IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
When the Chalukyas attempted to expand southwards, they were defeated by the Pallavas from farther south, who in turn were opposed by the Pandyas and the Cholas from still farther south. No ruler of this period was able to create an empire and consistently control lands much beyond his core region. During this time, pastoral peoples, whose land had been cleared to make way for the growing agricultural economy, were accommodated within caste society, as were new non-traditional ruling classes. The caste system consequently began to show regional differences. In the 6th and 7th centuries, the first devotional hymns were created in the Tamil language.

Tamil language

After Tamil Brahmi fell out of use, Tamil was written using a script called Grantha and Pallava. The current Tamil script consists of 12 vowels, 18 consonants and one special character, the āytam. The vowels and consonants combine to form 216 compound characters, giving a total of 247 characters (12 + 18 + 1 + (12 x 18)). All consonants have an inherent vowel a, as with other Indic scripts. This inherent vowel is removed by adding a tittle called a, to the consonantal sign. For example, ன is ṉa (with the inherent a) and ன் is ṉ (without a vowel).

Tamil Nadu

TamilnaduTamil Nadu, IndiaTamil
During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I. The Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Much later, the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century. The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep south away from the coast.

Velvikudi inscription

In the earlier inscriptions from the Tamil-speaking region, issued by the Pallavas, the prashasti portion is written only in Sanskrit while the use of Tamil is restricted to the transactional portions. The later inscriptions, issued by the Cholas, also follow the Pallava model. The Velvikudi inscription is the earliest extant inscription that features prashasti portions written in both Sanskrit and Tamil, a model also followed in other Pandya inscriptions, such as the Larger Chinnamanur (Sinnamanur) inscription and the Dhalavaipuram (Dalavayapuram) inscription. This appears to be the result of the Pandya attempts to raise the status of the Tamil language. H.

Sri Lanka

CeylonCeyloneseDemocratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
During its two and a half millennia of existence, the Sinhala Kingdom was invaded at least eight times by neighbouring South Asian dynasties such as the Chola, Pandya, Chera, and Pallava. These invaders were all subsequently driven back. There also were incursions by the kingdoms of Kalinga (modern Odisha) and from the Malay Peninsula as well. The Fourth Buddhist council of Theravada Buddhism was held at the Anuradhapura Maha Viharaya in Sri Lanka under the patronage of Valagamba of Anuradhapura in 25 BC. The council was held in response to a year in which the harvests in Sri Lanka were particularly poor and many Buddhist monks subsequently died of starvation.


MaduraMadurai, IndiaMadhurai
Madurai (, also ) is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the cultural capital of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Madurai District, the third largest city in Tamil Nadu and 44th most populated city in India. Located on the banks of River Vaigai, Madurai has been a major settlement for two millennia.

States and union territories of India

StateIndian stateUnion Territory
India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 9 union territories, for a total of 37 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions.

List of districts in India

A district (zilā) is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory. In some cases districts are further subdivided into sub-divisions, and in others directly into tehsils or talukas. there are a total of 732 districts, up from the 640 in the 2011 Census of India and the 593 recorded in the 2001 Census of India.

Indian Standard Time

ISTUTC+05:30local time
Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time zone observed throughout India, with a time offset of UTC+05:30. India does not observe daylight saving time or other seasonal adjustments. In military and aviation time IST is designated E* ("Echo-Star").

Arikesari Maravarman

Arikesari Parankusa MaravarmanArikesariArikesari Asamasaman Maravarman
He expanded the Pandyan power substantially, and the Pandyan inscriptions credit him with several victories, including those over the Cheras ("Keralas") and the Pallavas. Arikesari was the successor of Jayantavarman, but it is not known for certain if he was Jayantavarman's son or not. K. A. Nilakanta Sastri dated his reign to c. 670–710 CE; T. V. Sadasiva Pandarathar dated it to c. 640–670 CE. He was succeeded by his son Kochadaiyan Ranadhiran. In the Velvikkudi and the minor Chinnamanur inscriptions, his name appears as "Arikesari Maravarman". In the larger Chinnamanur grant inscription, he is called Arikesari Parankusa.

Index of India-related articles

tehsil – Padampur, Rajasthan – Paddhari – Padianallur – Padirikuppam – Padma Bhushan – Padma Shri – Padma Vibhushan – Padmapur – Padrauna – Paduvilayi – Pahalgam – Pahari language – Pahasu – Paintepur – Pairagachha – Pakaur – Pakhala – Pakistan – Mahila Paksh - Pal Chourai – Pala Empire – Palacole – Palaganangudy – Palakkad – Palakkad Gap – Payyappilly Palakkappilly – Palakkodu – Palakurthi – Palamedu – Palani Chettipatti – Palar River – Palasa-Kasibugga – Palasbari – Palashban – Palavakkam – Palavansathu – Palawa – Palayad – Palayam – Palda – Palej – Palera – Pāli – Pali District – Pali, Rajasthan – Palia Kalan – Palissery – Palk Strait – Palladam – Pallapalayam – Pallapatti – Pallathur – Pallava

Tamil Sangams

Tamil SangamSangamsangams
The earliest archaeological evidence connecting Madurai and the Sangams is the 10th century Cinnamanur inscription of the Pandyas. * Madurai Tamil Sangam. List of Sangam poets.

South India

Southern IndiaSouth IndianPeninsular India
Several Tamil dynasties such as the Cheras of Karuvur, the Pandyas of Madurai, the Cholas of Thanjavur, the Satavahanas of Amaravati, the Pallavas of Kanchi, the Kadambas of Banavasi, the Western Gangas of Kolar, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, the Chalukyas of Badami, the Hoysalas of Belur and the Kakatiyas of Orugallu ruled over the region from 6th century B.C. to 14th century A.D. The Vijayanagara Empire, founded in 14th century A.D. was the last Indian dynasty that ruled over the region.

Mahendravarman I

MahendravarmanMahendra Varman IMahendra Pallava
Mahendra varma I (600–630 CE) was a Pallava king who ruled the Southern portion of present day Andhra region and Northern regions of what forms present-day Tamil Nadu in India in the early 7th century. He was a scholar, painter, architect, musician. He was the son of Simhavishnu, who defeated the Kalabhras and re-established the Pallava kingdom. During his reign, the Chalukya king Pulakeshin II attacked the Pallava kingdom. The Pallavas fought a series of wars in the northern Vengi region, before Mahendravarma decimated his chief enemies at Pullalur (according to Pallava grants at Kuram, kasakudi and tadantottam).

Narasimhavarman I

NarasimhavarmanMamallaNarasimavarman I
Narasimhavarman I or Narasimha Varma I was a king of the Pallava dynasty who ruled South India from 630–668 AD. He shared his father Mahendravarman I's love of art and completed the work started by Mahendravarman in Mamallapuram. During his reign famous Panch Pandava Rath Temple was constructed which is Rock Cut Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage site. He avenged his father's defeat at the hands of the Chalukya king, Pulakeshin II in the year 642 AD. Narasimhavarman I was also known as Mahamalla (great wrestler), and Mamallapuram (Mahabalipuram) was named after him. It was during his reign, in 640 AD, that the Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang visited Kanchipuram.


ancient Tamil countryTamil countryTamilakkam
The best known among them were the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyans and Pallavas. During the Sangam period, Tamil culture began to spread outside Tamilakam. Ancient Tamil settlements were also found in Sri Lanka (Sri Lankan Tamils) and the Maldives (Giravarus). "Tamiḻakam" is a portmanteau of a word and suffix from the Tamil language, namely Tamiḻ and -akam. It can be roughly translated as the "homeland of the Tamils". According to Kamil Zvelebil, the term seems to be the most ancient term used to designate Tamil territory in the Indian subcontinent.

Shore Temple

Mahabalipuram sea shore templesRaajasimmeswaram / Kshatriya Simmeswaram - Shore Templesshore temples
At the time of its creation, the site was a busy port during the reign of Narasimhavarman II of the Pallava dynasty. As one of the Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram, it has been classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1984. It is one of the oldest structural (versus rock-cut) stone temples of South India. Shore temple is a complex of temples and shrines. Marco Polo and the European merchants that came to Asia after him called the site Seven Pagodas. One of these is believed to be the Shore Temple. The temple probably acted as a landmark for navigation of their ships. As it appears like a Pagoda, the name became familiar to the seafarers.

Pallava script

PallavaPallava alphabetnew script
The Pallava script, a Brahmic script, was developed under the Pallava dynasty of Southern India around the 6th century of AD. Indian script Grantha and Southeast Asian scripts such as Balinese, Javanese, Kawi, Baybayin, Mon, Burmese, Khmer, Lanna, Thai, Lao and the New Tai Lue alphabet as well as the Sri Lankan Sinhala script are either direct or indirect derivations from the Kadamba-Pallava alphabet. A proposal to encode the script in Unicode was submitted in 2018. The form shown here is based on examples from the 7th century AD. Letters labeled * have uncertain sound value, as they have little occurrence in Southeast Asia.


Two Pallava coins bearing legends read as Srihari and Srinidhi have been found at Mamallapuram. The Pallava kings ruled Mamallapuram from Kanchipuram; the capital of the Pallava dynasty from the 3rd century to 9th century CE, and used the port to launch trade and diplomatic missions to Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. An 8th-century Tamil text written by Thirumangai Alvar described this place as Sea Mountain ‘where the ships rode at anchor bent to the point of breaking laden as they were with wealth, big trunked elephants and gems of nine varieties in heaps’.

Aditya I

Aditya CholaAditya Chola IAdithya Chola I
During 903 CE, the 32nd year of his reign, Aditya I Chola, not satisfied with his subordinate position, planned and carried out an attack on his erstwhile overlord, the Pallava king Aparajita. In the battle that ensued, Aditya pounced upon Aparajita when he was mounted on an elephant and killed him. That spelt the end of the Pallava rule in Tondaimandalam (north Tamil Nadu) and the whole of the Pallava kingdom became Chola territory. This marked the effective end of the once great Pallava empire in the history of South India.

Chalukya dynasty

ChalukyaChalukyasBadami Chalukyas
It recovered during the reign of Vikramaditya I, who succeeded in pushing the Pallavas out of Badami and restoring order to the empire. Vikramaditya I took the title "Rajamalla" (lit "Sovereign of the Mallas" or Pallavas). The thirty-seven year rule of Vijayaditya (696–733) was a prosperous one and is known for prolific temple building activity. The empire was its peak again during the rule of the illustrious Vikramaditya II (733–744) who is known not only for his repeated invasions of the territory of Tondaimandalam and his subsequent victories over Pallava Nandivarman II, but also for his benevolence towards the people and the monuments of Kanchipuram, the Pallava capital.

Theni district

TheniTeniDistrict of Theni
The district is home to Theni, Periyakulam, Bodinayakanur, Cumbum, Uthamapalayam, Kombai, Gudalur, Chinnamanur, Andipatti, Rasingapuram, Thevaram,Pottipuram,Ramakrishnapuram,B.Ammapatti, Telugu dominant Lakshmipuram Ambasamudram,Govindanagaram,Srirengapuram,Venkadachalapuram and several other small villages like Gohilapuram, Pathirakalipuram, SukkangalPatti, Kamarajapuram, sadaiyalpatti, Meenatchipuram, Melasindalaichery, Pallavarayan Patti a village in Tamil Nadu Jallikattu. Kamatchipuram It is diversified by several ranges and hills.

Guntur district

Guntur was successively ruled by famous dynasties such as the Satavahanas, Andhra Ikshvakus, Pallavas, Ananda Gotrikas, Vishnukundina, Kota Vamsa, Chalukyas, Cholas, Kakatiyas, Musunuris, Reddys, Vijayanagara and Qutb Shahis during ancient and medieval times. The famous battle of Palnadu which is enshrined in legend and literature as Palnati Yuddham was fought in Guntur district in 1180 CE. During the 16th century, Guntur was ruled by the Suryadevara Nayaks. Guntur became part of the Mughal empire in 1687 CE when the emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Qutb Shahi sultanate of Golconda, of which Guntur was then a part.


Tondai NaduThondai MandalamThondai Nadu
The Proceedings of the First Annual Conference of South Indian History Congress also notes: The word Tondai means a creeper and the term Pallava conveys a similar meaning. In the 3rd century CE, Tondai Nadu was ruled by Ilandiraiyan, the first king with the title "Tondaiman", whom P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar identifies with a Pallava prince. Pallavas moved southwards, adopted local traditions to their own use, and named themselves as Tondaiyar after the land called Tondai. The medieval Pallavas ruled Andhra and Northern Tamil Nadu, from the 4th to the 9th centuries, with their seat of capital at ancient Kanchipuram.


Kanchipuram grew in importance when the Pallavas of southern Andhra Pradesh, wary of constant invasions from the north, moved their capital south to the city in the 6th century. The Pallavas fortified the city with ramparts, wide moats, well-laid-out roads, and artistic temples. During the reign of the Pallava King Mahendravarman I, the Chalukya King Pulakesin II (610–642) invaded the Pallava kingdom as far as the Kaveri River. The Pallavas successfully defended Kanchipuram and foiled repeated attempts to capture the city.