, Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of music, truth and prophecy, healing, the sun and light, plague, poetry, and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis. Seen as the most beautiful god and the ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo is considered to be the most Greek of all gods. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu.

Acts of the Apostles

ActsBook of ActsAc
Luke–Acts is an attempt to answer a theological problem, namely how the Messiah of the Jews came to have an overwhelmingly non-Jewish church; the answer it provides, and its central theme, is that the message of Christ was sent to the Gentiles because the Jews rejected it. Luke–Acts can be also seen as a defense of (or "apology" for) the Jesus movement addressed to the Jews: the bulk of the speeches and sermons in Acts are addressed to Jewish audiences, with the Romans serving as external arbiters on disputes concerning Jewish customs and law.

John Hyrcanus

HyrcanusHyrcanosJohn Hyrcanus I
Upon conquering the former Seleucid regions Hyrcanus embarked on a policy of forcing the non-Jewish populations to adopt Jewish customs. John Hyrcanus's first conquest was an invasion of the Transjordan in 110 BCE. John Hyrcanus’s mercenary army laid siege to the city of Medeba and took it after a six-month siege. After these victories, Hyrcanus went north towards Schechem and Mount Gerizim. The city of Schechem was reduced to a village and the Samaritan Temple on Mount Gerizim was destroyed. This military action against Schechem has been dated archaeologically around 111–110 BCE.


PatroklosPatroclesGreek spy
In Greek mythology, as recorded in Homer's Iliad, Patroclus (Ancient Greek: Πάτροκλος Pátroklos, "glory of the father") was a close friend and wartime companion of Achilles. He was the son of Menoetius, grandson of Actor, King of Opus.


Philo of AlexandriaPhilo JudaeusPhilo Judaeus of Alexandria
Philo of Alexandria (undefined; c. 20 BCE), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt. Philo used philosophical allegory to harmonize Jewish scripture, mainly the Torah, with Greek philosophy. His method followed the practices of both Jewish exegesis and Stoic philosophy. His allegorical exegesis was important for some Christian Church Fathers, but he had very little reception history within the Rabbinic Judaism. He adopted allegorical instead of literal interpretations of the Hebrew Bible. Some scholars hold that his concept of the Logos as God's creative principle influenced early Christology.

Sosa (surname)

Sosa is a Spanish surname. The Portuguese version of this name is Sousa. Notable people with the surname include:


Its most important members were: Other uses: * Symmachus ben Joseph, a Jewish Tanna sage of the fifth generation. Symmachus the Ebionite (late 2nd century), author of one of the Greek versions of the Old Testament. Symmachus (consul 522), son of Boethius. Pope Symmachus, bishop of Rome from 498 to 514. Aurelius Valerius Tullianus Symmachus, consul in 330. Lucius Aurelius Avianius Symmachus, praefectus urbi in 364–365. Quintus Aurelius Symmachus, c. 340–c. 402, orator, author, and politician, the most influential of the Symmachi. Quintus Fabius Memmius Symmachus, son of the previous. Quintus Aurelius Symmachus, consul in 446.

Ancient Rome

After defeating a Parthian revolt and a Jewish revolt, he withdrew due to health issues. In 117, his illness grew and he died of edema. He nominated Hadrian as his heir. Under Trajan's leadership the Roman Empire reached the peak of its territorial expansion; Rome's dominion now spanned 2500000 mi2. The prosperity brought by Nerva and Trajan continued in the reigns of subsequent emperors, from Hadrian to Marcus Aurelius. Hadrian withdrew all the troops stationed in Parthia and Mesopotamia, abandoning Trajan's conquests.


Antonius is the nomen of the gens Antonia, one of the most important families in ancient Rome, with both patrician and plebeian branches. It is also the source of the English personal name Anthony, as well as a number of similar names in various European languages.