Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, consciousness and their relationship to the physical body, particularly the brain. The mind–body problem, i.e. the relationship of the mind to the body, is commonly seen as the central issue in philosophy of mind, although there are other issues concerning the nature of the mind that do not involve its relation to the physical body. The mind–body problem concerns the explanation of the relationship that exists between minds, or mental processes, and bodily states or processes.

King James Version

King James BibleKJVKing James
Cambridge University Press introduced a change at in 1985, reversing its longstanding tradition of printing the word "spirit" in lower case by using a capital letter "S". A Rev. Hardin of Bedford, Pennsylvania, wrote a letter to Cambridge inquiring about this verse, and subsequently received a reply from Dr. Cooper on 3 June 1985, admitting that it was a "matter of some embarrassment regarding the lower case 's' in Spirit".


Ibn SinaIbn SīnāIbn Sina (Avicenna)
Because it is conceivable that a person, suspended in air while cut off from sense experience, would still be capable of determining his own existence, the thought experiment points to the conclusions that the soul is a perfection, independent of the body, and an immaterial substance. The conceivability of this "Floating Man" indicates that the soul is perceived intellectually, which entails the soul's separateness from the body. Avicenna referred to the living human intelligence, particularly the active intellect, which he believed to be the hypostasis by which God communicates truth to the human mind and imparts order and intelligibility to nature.

Tree of life (Kabbalah)

Tree of LifeKabbalistic Tree of LifeEtz Chayim
The tree represents a series of divine emanations of God's creation itself ex nihilo, the nature of revealed divinity, the human soul, and the spiritual path of ascent by man. In this way, Kabbalists developed the symbol into a full model of reality, using the tree to depict a map of creation. The symbolic configuration is made of 10 spiritual principles, but 11 can be shown, since "Keter" and "Da'at" are interchangeable. The tree of knowledge of good and evil is equivalent to the 10 spheres seen from the last sphere of the diagram ("Malkuth"), and the original tree of life is equivalent to the 10 spheres seen from the middle sphere of the diagram ("Tiferet").


Mana. Spirit. Article by Bing YeYoung "A Philosophical and Cultural Interpretation of Qi". The Skeptics Dictionary. Qi Encyclopedia.

Stephen LaBerge

Stephen LaBerge (born 1947) is an American psychophysiologist specializing in the scientific study of lucid dreaming. In 1967 he received his Bachelor's Degree in mathematics. He began researching lucid dreaming for his Ph.D. in Psychophysiology at Stanford University, which he received in 1980. He developed techniques to enable himself and other researchers to enter a lucid dream state at will, most notably the MILD technique (mnemonic induction of lucid dreams), which was used in many forms of dream experimentation.


Hysteria colloquially means ungovernable emotional excess. Generally, modern medical professionals have abandoned using the term "hysteria" to denote a diagnostic category, replacing it with more precisely defined categories, such as somatization disorder. In 1980, the American Psychiatric Association officially changed the diagnosis of "hysterical neurosis, conversion type" to "conversion disorder".


Vatsyayana, the author of the Kamasutra, describes kama as happiness that is a manasa vyapara (phenomenon of the mind). Just like the Mahabharata, Vatsyayana's Kamasutra defines kama as pleasure an individual experiences from the world, with one or more senses: ̨hearing, seeing, tasting, smelling, and feeling—in harmony with one's mind and soul. Experiencing harmonious music is kama, as is being inspired by natural beauty, the aesthetic appreciation of a work of art, and admiring with joy something created by another human being. Kama Sutra, in its discourse on kama, describes many forms of art, dance, and music, along with sex, as the means to pleasure and enjoyment.

Aleister Crowley

CrowleyCrowley, Aleister Aleister Crowley: The Beast 666
Fenton's articles suggested that Crowley and Jones were involved in homosexual activity; Crowley did not mind, but Jones unsuccessfully sued for libel. Fuller broke off his friendship and involvement with Crowley over the scandal, and Crowley and Neuburg returned to Algeria for further magical workings. The Equinox continued publishing, and various books of literature and poetry were also published under its imprint, like Crowley's Ambergris, The Winged Beetle, and The Scented Garden, as well as Neuburg's The Triumph of Pan and Ethel Archer's The Whirlpool.


Netflix UKNetflix OriginalNetflix Series
CuriosityStream, a premium ad-free, subscription-based service launched in March 2015 similar to Netflix but offering strictly nonfiction content in the areas of science, technology, civilization and the human spirit, has been dubbed the "new Netflix for non-fiction". Hulu Plus, like Netflix and Amazon Prime Instant Video, "ink[s] their own deals for exclusive and original content", requiring Netflix "not only to continue to attract new subscribers, but also keep existing ones happy." Netflix and Blockbuster largely avoid offering pornography, but several "adult video" subscription services were inspired by Netflix, such as SugarDVD and WantedList.

Arthur E. Powell

Arthur PowellPowell, Arthur E.
Powell's main topic was consciousness and was written about in these books and other texts: The Mental Body (1927). The Causal Body And The Ego (1928). The Solar System (1930). The Astral Body and Other Astral Phenomena (1926). The Etheric Double (1925). Human Astral Entities. The Mastery of Emotion. Astral Death. Clairvoyance in Space and Time. Kundalini. The Fourth Dimension. Rebirth. Discipleship. Chakras. The Development of Astral Powers. Sleep-life. Dreams. Invisible Helpers. The Astral Plane. Non-human Astral Entities. Thought Forms. The Magic of Freemasonry. Spiritualism. The Work of a Lodge of the Theosophical Society.

George Gurdjieff

GurdjieffG. I. GurdjieffG.I. Gurdjieff
This belief seems to run counter to the Judeo-Christian tradition that man is a living soul. Gurdjieff believed that the possession of a soul (a state of psychological unity which he equated with being "awake") was a "luxury" that a disciple could attain only by the most painstaking work of over a long period of time. The majority—in whom the true meaning of the gospel failed to take root —went the "broad way" that "led to destruction."

Paul Twitchell

TwitchellTwitchell, Paul
Steiger, Brad (1968) In My Soul I Am Free. Note: Almost 35% of the text is in Paul Twitchell's words. First edition Illuminated Way Press. ISBN: 0-914766-11-2. Paul Twitchell article archive. Dialogue in the age of Criticism. A short biography of Paul Twitchell. David C. Lane: The Making of a Spiritual Movement: The Untold Story of Paul Twitchell and Eckankar, del Mar Press 1993, ISBN: 0-9611124-6-8. Note: This book is also available online for free.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation

TMSrepetitive transcranial magnetic stimulationrTMS
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a form of neurostimulation. TMS is a non-invasive procedure in which a changing magnetic field is used to cause electric current to flow in a small targeted region of the brain via electromagnetic induction. During a TMS procedure, a magnetic field generator, or "coil", is placed on the scalp. The coil is connected to a pulse generator, or stimulator, that delivers a changing electric current to the coil.


lesionsbrain lesionslesion studies
A lesion is any damage or abnormal change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma. Lesion is derived from the Latin laesio "injury". Lesions may occur in plants as well as animals.

Mirra Alfassa

The MotherThe AgendaMother's Agenda
Search for the Soul in Everyday Living, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, WI ISBN: 0-941524-57-4. Soul and Its Powers, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, WI ISBN: 0-941524-67-1.

The Skeptic's Dictionary

skeptic dictionaryThe Skeptic's Dictionary: A Collection of Strange Beliefs, Amusing Deceptions, and Dangerous DelusionsThe Skeptic's Dictionary;
According to Carroll, :“The Skeptic’s Dictionary is aimed at four distinct audiences: the open-minded seeker, who makes no commitment to or disavowal of occult claims; the soft skeptic, who is more prone to doubt than to believe; the hardened skeptic, who has strong disbelief about all things occult; and the believing doubter, who is prone to believe but has some doubts. The one group this book is not aimed at is the 'true believer' in the occult. If you have no skepticism in you, this book is not for you.” Carroll defines each of these categories, explaining how and why, in his opinion, his dictionary may be of interest, use, and benefit to each of them.


Comprehensive, classical teachings of Ashtanga Yoga, Samkhya, the subtle body theory, Fitness Asanas, and tantric elements were included in the yoga teachers training by Baba Hari Dass (1923–), in the United States and Canada. A second "yoga boom" followed in the 1980s, as Dean Ornish, a follower of Swami Satchidananda, connected yoga to heart health, legitimizing yoga as a purely physical system of health exercises outside of counter-culture or esotericism circles, and unconnected to any religious denomination. Numerous asanas seemed modern in origin, and strongly overlapped with 19th and early-20th century Western exercise traditions.

Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul

The concept of the soul and the parts which encompass it has varied from the Old Kingdom to the New Kingdom, at times changing from one dynasty to another, from five parts to more. Most ancient Egyptian funerary texts reference numerous parts of the soul: the ẖt (physical body), the sꜥḥ (spiritual body), the rn (/ɾin/, Coptic ⲣⲁⲛ or ⲗⲉⲛ) "name, identity", the bꜣ "personality", the kꜣ (/kuʀ/) "double", the jb (/jib/, Coptic ⲉⲡ) "heart", the šwt "shadow", the sḫm "power, form", and the ꜣḫ (the combined spirits of a dead person that has successfully completed its transition to the afterlife).


The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of the psyche, or soul (ψυχή psychē, "breath, spirit, soul" and -λογία -logia, "study of" or "research"). The Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, and Psychology, which treats of the Soul." In 1890, William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions".


paranormal phenomenaparanormal activityparanormal research
;Paranormal • Australian Sheep-Goat Scale • Cryptozoology • Folie a deux • Forteana • Ghost • Ghost Hunting • Ghost Stations • Mysticism • New Age • Astral projection • Extrasensory perception • Mediumship • Occult • Out-of-body experience • Paranormal fiction • Parapsychology • Psionics • Psychics • Supernatural • UFO • List of reported UFO sightings • Yūrei ;Paranormal by locations • List of reportedly haunted locations in the World • In Bangladesh • In Canada • In China • In Colombia • In France • In India • In Mexico • In the Philippines • In Romania • In the United Kingdom • * In Scotland • In the United States • * In California • ** San Francisco Bay Area • * In Oregon • * In Pennsylvania

New Age

new-ageNew Age Movementmind-body-spirit
Influenced by Theosophical and Anthroposophical ideas regarding 'subtle bodies', a common New Age idea holds to the existence of a "Higher Self" that is a part of the human but connects with the divine essence of the universe, and which can advise the human mind through intuition. Cosmogonical creation stories are common in New Age sources, with these accounts reflecting the movement's holistic framework by describing an original, primal oneness from which all things in the universe emanated. An additional common theme is that human souls – once living in a spiritual world – then descended into a world of matter.

Myth of Er

the Myth of Erthe Republic
After this, each soul was assigned a guardian spirit to help him or her through their life. They passed under the throne of Lady Necessity, then traveled to the Plane of Oblivion, where the River of Forgetfulness (River Lethe) flowed. Each soul was required to drink some of the water, in varying quantities; again, Er only watched. As they drank, each soul forgot everything. As they lay down at night to sleep each soul was lifted up into the night in various directions for rebirth, completing their journey. Er remembered nothing of the journey back to his body. He opened his eyes to find himself lying on the funeral pyre early in the morning, able to recall his journey through the afterlife.