Open content

open-contentopen licenceopen licenses
A distinct difference is the focus given to the public domain and that it focuses also on the accessibility ("open access") and the readability ("open formats"). Among several conformant licenses, six are recommended, three own (Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL), Open Data Commons Attribution License (ODC-BY), Open Data Commons Open Database License (ODbL)) and the CC BY, CC BY-SA, and CC0 creative commons licenses. The OpenContent website once defined OpenContent as 'freely available for modification, use and redistribution under a license similar to those used by the open-source / free software community'.

Budapest Open Access Initiative

BOAIOpen Access
The document also contains one of the most widely used definitions of open access, which has subsequently been reaffirmed as the definition of open access, 10 years after it was first published: "By "open access" to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself.

Copyright

copyright lawcopyrightscopyrighted
Concerns are often couched in the language of digital rights, digital freedom, database rights, open data or censorship. Discussions include Free Culture, a 2004 book by Lawrence Lessig. Lessig coined the term permission culture to describe a worst-case system. Good Copy Bad Copy (documentary) and RiP!: A Remix Manifesto, discuss copyright. Some suggest an alternative compensation system. In Europe consumers are acting up against the raising costs of music, film and books, a political party has been grown out of it, The Pirates. Some groups reject copyright altogether, taking an anti-copyright stance.

Open-source software

open sourceopen-sourceopen source software
The same principles that underlie open source software can be found in many other ventures, such as open-source hardware, Wikipedia, and open-access publishing. Collectively, these principles are known as open source, open content, and open collaboration: "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants, who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which they make available to contributors and non-contributors alike."

Open science

open-scienceopen peer reviewOpen Science Framework
Open Science Open library and open data. Open Science a website dedicated to open science, open access and open data. Open science and development goals: reshaping research questions & Open science and development: roundup and the way forward by OpenUCT Initiative. ScienceOpen.com, website of ScienceOpen freely accessible research network.

Open knowledge

free-to-useopenopen concept
Open Access Directory. Open Data for Development (OD4D).

CiteSeerX

CiteSeerarticleCiteSeer X
As a non-profit service that can be freely used by anyone, it has been considered as part of the open access movement that is attempting to change academic and scientific publishing to allow greater access to scientific literature. CiteSeer freely provided Open Archives Initiative metadata of all indexed documents and links indexed documents when possible to other sources of metadata such as DBLP and the ACM Portal. To promote open data, CiteSeer x shares its data for non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons license. The name can be construed to have at least two explanations.

Data.gov.uk

Home Office Data Hub
In the Netherlands the DataverseNL Network hosts data deposited by Dutch Universities and Institutes. Government 2.0. GOV.UK. Linked Data. Merton Thesis. Open access (publishing). Open content. Open data. Open research. TheyWorkForYou. Data.gov.uk. Cabinet Office - Transparency. 10 Downing Street - Transparency. Guardian video: Tim Berners-Lee on the UK national data website launch.

Open science data

dataopen dataopenness
The logic of the declaration permits re-use of the data although the term "literature" has connotations of human-readable text and can imply a scholarly publication process. In Open Access discourse the term "full-text" is often used which does not emphasize the data contained within or accompanying the publication. Some Open Access publishers do not require the authors to assign copyright and the data associated with these publications can normally be regarded as Open Data. Some publishers have Open Access strategies where the publisher requires assignment of the copyright and where it is unclear that the data in publications can be truly regarded as Open Data.

Open-notebook science

open notebook science
Open access (publishing). Open data. Open research. Open content. Open science. Open source.

Open research

transparentTransparency
Projects that provide open data but don't offer open collaboration are referred to as "open access" rather than open research. Providing open data is a necessary but not sufficient condition for open research, because although the data may be used by anyone, there is no requirement for subsequent research to take place openly. For example, though there have been many calls for more open collaborative research in drug discovery and the open deposition of large amounts of data, there are very few active, openly collaborative projects in this area.

Open Knowledge International

Open Knowledge FoundationOKFNOKFN Award
Open Access. Open Bibliography. Open Definition. Open Design & Hardware. Open Development. Open Economics. Open Education. OpenGLAM. Open Government Data. Open Humanities. Open Linguistics. Open Product Data. Open Science. OpenSpending. Open Sustainability. Open Transport (project). Personal Data and Privacy. Public Domain. CKAN, a tool that provides store for metadata. This enables governments to quickly and cheaply provide a catalogue of their data. Datahub, a community-run catalogue of useful sets of data on the Internet.

Wellcome Trust

WellcomeThe Wellcome TrustWellcome Foundation
In 2016, Wellcome Trust announced that it would be launching Wellcome Open Research, an open access publication system running on the F1000 Research platform. Article Processing Charges will be covered directly by Wellcome Trust. Paper from the system are now indexed in PubMed Central.

World Wide Web

Webthe webweb-based
Most web browsers also implement a browser cache by writing recently obtained data to a local data storage device. HTTP requests by a browser may ask only for data that has changed since the last access. Web pages and resources may contain expiration information to control caching to secure sensitive data, such as in online banking, or to facilitate frequently updated sites, such as news media. Even sites with highly dynamic content may permit basic resources to be refreshed only occasionally. Web site designers find it worthwhile to collate resources such as CSS data and JavaScript into a few site-wide files so that they can be cached efficiently.

Creative Commons license

CC-By-SACreative CommonsCreative Commons Attribution License
This clause was added with scientific data in mind rather than software, but some members of the OSI believed it could weaken users' defenses against software patents. As a result, Creative Commons withdrew their submission, and the license is not currently approved by the OSI. In 2013, Unsplash began using the CC0 license to distribute free stock photography. It now distributes several million photos a month and has inspired a host of similar sites, including CC0 photography companies and CC0 blogging companies. Lawrence Lessig, the founder of Creative Commons, has contributed to the site.

Public domain

public domain resourcepublic-domainPD
In October 2014 the Open Knowledge Foundation recommends the Creative Commons CC0 license to dedicate content to the public domain, and the Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and License (PDDL) for data. In most countries, the term of rights for patents is 20 years, after which the invention becomes part of the public domain. In the United States, the contents of patents are considered valid and enforceable for 20 years from the date of filing within the United States or 20 years from the earliest date of filing if under 35 USC 120, 121, or 365(c).

European Commission

CommissionECthe European Commission
EU Open Data Portal. European Data Portal. European Commission European Commission welcome page – Retrieved 12 May 2016. Documents of the European Commission are consultable at the Historical Archives of the EU in Florence. European Commissions on CVCE website – Multimedia website with historical information on the European integration Studies. No such material is found on the page. This page contains a legal Notice and warning about copyrighted material. Last Access 18 April 2013. Statue of Europe. Retrieved 10 October 2012.

International Geophysical Year

IGYearly polar expeditionsG.O. Fizzickle
In addition, each host country agreed to abide by the organizing committee’s resolution that there should be a free and open exchange of data among nations. ICSU-WDS goals are to preserve quality assured scientific data and information, to facilitate open access, and promote the adoption of standards. ICSU World Data System created in 2008 superseded the World Data Centeres (WDCs) and Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical data analysis Services (FAGS) created by ICSU to manage data generated by the International Geophysical Year The IGY triggered an 18-month year of Antarctic science.

Electronic journal

e-journalonline journale-journals
E-journals allow new types on content to be included in journals, for example video material, or the data sets on which research has been based. With the growth and development of the internet, there has been a growth in the number of new journals, especially in those that exist as digital publications only. A subset of these journals exist as Open Access titles, meaning that they are free to access for all, and have Creative Commons licences which permit the reproduction of content in different ways. High quality open access journals are listed in Directory of Open Access Journals.

Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development

FP7Framework ProgrammeHorizon 2020
A network of Open Access repositories, archives and journals that support Open Access policies. The OpenAIRE Consortium is a Horizon 2020 (FP8) project, aimed to support the implementation of the EC and ERC Open Access policies.

Science Commons

The platform combined open access materials (making up the knowledgebase) and open source software (in the form of an analytic platform). The software was still under development when the project ended. The Scholar’s Copyright was developed with Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition designed to lower the barriers to Open Access (OA) by reducing transaction costs and eliminating contract proliferation by offering tools and resources catering to both methods of achieving Open Access.

American Chemical Society

ACSAmerican Chemical Society (ACS)ACS Award for Encouraging Women into Careers in the Chemical Sciences
In debates about free access to scientific information, the ACS has been described as "in an interesting dilemma, with some of its representatives pushing for open access and others hating the very thought." The ACS has generally opposed legislation that would mandate free access to scientific journal articles and chemical information, however it has recently launched new open access journals and provided authors with open access publishing options.

Data-driven journalism

data driven journalism
Data-driven journalism, often shortened to "ddj", a term in use since 2009, is a journalistic process based on analyzing and filtering large data sets for the purpose of creating or elevating a news story. Many data-driven stories begin with newly available resources such as open source software, open access publishing and open data, while others are products of public records requests or leaked materials. This approach to journalism builds on older practices, most notably on computer-assisted reporting (CAR) a label used mainly in the US for decades.

Peter Murray-Rust

Murray-Rust
As well as his work in chemistry, Murray-Rust is also known for his support of open access and open data. He was educated at Bootham School and Balliol College, Oxford. After obtaining a Doctor of Philosophy with a thesis entitled A structural investigation of some compounds showing charge-transfer properties, he became lecturer in chemistry at the (new) University of Stirling and was first warden of Andrew Stewart Hall of Residence. In 1982, he moved to Glaxo Group Research at Greenford to head Molecular Graphics, Computational Chemistry and later protein structure determination.