Open government

transparencygovernment transparencyTransparency of government
See also Open Data Governments and organizations are using new technologies as a tool for increased transparency. Examples include use of open data platforms to publish information online and the theory of open source governance. Open Government Data (OGD), a term which refers specifically to the public publishing of government datasets, is often made available through online platforms such as or Proponents of OGD argue that easily accessible data pertaining to governmental institutions allows for further citizen engagement within political institutions.

Open Government Data (OGD) Platform India was developed jointly by India & US government as a result of announcement made by President Obama and Prime Minister Shri Manmohan Singh during the Indo-US Open Government Dialogue in 2010. Open data platform is a being implemented in US as their In India the platform was further customised by National Informatics Centre (NIC) in line with the National Data Sharing Accessibility Policy to develop the Data Portal India. Open data platform is also being offered to other countries. Ghana and Rwanda are also being powered by Open data platform.

Open Government Directive
French governmental Open Data Directory.

Open science data

dataopen dataopenness
The logic of the declaration permits re-use of the data although the term "literature" has connotations of human-readable text and can imply a scholarly publication process. In Open Access discourse the term "full-text" is often used which does not emphasize the data contained within or accompanying the publication. Some Open Access publishers do not require the authors to assign copyright and the data associated with these publications can normally be regarded as Open Data. Some publishers have Open Access strategies where the publisher requires assignment of the copyright and where it is unclear that the data in publications can be truly regarded as Open Data.

Open content

open-contentopen licenceopen licenses
A distinct difference is the focus given to the public domain and that it focuses also on the accessibility ("open access") and the readability ("open formats"). Among several conformant licenses, six are recommended, three own (Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL), Open Data Commons Attribution License (ODC-BY), Open Data Commons Open Database License (ODbL)) and the CC BY, CC BY-SA, and CC0 creative commons licenses. The OpenContent website once defined OpenContent as 'freely available for modification, use and redistribution under a license similar to those used by the open-source / free software community'.

Data set

The term data set may also be used more loosely, to refer to the data in a collection of closely related tables, corresponding to a particular experiment or event. Less used names for this kind of data sets are data corpus and data stock. An example of this type is the data sets collected by space agencies performing experiments with instruments aboard space probes. Data sets that are so large that traditional data processing applications are inadequate to deal with them are known as big data. In the open data discipline, data set is the unit to measure the information released in a public open data repository. The European Open Data portal aggregates more than half a million data sets.

Linked data

linked open datalinked-dataLOD
Linked data may also be open data, in which case it is usually described as linked open data (LOD). Tim Berners-Lee outlined four principles of linked data in his "Linked Data" note of 2006, paraphrased along the following lines: "# Use URIs to name (identify) things. Tim Berners-Lee gave a presentation on linked data at the TED 2009 conference. In it, he restated the linked data principles as three "extremely simple" rules: "# All kinds of conceptual things, they have names now that start with HTTP. Linked open data is linked data that is open data. Tim Berners-Lee gives the clearest definition of linked open data in differentiation with linked data.


copyright lawcopyrightscopyrighted
Concerns are often couched in the language of digital rights, digital freedom, database rights, open data or censorship. Discussions include Free Culture, a 2004 book by Lawrence Lessig. Lessig coined the term permission culture to describe a worst-case system. Good Copy Bad Copy (documentary) and RiP!: A Remix Manifesto, discuss copyright. Some suggest an alternative compensation system. In Europe consumers are acting up against the raising costs of music, film and books, a political party has been grown out of it, The Pirates. Some groups reject copyright altogether, taking an anti-copyright stance.

Open Data Institute

The ODI has supported open data leaders in governments around the world to boost economies, innovation, social impact and transparency using open data. As part of the Open Data for Development Network, funded by the International Development Research Centre, the ODI created the Open Data Leaders Network – a space for peer-learning. In 2015 the ODI worked with the Burkina Faso Open Data Initiative, who used open data to ensure that citizens had access to real-time, open results data for their freest and fairest presidential elections in nearly three decades.

Open-notebook science

open notebook science
Open access (publishing). Open data. Open research. Open content. Open science. Open source.

EU Open Data Portal

EU Open Datathe European Open Data Portal
Communication ‘Open data — An engine for innovation, growth and transparent governance’. Legal rules on public services information. Open Knowledge Foundation. Dublin Core. Publication and usage of linked data on the Web. Data catalogues. Open data classification by Tim Berners Lee. Open Data Challenge (now over).

Open research

Projects that provide open data but don't offer open collaboration are referred to as "open access" rather than open research. Providing open data is a necessary but not sufficient condition for open research, because although the data may be used by anyone, there is no requirement for subsequent research to take place openly. For example, though there have been many calls for more open collaborative research in drug discovery and the open deposition of large amounts of data, there are very few active, openly collaborative projects in this area.

Wellcome Trust

WellcomeThe Wellcome TrustWellcome Foundation
In 2016, Wellcome Trust announced that it would be launching Wellcome Open Research, an open access publication system running on the F1000 Research platform. Article Processing Charges will be covered directly by Wellcome Trust. Paper from the system are now indexed in PubMed Central.

Open energy system databases

energydata.infoOpen Data RTE
US government data is distributed under a CC0 public domain dedication, whereas other contributors are free to select an open data license of their choice. Users can rate data using a five-star system, based on accessibility, adaptability, usefulness, and general quality. Individual datasets can be manually downloaded in an appropriate format, often as CSV files. Scripts for processing data can also be shared through the site. In order to build a community around the platform, a number of forums are offered covering energy system data and related topics. Most of the data on OpenEI is exposed as linked open data (LOD) (described elsewhere on this page).

Urban informatics

In addition to geographic data / spatial data, most common sources of data relevant to urban informatics can be divided into three broad categories: government data (census data, open data, etc.); personal data (social media, quantified self data, etc.), and; sensor data (transport, surveillance, CCTV, Internet of Things devices, etc.). Although first mentions of the term date back as early as 1987, urban informatics did not emerge as a notable field of research and practice until 2006 (see History section).

Open Knowledge International

Open Knowledge FoundationOKFNOKFN Award
Open Access. Open Bibliography. Open Definition. Open Design & Hardware. Open Development. Open Economics. Open Education. OpenGLAM. Open Government Data. Open Humanities. Open Linguistics. Open Product Data. Open Science. OpenSpending. Open Sustainability. Open Transport (project). Personal Data and Privacy. Public Domain. CKAN, a tool that provides store for metadata. This enables governments to quickly and cheaply provide a catalogue of their data. Datahub, a community-run catalogue of useful sets of data on the Internet.

International Open Data Day

“This day is a chance for people around the world to support and encourage the adoption of open data policies by local, regional and central governments,” said New Zealand Land Information Minister Louise Upston in 2016. * Open Access Week December 4, 2010. December 3, 2011. February 23, 2013. February 22, 2014. February 21, 2015. March 5, 2016. March 4, 2017. March 3, 2018. March 2, 2019. - a dedicated site for Open Data Day, supported by Open Knowledge. Twitter hashtag #opendataday.


On 7 September 2015, the Wikimedia Foundation announced the release of the Wikidata Query Service, which lets users run queries on the data contained in Wikidata. The service uses SPARQL as the query language. As of November 2018, there are at least 26 different tools that allow to query the data in different ways. In November 2014, Wikidata received the Open Data Publisher Award from the Open Data Institute “for sheer scale, and built-in openness”. As of November 2018, Wikidata information is used in 58.4% of all English Wikipedia articles, mostly for external identifiers or coordinate locations.

Data management

Open data. Pseudonymization. Information architecture. Enterprise architecture. Information design. Information system. Controlled vocabulary. Data curation. Data retention. Data management plan. Computer data storage. Data proliferation. Digital preservation. Document management. Enterprise content management. Hierarchical storage management. Information repository. Machine-Readable Documents. Performance report.

Open-source-software movement

open-source movementopen source communityopen source movement
The impact of open source in healthcare is also observed by Apelon Inc, the "leading provider of terminology and data interoperability solutions". Recently, its Distributed Terminology System (Open DTS) began supporting the open-source MySQL database system. This essentially allows for open-source software to be used in healthcare, lessening the dependence on expensive proprietary healthcare software. Due to open-source software, the healthcare industry has available a free open-source solution to implement healthcare standards.

Open-source hardware

open source hardwareopen hardwarehardware
Hardware design (i.e. mechanical drawings, schematics, bills of material, PCB layout data, HDL source code and integrated circuit layout data), in addition to the software that drives the hardware, are all released under free/libre terms. The original sharer gains feedback and potentially improvements on the design from the FOSH community. There is now significant evidence that such sharing can drive a high return on investment for the scientific community. Since the rise of reconfigurable programmable logic devices, sharing of logic designs has been a form of open-source hardware. Instead of the schematics, hardware description language (HDL) code is shared.