lesionsbrain lesionslesion studies
A lesion is any damage or abnormal change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma. Lesion is derived from the Latin laesio "injury". Lesions may occur in plants as well as animals.

Mirra Alfassa

The MotherThe AgendaMother's Agenda
Search for the Soul in Everyday Living, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, WI ISBN: 0-941524-57-4. Soul and Its Powers, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, WI ISBN: 0-941524-67-1.

The Skeptic's Dictionary

Skeptic's Dictionaryskeptic dictionarySkeptic’s Dictionary
According to Carroll, :“The Skeptic’s Dictionary is aimed at four distinct audiences: the open-minded seeker, who makes no commitment to or disavowal of occult claims; the soft skeptic, who is more prone to doubt than to believe; the hardened skeptic, who has strong disbelief about all things occult; and the believing doubter, who is prone to believe but has some doubts. The one group this book is not aimed at is the 'true believer' in the occult. If you have no skepticism in you, this book is not for you.” Carroll defines each of these categories, explaining how and why, in his opinion, his dictionary may be of interest, use, and benefit to each of them.


Jain yoga aims at the liberation and purification of the self (atma) or soul (jiva) from the forces of karma, which keep all souls bound to the cycle of transmigration. Like Yoga and Sankhya, Jainism believes in a multiplicity of individual souls which bound by their individual karma. Only through the reduction of karmic influxes and the exhaustion of one's collected karma can a soul become purified and released, at which point one becomes an omniscient being who has reaches "absolute knowledge" (kevala jnana).


Autobiography of a Yogi. * Meditation at Encyclopædia Britannica Walsh & Shapiro (2006): "[M]editation refers to a family of self-regulation practices that focus on training attention and awareness in order to bring mental processes under greater voluntary control and thereby foster general mental well-being and development and/or specific capacities such as calm, clarity, and concentration". Cahn & Polich (2006): "[M]editation is used to describe practices that self-regulate the body and mind, thereby affecting mental events by engaging a specific attentional set.... regulation of attention is the central commonality across the many divergent methods".


The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of the psyche, or soul (ψυχή psychē, "breath, spirit, soul" and -λογία -logia, "study of" or "research"). The Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, and Psychology, which treats of the Soul." In 1890, William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions".


paranormal phenomenaparanormal activityparanormal research
;Paranormal • Australian Sheep-Goat Scale • Cryptozoology • Folie a deux • Forteana • Ghost • Ghost Hunting • Ghost Stations • Mysticism • New Age • Astral projection • Extrasensory perception • Mediumship • Occult • Out-of-body experience • Paranormal fiction • • Parapsychology • Psionics • Psychics • Supernatural • UFO • List of paranormal magazines • List of reported UFO sightings • Yūrei ;Paranormal by locations • List of reportedly haunted locations in the World • In Bangladesh • In Canada • In China • In Colombia • In France • In India • In Mexico • In the Philippines • In Romania • In the United Kingdom • * In Scotland • In the United States • * In California • ** San Francisco Bay Area


The first emanation is Nous (Divine Mind, Logos, Order, Thought, Reason), identified metaphorically with the Demiurge in Plato's Timaeus. It is the first Will toward Good. From Nous proceeds the World Soul, which Plotinus subdivides into upper and lower, identifying the lower aspect of Soul with nature. From the world soul proceeds individual human souls, and finally, matter, at the lowest level of being and thus the least perfected level of the cosmos. Despite this relatively pedestrian assessment of the material world, Plotinus asserted the ultimately divine nature of material creation since it ultimately derives from the One, through the mediums of Nous and the world soul.


Among other things, astrologers claimed to be able to advise on the best time to take a journey or harvest a crop, diagnose and prescribe for physical or mental illnesses, and predict natural disasters. This underpinned a system in which everything — people, the world, the universe — was understood to be interconnected, and astrology co-existed happily with religion, magic and science. During the Enlightenment, intellectual sympathy for astrology fell away, leaving only a popular following supported by cheap almanacs.


As Morgan summarises: "The Secret Doctrine laid out an emanationist view of the development of the physical universe, a process of ebb and flow in which spirit gradually unfolded itself in matter, attaining consciousness, and returning to spirit in a higher and more realised form." According to the emanationist cosmology of Madame Blavatsky all monads emerge from divine unity at the beginning of a cosmic cycle and return to this source at its close. Blavatsky in her book The Key to Theosophy (1889) wrote that: "We believe in a universal divine principle, the root of all, from which all proceeds, and within which all shall be at the end of the great cycle of being."

Personal identity

If a person is then identified with their mind, rather than their body—if a person is considered to their mind—and their mind is such a non-physical substance, then personal identity over time may be grounded in the persistence of this non-physical substance, despite the continuous change in the substance of the body it is associated with. The mind-body problem concerns the explanation of the relationship, if any, that exists between minds, or mental processes, and bodily states or processes. One of the aims of philosophers who work in this area is to explain how a non-material mind can influence a material body and vice versa.

Apparitional experience

apparitionapparitionsapparitional experiences
However, Tyrrell develops the idea that the apparition may be a way for the unconscious part of the mind to bring to consciousness information that has been paranormally acquired – in crisis cases, for example. He introduces an evocative metaphor of a mental ‘stage-carpenter’, behind the scenes in the unconscious part of the mind, and constructing the quasi-perceptual experience that eventually appears on the stage of consciousness, so that it embodies paranormal information in a symbolic way, a person drowning at a distance appearing soaked in water, for example.

Tibetan Buddhism

Tibetan BuddhistTibetanTibetan Buddhists
Anuttarayogatantra, contains more advanced techniques such as subtle body practices and is subdivided into:. Mother class tantras, which emphasize illusory body and completion stage practices and includes the Guhyasamaja tantra and Yamantaka tantra. Father class, which emphasize the development stage and clear light mind and includes the Hevajra Tantra and Cakrasamvara Tantra.

Emanuel Swedenborg

SwedenborgEmmanuel SwedenborgSwedenborg's Angels
The same year, he also published the small manuscript de Infinito ("On the Infinite") in which he attempted to explain how the finite is related to the infinite and how the soul is connected to the body. It was the first manuscript in which he touched upon such matters. He knew that it might clash with established theologies since he presented the view that the soul is based on material substances. He also conducted dedicated studies of the fashionable philosophers of the time such as John Locke, Christian von Wolff, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, and Descartes and earlier thinkers such as Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus and Augustine of Hippo.


Their entire philosophy revolved around their belief that man's soul was divided within himself after the fall of Adam. By purifying the two parts of man's soul, man could be reunited with God. In the 14th century, alchemy became more accessible to Europeans outside the confines of Latin speaking churchmen and scholars. Alchemical discourse shifted from scholarly philosophical debate to an exposed social commentary on the alchemists themselves. Dante, Piers Plowman, and Chaucer all painted unflattering pictures of alchemists as thieves and liars. Pope John XXII's 1317 edict, Spondent quas non exhibent forbade the false promises of transmutation made by pseudo-alchemists.


hallucinogenicpsychedelic drughallucinogens
Out-of-body experience. Psychedelia. Psychedelic drug. Psychedelic experience. Psychonautics. Psychopharmacology. Ann & Alexander Shulgin: PIHKAL (Phenethylamines I Have Known And Loved), a Chemical Love Story. Ann & Alexander Shulgin: TIHKAL (Tryptamines I Have Known And Loved), the Continuation. Charles S. Grob, ed.: Hallucinogens, a reader. Winkelman, Michael J., and Thomas B. Roberts (editors) (2007).Psychedelic Medicine: New Evidence for Hallucinogens as Treatments 2 Volumes. Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood.


Proclus DiadochusProclus LycaeusProclian
But as a divine mind, Intellect has a complete grasp of all its moments in one act of thought. For this reason, Intellect is outside of Time. Intellect as the second principle also gives rise to individual intellects, which hold various places within Proclus's cosmos. In terms of his sources, Intellect is like taking the Platonic Forms and placing them in the self-thinking thought which is Aristotle's Unmoved Mover. Soul (Psyche) is produced by Intellect, and so is the third principle in the Neoplatonic system. It is a mind, like Intellect, but it does not grasp all of its own content as one.

Higher self

Similar to the notion of the soul, the higher self can be defined by many different sects, while also being a topic of interest in the scientific and philosophical fields. Christianity: In the Christian interpretation, all beings contain a fragment of the Holy Spirit, which ties them to their Higher Self. The concept of the Holy Spirit is widely taught by various Christian sects, but the idea of the individual higher consciousness is discussed less frequently. Christian theology adheres that the Higher Self is what connects one to God, and thus one must honor and keep one's Higher Self pure by following the ethical guidelines outlined in the scriptures.

Ernesto Bozzano

He became known as a popular sympathizer of spiritism in Italy. He attributed most paranormal phenomena to the survival of the human soul. Bozzano contributed articles and a preface to Gwendolyn Kelley Hack's Modern Psychic Mysteries, 1929. The book documented séances that Bozzano attended with the medium Marquis Carlo Centurione Scotto during 1927-1928 at Millesimo Castle. He was convinced from the Millesimo sittings that there was genuine spiritualist phenomena. His book Polyglot Mediumship (1932) recorded 35 alleged cases of xenoglossy. He was an early researcher on deathbed phenomena.

Fourth Way

Institute for the Harmonious Development of ManThe Fourth WayLaw of Three
The Fourth Way teaches that the soul, a human individual is born with, gets trapped and encapsulated by personality and stays dormant, leaving one not really conscious, even as they clearly believe they are. A person must free the soul by following a teaching which can lead to this aim or "go nowhere" upon death of his body. Should a person be able to receive the teaching and find a school, upon the death of the physical body they will "go elsewhere." Humans are born asleep, live in sleep and die in sleep, only imagining that they are awake with few exceptions. The ordinary waking "consciousness" of human beings is not consciousness at all but merely a form of sleep."

Third eye

Inner eye3rd Eyethree eyes
The third eye is often associated with religious visions, clairvoyance, the ability to observe chakras and auras, precognition, and out-of-body experiences. People who are claimed to have the capacity to utilize their third eyes are sometimes known as seers. In Hinduism and Buddhism, the third eye is said to be located around the middle of the forehead, slightly above the junction of the eyebrows, representing the enlightenment one achieves through meditation. Hindus also place a "tilaka" between the eyebrows as a representation of the third eye, which is also seen on expressions of Shiva.


spiritualspirituallyspiritual life
The term was used within early Christianity to refer to a life oriented toward the Holy Spirit and broadened during the Late Middle Ages to include mental aspects of life. In modern times, the term both spread to other religious traditions and broadened to refer to a wider range of experience, including a range of esoteric traditions and religious traditions.


According to Jewish Kaballistic philosophy, Yesod is responsible for the powers of communication, connection and contact with external reality within the soul, unifying the material world of Malkuth with the other Sephiroth. Therefore, some Christians compare Yesod to the third person of the Holy Trinity, the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit is defined by some Christians as one aspect of the Triune God. These Christians believe that the Holy Spirit is the aspect of god that unifies God with humanity.

Frederic W. H. Myers

Frederic William Henry MyersF. W. H. MyersFrederic Myers
This work comprises two large volumes at 1,360 pages in length and presents an overview of Myers's research into the unconscious mind. Myers believed that a theory of consciousness must be part of a unified model of mind which derives from the full range of human experience, including not only normal psychological phenomena but also a wide variety of abnormal and "supernormal" phenomena. In the book, Myers believed he had provided evidence for the existence of the soul and survival of personality after death. The book cites cases of automatic writing, hypnotism, mediumship, possession, psychokinesis, and telepathy.


thoughtformThought Formsemanation
Occultist William Walker Atkinson in his book The Human Aura described thought-forms as simple ethereal objects emanating from the auras surrounding people, generating from their thoughts and feelings. He further elaborated in Clairvoyance and Occult Powers how experienced practitioners of the occult can produce thoughtforms from their auras that serve as astral projections which may or may not look like the person who is projecting them, or as illusions that can only be seen by those with "awakened astral senses".