GalaţiGalatiGalați, Romania
Galați (, ; also known by other alternative names) is the capital city of Galați County, in the historical region of Moldavia, eastern Romania. Galați is a port town on the Danube River. In 2011, the Romanian census recorded 249,432 residents, making it the 8th most populous city in Romania. Galați is an economic centre based around the port of Galați, the naval shipyard, and the largest steel mill in Romania, Galați steel works.


Romania (România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It has borders with the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldova to the east. It has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 km2, Romania is the 12th largest country and also the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having almost 20 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest, and other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, Brașov, and Galați.


Berlin, GermanyState of BerlinGerman capital
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 (2018) inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London. The city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, and contiguous with Potsdam, Brandenburg's capital. The two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.


GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
Germany (Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland, ), is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north and the Alps, Lake Constance, and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands to the west.

Literary criticism

literary criticliterary studiescritic
Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, which is the philosophical discussion of literature's goals and methods. Though the two activities are closely related, literary critics are not always, and have not always been, theorists.

Science fiction

sci-fiscience-fictionSci Fi
Science fiction (sometimes called sci-fi or simply SF) is a genre of speculative fiction that typically deals with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, parallel universes, and extraterrestrial life. It has been called the "literature of ideas", and often explores the potential consequences of scientific, social, and technological innovations.

Politehnica University of Bucharest

Polytechnic University of BucharestUniversity Politehnica of BucharestPolytechnic Institute of Bucharest
Politehnica University of Bucharest (Universitatea Politehnica din București) is a technical university in Bucharest, Romania. It was founded in 1818 as "Academic School for Philosophy, Mathematical Sciences and Surveying Engineers". Later the technical superior school was renamed few times, in 1864 as School of Bridges and Roads, Mines and Architecture (based on the older technical school of Gheorghe Lazăr, from 1818), and the name "Politehnica" was introduced in 1920 when the university was renamed Polytechnic School of Bucharest. Politehnica University is classified by the Ministry of Education as an advanced research and education university.

Construction engineering

construction engineerconstructionconstruction engineers
Construction engineering is a professional discipline that deals with the designing, planning, construction and management of infrastructures such as roads, tunnels, bridges, airports, railroads, facilities, buildings, dams, utilities and other projects.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from more than 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources.


Contemporanul-Ideea Europeană
Contemporanul (The Contemporary) is a Romanian literary magazine published in Iaşi, Romania from 1881 to 1891. It was sponsored by the socialist circle of the city.

Viața Românească

Viaţa RomâneascăViața RomîneascăRomanian Life
Viața Românească (, "The Romanian Life") is a monthly literary magazine published in Romania. Formerly the platform of the left-wing traditionalist trend known as poporanism, it is now one of the Writers' Union of Romania's main venues.

România Literară

Gazeta literară
România Literară is a cultural and literary magazine from Romania. In its original edition, it was founded on 1 January 1855 by Vasile Alecsandri and published in Iași until 3 December 1855, when it was suppressed. The new series appeared on 10 October 1968 as a continuation of Gazeta Literară. It is the Writers' Union of Romania's official magazine.


An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership. Academia is the worldwide group composed of professors and researchers at institutes of higher learning.

University of Bucharest

Bucharest UniversityBucharestUniversity
The University of Bucharest (Universitatea din București), commonly known after its abbreviation UB in Romania, is a public university founded in 1864 by decree of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza to convert the former Saint Sava Academy into the current University of Bucharest, making it the second oldest modern university in Romania. It is one of the five members of the Universitaria Consortium (the group of elite Romanian universities).

Socialist realism

socialist realistsocialist-realistSoviet Realism
Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and was the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II. Socialist realism is characterized by the glorified depiction of communist values, such as the emancipation of the proletariat. Despite its name, the figures in the style are very often highly idealized, especially in sculpture, where it often leans heavily on the conventions of classical sculpture.

Tudor Arghezi

ArgheziTudor '''Arghezi
Tudor Arghezi (21 May 1880 – 14 July 1967 ) was a Romanian writer, best known for his unique contribution to poetry and children's literature. Born Ion N. Theodorescu in Bucharest, he explained that his pen name was related to Argesis, the Latin name for the Argeș River.

Lucian Blaga

Lucian Blaga (9 May 1895 – 6 May 1961) was a Romanian philosopher, poet, playwright and novelist.

Ion Caraion

Ion Caraion (pen name of Stelian Diaconescu; May 24, 1923–July 21, 1986) was a Romanian poet, essayist and translator.

Vatslav Vorovsky

V. V. VorovskyV.V. VorovskyVaclav Vorovsky
Vatslav Vatslavovich Vorovsky ( Russian: Ва́цлав Ва́цлавович Воро́вский; Polish: Wacław Worowski) (1871–1923) was a Marxist revolutionary, literary critic, and Soviet Russian diplomat. One of the first Soviet diplomats, Vorovsky is best remembered as the victim of a May 1923 political assassination in Lausanne, Switzerland, where he was the official representative of the Soviet government to the Conference of Lausanne.

Writers' Union of Romania

Romanian Writers' UnionWriters' UnionWriters Union of Romania
The Writers' Union of Romania (Uniunea Scriitorilor din România), founded in March 1949, is a professional association of writers in Romania. It also has a subsidiary in Chişinău, Republic of Moldova. The Writers' Union of Romania was created by the communist regime by taking over the former Romanian Writers' Society (Societatea Scriitorilor Români), which had been established in 1908.

Ion Călugăru

The volume received more high praise from Ovid Crohmălniceanu, who, suggesting it constituted a Bildungsroman, also commented on its "extraordinary coherence", while Henri Zalis spoke of it as "excellent" and "stirring". Literary historian Nicolae Manolescu, who also recorded Copilăria...s Bildungsroman quality, was more reserved when assessing its content and style, arguing that the protagonist's evolution is "uninteresting". He identified the sources of inspiration for the central narrative as being Creangă's celebrated autobiography, Childhood Memories, and the memoirs of Soviet author Maxim Gorky.

H. Bonciu

Horia Bonciu
Ovid Crohmălniceanu also proposed that Bonciu is in fact an Expressionist by accident, whose actual literary models are the proto-Expressionism of Vienna Secession and (even older) currents born into Austrian culture. Bonciu, he argues, gained an Expressionist profile by performing his own, independent, mix of literary themes: transcendence is borrowed from Neoromanticism, instinctual drive from Naturalism, subjectivity from Impressionism, and "paneroticism" from Jugendstil and Symbolism. Other literary historians presume the same connections.

Sesto Pals

Semion Șestopali
The moribund Pals sketched out a quaint prophecy: Ovid Crohmălniceanu, Evreii în mișcarea de avangardă românească, Editura Hasefer, Bucharest, 2001. ISBN: 973-8056-52-7. Ion Pop, "Un 'om ciudat': Sesto Pals", in Steaua, Nr. 7-8/2009, pp. 41–43. Mariana Sipoș, " 'Rămâne-o lacrimă năucă' — de vorbă cu Valentina Caraion", in Jurnalul Literar, Nr. 7-10/1999, pp. 6–7. Pals, Sesto, in The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe. The Bucharest Surrealist Group (collective portrait), in Europeana database.

Felix Aderca

Reportedly, he was among the privileged members of this club—that is, those whose opinions were treasured by its leader Eugen Lovinescu; according to literary historian Ovid Crohmălniceanu, he assumed the task of popularizing the anti-traditionalist and Sburătorist ideology with an intensity matched only by critics Vladimir Streinu and Pompiliu Constantinescu. A similar verdict comes from one of Lovinescu's contemporaries and rivals, the literary historian George Călinescu: "[Aderca] was one of those with the courage of taking an immediate stance, to which the master of the house [Lovinescu] would subsequently add his signature and his seals".

Paul Georgescu

With Ovid Crohmălniceanu, Sergiu Fărcăşan and Petru Dumitriu, he contributed the sporadic literary chronicles at Scînteia (beginning 1953). Paul Georgescu assumed a first-hand position in directing and promoting a young generation of writers during 1952, when he became one of the main lecturers at the newly founded School of Literature, a Writers' Union venture. In 1954, Georgescu hired Valeriu Râpeanu, at the time a student and later known for his scholarly works on 19th century poet Mihai Eminescu, to a position at Gazeta Literară.