List of minor Old Testament figures, A–K

The first appearance describes Ezra, a Jewish reformer, standing up to give a speech, with thirteen other people standing beside him. Anaiah is listed as one of those standing by. The second appearance of the name is in a list of people who signed a covenant between God and the Jewish people. Anak was the father of Ahiman, Sheshai, and Talmai in Numbers 13:22 Anan was one of the Israelites who sealed the covenant after the return from Babylon. While "Anan" (which means "Cloud") never became a very common name, a much later person so named - Anan Ben David (c. 715 - c. 795) is widely considered to be a major founder of the Karaite movement of Judaism.


Book of EcclesiastesKoheletQoheleth
In traditional Jewish texts and throughout church history (up to the 18th and 19th centuries), King Solomon is named as the author, but modern scholars reject this. Textually, the book is the musings of a King of Jerusalem as he relates his experiences and draws lessons from them, often self-critical. The author, who is not named anywhere in the book, or in the whole of the Bible, introduces a "Kohelet" whom he identifies as the son of David (1:1). The author does not use his own "voice" throughout the book again until the final verses (12:9–14), where he gives his own thoughts and summarises what "the Kohelet" has spoken.

Hellenistic period

HellenisticHellenistic eraHellenistic Age
Antiochus then banned key Jewish religious rites and traditions in Judea. He may have been attempting to Hellenize the region and unify his empire and the Jewish resistance to this eventually led to an escalation of violence. Whatever the case, tensions between pro and anti-Seleucid Jewish factions led to the 174–135 BC Maccabean Revolt of Judas Maccabeus (whose victory is celebrated in the Jewish festival of Hanukkah). Modern interpretations see this period as a civil war between Hellenized and orthodox forms of Judaism. Out of this revolt was formed an independent Jewish kingdom known as the Hasmonaean Dynasty, which lasted from 165 BC to 63 BC.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
For the Greek language used during particular eras; see Proto-Greek, Mycenaean Greek, Ancient Greek, Koine Greek, Medieval Greek and Modern Greek.

Alexander the Great

AlexanderAlexander III of MacedonAlexander of Macedon
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of 20. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, and by the age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to northwestern India. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders.


Jason and the ArgonautsJason and the Golden FleeceGiasone
Jason was an ancient Greek mythological hero and leader of the Argonauts, whose quest for the Golden Fleece featured in Greek literature. He was the son of Aeson, the rightful king of Iolcos. He was married to the sorceress Medea. He was also the great-grandson of the messenger god Hermes, through his mother's side.

Antigonid dynasty

AntigonidAntigonidsAntigonid Empire
The Antigonid dynasty was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed").


PhoebusPythian ApolloApollo Carneius
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apóllōn; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The national divinity of the Greeks, Apollo has been recognized as a god of archery, music and dance, truth and prophecy, healing and diseases, the Sun and light, poetry, and more. He is the son of Zeus and Leto, and the twin brother of Artemis, goddess of the hunt. Seen as the most beautiful god and the ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo is considered to be the most Greek of all gods. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu.

Acts of the Apostles

ActsBook of ActsActs of Apostles
Luke–Acts is an attempt to answer a theological problem, namely how the Messiah of the Jews came to have an overwhelmingly non-Jewish church; the answer it provides is that the message of Christ was sent to the Gentiles because the Jews rejected it. Luke–Acts can also be seen as a defense of (or "apology" for) the Jesus movement addressed to the Jews: the bulk of the speeches and sermons in Acts are addressed to Jewish audiences, with the Romans serving as external arbiters on disputes concerning Jewish customs and law.

John Hyrcanus

HyrcanusJohn Hyrcanus IHyrcanus I
Upon conquering the former Seleucid regions Hyrcanus embarked on a policy of forcing the non-Jewish populations to adopt Jewish customs. John Hyrcanus's first conquest was an invasion of the Transjordan in 110 BCE. John Hyrcanus’s mercenary army laid siege to the city of Medeba and took it after a six-month siege. After these victories, Hyrcanus went north towards Shechem and Mount Gerizim. The city of Shechem was reduced to a village and the Samaritan Temple on Mount Gerizim was destroyed. This military action against Shechem has been dated archaeologically around 111–110 BCE.


LysimachosLysimachus of ThraceKing Lysimachos
Lysimachus (Greek: Λυσίμαχος, Lysimachos; c. 360 BC – 281 BC) was a Macedonian officer and diadochus (i.e. "successor") of Alexander the Great, who became a basileus ("King") in 306 BC, ruling Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedon.


Demetrius the Chronographer (late 3rd century BCE), Jewish chronicler (historian). Demetrius I Soter (185–150 BCE), king of Syria. Demetrius I of Bactria (d. 180 BCE), Greek king of Bactria. Demetrius II of India (fl. early 2nd century BCE), possible relative of the above. Demetrius II Nicator (d. 125 BCE), son of Demetrius I Soter. Demetrius III Aniketos, Indo-Greek king c. 100 BCE. Demetrius III Eucaerus (d. 88 BCE), son of Antiochus VIII Grypus, Seleucid King. Demetrius the Cynic (1st century), Cynic philosopher. Pope Demetrius I of Alexandria, ruled in 189–232. Demetrius of Thessaloniki (d. 306), Christian martyr and saint. Demetrius Zvonimir (died 1089), King of Croatia 1075–1089.


PatroklosPatroclesGreek spy
In Greek mythology, as recorded in Homer's Iliad, Patroclus (Ancient Greek: Πάτροκλος Pátroklos, "glory of the father") was a close friend and wartime companion of Achilles. He was the son of Menoetius, grandson of Actor, King of Opus.


Philo of AlexandriaPhilo JudaeusPhilo Judaeus of Alexandria
Philo of Alexandria (undefined; c. 20 BCE), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt. Philo used philosophical allegory to harmonize Jewish scripture, mainly the Torah, with Greek philosophy. His method followed the practices of both Jewish exegesis and Stoic philosophy. His allegorical exegesis was important for some Christian Church Fathers, but he had very little reception history within the Rabbinic Judaism. He adopted allegorical instead of literal interpretations of the Hebrew Bible. Some scholars hold that his concept of the Logos as God's creative principle influenced early Christology.

Sosa (surname)

Sosa is a Spanish surname. The Portuguese version of this name is Sousa. Notable people with the surname include:


Symmachus ben Joseph, a Jewish Tanna sage of the fifth generation. Symmachus (consul 522), son of Boethius. Pope Symmachus, bishop of Rome from 498 to 514. Symmachi, a Roman aristocratic family. Aurelius Valerius Tullianus Symmachus, consul in 330. Lucius Aurelius Avianius Symmachus, praefectus urbi in 364–365. Quintus Aurelius Symmachus (c. 340–c. 402), orator, author, and politician, the most influential of the Symmachi. Quintus Fabius Memmius Symmachus (383/384 – after 402), praetor. Quintus Aurelius Symmachus, consul in 446. Quintus Aurelius Memmius Symmachus (died 526), consul in 485 and wrote a history of Rome.


Greek grammarian in the first century BCE
Tryphon or Trypho (Τρύφων, gen.: Τρύφωνος) (ca. 60 BC-10 BC) was a Greek grammarian who lived and worked in Alexandria. He was a contemporary of Didymus Chalcenterus.


Zeno (disambiguation)Zenon (disambiguation)Zénó
Zeno or Zenon may refer to:

Ancient Rome

The destruction of the city was the culmination of the Roman campaign in Judea following the Jewish uprising of 66. The Second Temple was completely demolished, after which Titus's soldiers proclaimed him imperator in honor of the victory. Jerusalem was sacked and much of the population killed or dispersed. Josephus claims that 1,100,000 people were killed during the siege, of which a majority were Jewish. 97,000 were captured and enslaved, including Simon bar Giora and John of Giscala. Many fled to areas around the Mediterranean. Titus reportedly refused to accept a wreath of victory, as there is "no merit in vanquishing people forsaken by their own God".


Antonia Hybrida MinorAnthoniusAntonia Hybrida Major
Antonius or Antoníus is a masculine given name of Etruscan origin from the root name Antōnius as well as a surname. Antonius is a Danish, Dutch, Finnish, Latin, Norwegian, and Swedish name used in Greenland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, part of the Republic of Karelia, Estonia, Belgium, Netherlands, Suriname, South Africa, Namibia, and Indonesia, while Antoníus is an Icelandic name used in Iceland.


The Apella was the popular deliberative assembly in the Ancient Greek city-state of Sparta, corresponding to the ecclesia in most other Greek city-states. Every Spartan male full citizen who had completed his thirtieth year was entitled to attend the meetings, which, according to Lycurgus's ordinance, had to be held at the time of each full moon within the boundaries of Sparta.