Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)

Russo-Turkish WarRusso-Turkish War (1877–78)Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878
Responding to the Russian crossing of the Danube, the Ottoman high command in Constantinople ordered Osman Nuri Paşa to advance east from Vidin and occupy the fortress of Nikopol, just west of the Russian crossing. On his way to Nikopol, Osman Pasha learned that the Russians had already captured the fortress and so moved to the crossroads town of Plevna (now known as Pleven), which he occupied with a force of approximately 15,000 on 19 July (NS). The Russians, approximately 9,000 under the command of General Schilder-Schuldner, reached Plevna early in the morning. Thus began the Siege of Plevna.

Balkan Wars

Balkan WarFirst Balkan WarBalkan
Germany, already heavily involved in internal Ottoman politics, officially opposed a war against the Empire. But, in her effort to win Bulgaria for the Central Powers, and seeing the inevitability of Ottoman disintegration, was toying with the idea of replacing the Balkan area of the Ottomans with a friendly Greater Bulgaria in her San Stefano borders—an idea that was based on the German origin of the Bulgarian King and his anti-Russian sentiments. The Ottoman wars in Europe. The Serbo-Bulgarian War (1885). The Albanian Revolt of 1910. The Albanian Revolt of 1912. The Balkans Campaign (World War I). The Balkans Campaign (World War II). The Yugoslav Wars (1991–1999).

Congress of Berlin

Berlin CongressBerlin AgreementBerlin Congress of 1878
This instinct is today awakened and gives warning that it feels the occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina to be a menace which, by introducing fresh Slav elements into the Hungarian political organism and providing a wider field and further recruitment of the Croat opposition, would upset the unstable equilibrium in which the Magyar domination is poised. | width="50%" align="left" valign="top" style="border:0"| United Kingdom 🇬🇧 Russian Empire German Empire Austria-Hungary French Republic 🇫🇷 Kingdom of Italy Ottoman Empire Romania 🇷🇴 Greece * Theodoros Deligiannis Serbia 🇷🇸 * Jovan Ristić Montenegro Albanians in the Ottoman Empire 🇦🇱 * Benjamin Disraeli Earl of Beaconsfield (Prime Minister

Russian Empire

RussiaImperial RussiaRussian
In the late 1870s Russia and the Ottoman Empire again clashed in the Balkans. From 1875 to 1877, the Balkan crisis intensified with rebellions against Ottoman rule by various Slavic nationalities, which the Ottoman Turks dominated since the 16th century. This was seen as a political risk in Russia, which similarly suppressed its Muslims in Central Asia and Caucasia. Russian nationalist opinion became a major domestic factor in its support for liberating Balkan Christians from Ottoman rule and making Bulgaria and Serbia independent. In early 1877, Russia intervened on behalf of Serbian and Russian volunteer forces in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78).


TurkishRepublic of TurkeyTUR
These were initially about Ottoman territorial expansion and consolidation in southeastern and eastern Europe; but starting from the latter half of the 18th century, they became more about the survival of the Ottoman Empire, which had begun to lose its strategic territories on the northern Black Sea coast to the advancing Russians. From the second half of the 18th century onwards, the Ottoman Empire began to decline. The Tanzimat reforms of the 19th century, which had been instituted by Mahmud II, were aimed to modernise the Ottoman state in line with the progress that had been made in Western Europe.

Bajram Curri

At his birth, the Curri family was led to the Ottoman prison in Krushë e Madhe, Rahovec; his father Shaqir Aga had led a rebellion in Krasniq against the Ottomans due to heavy taxes and military recruitment, and had been interned by them. Shaqir Aga Curri was a trusted man of Abdullah Pasha Dreni of Gjakova, and apparently had become instrumental in tax-collection procedures and punishing expeditions of Pasha Dreni in the area. He aided Pasha Dreni during the Attack against Mehmed Ali Pasha, and was killed in the skirmish by the forces of the League of Prizren. Whilst the present-day regions of Albania and Serbia were under Ottoman control, Curri represented the interests of the Albanians.

Mehmed Ali Pasha (marshal)

Mehmed Ali PashaMehmet Ali PashaMehmed Pasha
Stationed in Abdullah Pasha Dreni's estate in Gjakova with several Ottoman battalions he was killed on September 6 after a seven-day battle with several thousand Albanians opposing cessation of Albanian inhabited lands to European powers.


Stirling's series The Domination as serf soldiers used for frontal attacks with the intent to reduce casualties among its citizen forces. Devşirme system. Ghilman. Mamluk. Military of the Ottoman Empire. Saqaliba. Genízaro. Ottoman decline thesis. The Auspicious Incident. Agha, a civilian and military title in the Ottoman Empire and Kurdistan. Aksan, Virginia H. "Whatever Happened to the Janissaries? Mobilization for the 1768–1774 Russo-Ottoman War." War in History (1998) 5#1 pp: 23–36. online. Cleveland, William L. A History of the Modern Middle East (Boulder: Westview, 2004). Goodwin, Godfrey (2001). The Janissaries. UK: Saqi Books.

Fall of Constantinople

conquest of Constantinoplesiege of ConstantinopleConstantinople
Timeline of the Ottoman Empire. Fetih 1453. "How many angels can dance on the head of a pin?", question linked to the imagery of pointless debate while the city was falling. Military of the Ottoman Empire. Tursun Beg (Turkish historian). Dolfin Dolfin, Venetian, naval commander during the siege. Babinger, Franz (1992): Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time. Princeton University Press. ISBN: 0-691-01078-1. Crowley, Roger (2005): 1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West. Hyperion. ISBN: 978-1-4013-0558-1. Fletcher, Richard A.: The Cross and the Crescent (2005) Penguin Group ISBN: 0-14-303481-2. Harris, Jonathan (2007): Constantinople: Capital of Byzantium.

Crimean War

CrimeaCrimea WarCrimean
In the early 1800s, the Ottoman Empire suffered a number of setbacks which challenged the existence of the country. The Serbian Revolution in 1804 resulted in the self-liberation of the first Balkan Christian nation under the Ottoman Empire. The Greek War of Independence, which began in early 1821, provided further evidence of the internal and military weakness of the Ottoman Empire, and the commission of atrocities by Ottoman military forces (see Chios massacre) also undermined the Ottomans.


A bashi-bazouk ( başıbozuk, "one whose head is turned, damaged head, crazy-head", roughly "leaderless" or "disorderly") was an irregular soldier of the Ottoman army, raised in times of war. The army chiefly recruited Albanians, Kurds and Circassians as bashi-bazouks, but recruits came from all ethnic groups of the Ottoman Empire. They had a reputation for bravery, but also as an undisciplined group, notorious for looting and preying on civilians as a result of a lack of regulation.


Two Turkish tribes, the Karahanids and the Seljuks, converted to Islam during the 10th century, who are later subdued by the Ottomans, who share the same origin and language. It is important to note, that the following Islamic reign by the Ottomans was strongly influenced by a symbiosis between Ottoman rulers and Sufism since the beginning. According to Ottoman historiography, the legitimation of a ruler is attributed to Sheikh Edebali. Accordingly, he interpretated a dream of Osman Gazi as God's legitimation of his reign. The Mevlevi Order and the Bektashi Order had close relation to the sultans.

Mehmed the Conqueror

Mehmed IIMehmet IISultan Mehmed II
The Ottomans were unable to conquer any of the major Moldavian strongholds (Suceava, Neamț, Hotin) and were constantly harassed by small scale Moldavians attacks. Soon they were also confronted with starvation, a situation made worse by an outbreak of the plague, and the Ottoman army returned to Ottoman lands. The threat of Stephen to Wallachia nevertheless ceased. The Albanian resistance led by George Kastrioti Skanderbeg (İskender Bey), an Albanian noble and a former member of the Ottoman ruling elite, curbed the Ottoman expansion. Skanderbeg had united the Albanian Principalities in a fight against the Empire in the League of Lezhë in 1444.


With the advent of the Ottoman Empire in 1299, the Byzantine Empire began to lose territories and the city began to lose population. By the early 15th century, the Byzantine Empire was reduced to just Constantinople and its environs, along with Morea in Greece, making it an enclave inside the Ottoman Empire; after a 53-day siege the city eventually fell to the Ottomans, led by Sultan Mehmed II, on 29 May 1453, whereafter it replaced Edirne (Adrianople) as the new capital of the Ottoman Empire.

Ottoman military band

mehterMehterânJanissary music
Musics of Ottoman Military Band Turkish Facebook Page. 60 Pictures of band at Military Museum Istanbul.

Sunni Islam

SunniSunni MuslimSunni Muslims
The fall, at the end of World War I of the Ottoman Empire, the biggest Sunni empire for six centuries, brought the caliphate to an end. This resulted in Sunni protests in far off places including the Khilafat Movement in India, which was later on upon gaining independence from Britain divided into Sunni dominated Pakistan and secular India. Pakistan, the most populous Sunni state at its birth, however later got partitioned into Pakistan and Bangladesh. The demise of Ottoman caliphate also resulted in the emergence of Saudi Arabia, a dynastic absolute monarchy with the support of the British and Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the founder of Wahhabism.

Albanian language

It is assumed that Greek and Balkan Latin (the ancestor of Romanian and other Balkan Romance languages) exerted a great influence on Albanian. Examples of words borrowed from Latin: qytet < civitas (city), qiell < caelum (sky), mik < amicus (friend), kape ditën < carpe diem (seize the day). After the Slavs arrived in the Balkans, the Slavic languages became an additional source of loanwords. The rise of the Ottoman Empire meant an influx of Turkish words; this also entailed the borrowing of Persian and Arabic words through Turkish. Some Turkish personal names, such as Altin, are common. There are some loanwords from Modern Greek, especially in the south of Albania.


Asia MinorAsiatic TurkeyAnatolian Plateau
As the Ottoman Empire further shrank in the Balkan regions and then fragmented during the Balkan Wars, much of the non-Christian populations of its former possessions, mainly Balkan Muslims (Bosnian Muslims, Albanians, Turks, Muslim Bulgarians and Greek Muslims such as the Vallahades from Greek Macedonia), were resettled in various parts of Anatolia, mostly in formerly Christian villages throughout Anatolia.


However, the change of sovereignty from the Byzantine Empire to the Ottoman one did not affect the city's prestige as a major imperial city and trading hub. Thessaloniki and Smyrna, although smaller in size than Constantinople, were the Ottoman Empire's most important trading hubs. Thessaloniki's importance was mostly in the field of shipping, but also in manufacturing, while most of the city's trade was controlled by ethnic Greeks. During the Ottoman period, the city's population of Ottoman Muslims (including those of Turkish and Albanian origin, as well as Bulgarian Muslim and Greek Muslim convert origin) grew substantially.


George Kastrioti SkanderbegScanderbegSkenderbeg
During the conflict, Venice invited the Ottomans to attack Skanderbeg simultaneously from the east, facing the Albanians with a two-front conflict. On 14 May 1448, an Ottoman army led by Sultan Murad II and his son Mehmed laid siege to the castle of Svetigrad. The Albanian garrison in the castle resisted the frontal assaults of the Ottoman army, while Skanderbeg harassed the besieging forces with the remaining Albanian army under his personal command. On 23 July 1448, Skanderbeg won a battle near Shkodër against a Venetian army led by Andrea Venier.

Muhammad Ali of Egypt

Muhammad AliMuhammad Ali PashaMohammed Ali
Sensing that Muhammad Ali was not content with his gains, the sultan attempted to pre-empt further action against the Ottoman Empire by offering him hereditary rule in Egypt and Arabia if he withdrew from Syria and Crete and renounced any desire for full independence. Muhammad Ali rejected the offer, knowing that Mahmud could not force the Egyptian presence from Syria and Crete. On 25 May 1838, Muhammad Ali informed Britain, and France that he intended to declare independence from the Ottoman Empire. This action was contrary to the desire of the European powers to maintain the status quo within the Ottoman Empire.


SkopljeSkopje, MacedoniaCity of Skopje
German linguist Gustav Weigand described that the Skopje Muslim population of "Turks" or Ottomans (Osmanli) during the late Ottoman period were mainly Albanians that spoke Turkish in public and Albanian at home. At the beginning of the 20th century, local economy was focused on dyeing, weaving, tanning, ironworks and wine and flour processing. Following the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, the Ottoman Turkish Empire experienced democracy and several political parties were created. However, some of the policies implemented by the Young Turks, such as a tax rise and the interdiction of ethnic-based political parties, discontented minorities.


Pasha (title)pashasBasha
Yusuf Murad Pasha (Józef Bem), Polish general and a national hero of Poland and Hungary, who served in the Ottoman Empire. Yusuf Karamanli, Pasha of Tripoli. Ali Pasha Mubarak. Qassim Pasha AlZuhair, Pasha of Albasrah and kuwait. Ottoman Empire. Ottoman titles. – The Ottoman harem. PASHA Restaurant - PASHA Restaurant.

Sami Frashëri

SamiSami FrasheriŞemsettin Sami
In comparison, the article Türk was three pages and five columns which underfeatured the importance and role of Turks in the empire when compared to Albanians. Tracing their history Frashëri described the Turks "as among Asia's biggest and most famous nations" numbering ten million and the Ottoman Empire as a "Turkish state". Apart from the prominence of Turks and Turkish culture, Frashëri stressed the ethnic and cultural diversity of the Ottoman Empire in his encyclopedia.

Gjergj Fishta

At Gjergj FishtaFishta
In 1907, Fishta wrote the satirical work The Wasps of Parnasus that critiqued Albanians of the time that placed individual interests over national ones and the intelligentsia who did not devote themselves to studying the Albanian language and showed disdain toward it. As a representative of the Society for the Unity of the Albanian Language, Fishta participated and was elected for president of the committee in the Congress of Monastir (today Bitola in North Macedonia, then Ottoman Empire) held in 1908.