Tondai NaduThondai MandalamThondai Nadu
The boundaries of Tondaimandalam are ambiguous – between the Rivers basins of Penna River and Ponnaiyar River. The region includes the Nellore, Chittoor, North and South Arcot and Chingleput districts of the Andhra and Madras states (now in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu). The present day Chennai was part of the region. . It covers the present day areas of Nellore, Chittoor, Vellore, Ranipet, Tirupattur, Tiruvanamalai, Villupuram, Kallakuruchi, Tiruvallur, Kanchipuram, Chengalpattu, Cuddalore and Chennai districts of modern day Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

Tamil Nadu

TamilnaduTamil Nadu, IndiaTamil
During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I. The Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Much later, the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century. The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep south away from the coast.


IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
When the Chalukyas attempted to expand southwards, they were defeated by the Pallavas from farther south, who in turn were opposed by the Pandyas and the Cholas from still farther south. No ruler of this period was able to create an empire and consistently control lands much beyond his core region. During this time, pastoral peoples, whose land had been cleared to make way for the growing agricultural economy, were accommodated within caste society, as were new non-traditional ruling classes. The caste system consequently began to show regional differences. In the 6th and 7th centuries, the first devotional hymns were created in the Tamil language.

Tamil language

After Tamil Brahmi fell out of use, Tamil was written using a script called Grantha and Pallava. The current Tamil script consists of 12 vowels, 18 consonants and one special character, the āytam. The vowels and consonants combine to form 216 compound characters, giving a total of 247 characters (12 + 18 + 1 + (12 x 18)). All consonants have an inherent vowel a, as with other Indic scripts. This inherent vowel is removed by adding a tittle called a, to the consonantal sign. For example, ன is ṉa (with the inherent a) and ன் is ṉ (without a vowel).

Andhra Pradesh

AndhraAPAndhra Pradesh State
The coast of the state extends along the Bay of Bengal from Srikakulam to Nellore district. The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. The coastal plains are for the most part of delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penner Rivers. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line in the state's geography. The Kadapa Basin formed by two arching branches of the Eastern Ghats is a mineral-rich area. The Ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use.


MadrasChennai, IndiaRoyapettah
The city's contiguous satellite towns include Mahabalipuram in the south, Chengalpattu and Maraimalai Nagar in the southwest, and Sriperumpudur, Arakkonam, Kanchipuram and Tiruvallur to the west. Chennai, as the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu, houses the state executive and legislative headquarters primarily in the Secretariat Buildings in the Fort St George campus. The Madras High Court, is the highest judicial authority in the state, whose jurisdiction extends across Tamil Nadu and Puducherry. Chennai has three parliamentary constituencies—Chennai North, Chennai Central and Chennai South—and elects 24 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) to the state legislature.

Bay of Bengal

Gulf of BengalHarkandBay of Bangal
The Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and northwest by India, on the north by Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman Islands of India and Myanmar and the Nicobar Islands of India. Its southern limit is a line between Sri Lanka and the north westernmost point of Sumatra (Indonesia). It is the largest water region called a bay in the world. There are countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal in South Asia and Southeast Asia.

List of districts in India

A district (zilā) is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory. In some cases districts are further subdivided into sub-divisions, and in others directly into tehsils or talukas. there are a total of 732 districts, up from the 640 in the 2011 Census of India and the 593 recorded in the 2001 Census of India.

States and union territories of India

StateIndian stateUnion Territory
India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 9 union territories, for a total of 37 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions.

Chola dynasty

CholaCholasChola Empire
, finally marching all the way up to Arcot—Tirumalai-Nellore-Visayawadai-Vengi-Kalingam belt by 1250.

Index of India-related articles

Jabalpur – Vejalpur – Velampalayam – Vellakinar – Vellakoil – Vellalur – Vellimalai – VelloreVellore district – Vellottamparappu – Velur – Vembanad Lake – Vengampudur – Vengathur – Venkarai – Venkatagiri – Venkatapura – Venmanad – Vennanthur – Vepagunta – Veppathur – Verkilambi – Vetapalem – Vettavalam – Vicarabad – Viceroy of India – Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute – Vidarbha – Vidisha – Vidisha District – Vijaigarh – Vijainagar – Vijalpor – Vijapur – Vijay Pur – Vijayanagara – Vijayanagara empire – Vijayapura – Vijayapuri – Vijayapuri (North) – Vijayawada – Vijayraghavgarh – Vikasnagar – Vikram (name) – Vikram Seth – Vikramshila – Vikramasingapuram – Vikravandi – Vilangudi – Vilankurichi


BengaluruBangalore, IndiaBangalore, Karnataka
Modern Bangalore was begun in 1537 by a vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, Kempe Gowda I, who aligned with the Vijayanagara empire to campaign against Gangaraja (whom he defeated and expelled to Kanchi), and who built a mud-brick fort for the people at the site that would become the central part of modern Bangalore. Kempe Gowda was restricted by rules made by Achuta Deva Raya, who feared the potential power of Kempe Gowda and did not allow a formidable stone fort. Kempe Gowda referred to the new town as his "gandubhūmi" or "Land of Heroes". Within the fort, the town was divided into smaller divisions—each called a "pete".


Further inscriptions made before ninth century indicate the rule of Pallava kings, whose capital was Kanchipuram. The seventh century Nayanar saints Sambandar and Appar wrote of the temple in their poetic work, Tevaram. Sekkizhar, the author of the Periyapuranam records both Appar and Sambandar worshiped Annamalaiyar in the temple. The Chola Kings ruled over the region for more than four centuries, from 850 to 1280, and were temple patrons. The inscriptions from the Chola king record various gifts like land, sheep, cow and oil to the temple commemorating various victories of the dynasty. The Hoysala kings used Tiruvannamalai as their capital beginning in 1328.

2011 Census of India

2011 censusCensus India in 20112011 Indian Census
The 15th Indian Census was conducted in two phases, house listing and population enumeration. House listing phase began on 1 April 2010 and involved collection of information about all buildings. Information for National Population Register (NPR) was also collected in the first phase, which will be used to issue a 12-digit unique identification number to all registered Indian residents by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI). The second population enumeration phase was conducted between 9 and 28 February 2011. Census has been conducted in India since 1872 and 2011 marks the first time biometric information was collected.

Chittoor district

ChittoorChitoor DistrictChittur
In 1960, 319 villages in Chittoor district were added into the then Kanchipuram district and Thiruvallur districts of Tamil Nadu through the demands of Ma. Po. Si. and other leaders. Chandragiri, a suburban area of Tirupati served as fourth capital of Vijayanagar empire. Chittoor is a part of Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh. The district occupies an area of 15359 km2. The district is bounded by Anantapur District to the northwest, Kadapa District to the north, Nellore District to the northeast, Krishnagiri District, Vellore District, Tirupathur district and Tiruvallur District of Tamil Nadu state to the south, and Kolar District of Karnataka state to the west.


A tehsil (also known as a taluka or taluq) is an administrative division in some countries of the Indian subcontinent. It is an area of land within a city or town that serves as its administrative centre, with possible additional towns, and usually a number of villages. The terms in India have replaced earlier geographical terms, such as pargana and thana.

Indian Standard Time

ISTUTC+05:30local time
Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time zone observed throughout India, with a time offset of UTC+05:30. India does not observe daylight saving time or other seasonal adjustments. In military and aviation time IST is designated E* ("Echo-Star").

Chingleput District (Madras Presidency)

Chingleput DistrictChingleput Chingleput District
It covered the area of the present-day districts of Kanchipuram, Chengalpattu and Tiruvallur and parts of Chennai city. It was sub-divided into six taluks with a total area of 3079 sqmi. The first capital was the town of Karunguzhi, with an interruption between 1825 and 1835, administrative headquarters were transferred to Kanchipuram. In 1859 the capital Saidapet, now a neighbourhood in the city of Chennai, was made the administrative headquarters of the district. Excavations made by Robert Bruce Foote indicate that the region was inhabited in the Stone age. During the end of first millennium B. C, it was under the Thondaiman kings.

Divya Desam

DivyadesamDivya DesamsDivyadesams
A Divya Desam or Vaishnava Divya Desam is one of the 108 Vishnu temples that are mentioned in the works of the Alvars (saints). ”Divya” means “premium” and “Desam” indicates “place” (temple). Of the 108 temples, 105 are in India, one is in Nepal, and last two are believed to be outside the Earthly realms. In India, they are spread over states of Tamil Nadu (85), Kerala (11), Andhra Pradesh (2), Gujarat (1), Uttar Pradesh (4), Uttarakhand (3). Muktinath, Saligramam is the only Divya Desam in Nepal. The last two are Thirupparkadal and Paramapadam. Tirupalkaddal is the ocean of milk and paramapadam is the Vaikuntha where Lord Vishnu presides.

Kanchipuram district

Kancheepuram districtKanchipuramKancheepuram
Kancheepuram district is one of the districts in the northeast of the state of Tamil Nadu in India. The area comprising the present day Kancheepuram district was earlier a part of Chingleput district. The original Chingleput district was split in the year 1997 to form the present day Kancheepuram and Tiruvallur districts. On 18 July 2019, Chengalpattu district was carved out of Kanchipuram district, with suburbs from Chengalpet towards Chennai under the district headquarters in Chengalpet. The separation came into effect from 29th of November which was done by Chief Minister Mr. Edappadi K Palaniswami. Kancheepuram district is situated on the North East coast of Tamil Nadu.

Tamil Nadu Police

Directorate of Vigilance and Anti-CorruptionCoimbatore City PoliceTamil Nadu
., Kanchipuram, Thiruvallur, Villuppuram, Cuddalore, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Kallakurichi and Chengalpattu. West Zone having jurisdiction over 8 Districts (exclude Coimbatore City, Tiruppur City, Salem City) viz., Coimbatore Rural, Tiruppur Rural, Salem Rural, The Nilgiris, Erode, Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri and Namakkal. Central Zone having jurisdiction over 8 Districts (excluding Tiruchirappalli City) viz., Thanjavur, Tiruchirappalli Rural, Perambalur, Ariyalur, Karur, Nagapattinam, Tiruvarur and Pudukottai.

History of Chennai

ChintadrepettahMadras CityFrancis Day
Chennai, originally known as "Mudhiras", was located in the province of Tondaimandalam, an area lying between Penna River of Nellore and the Ponnaiyar river of Cuddalore. The capital of the province was Kancheepuram. Tondaimandalam was ruled in the 2nd century by Tondaiman Ilam Tiraiyan, who was a representative of the Chola family at Kanchipuram. It is believed that Ilam Tiraiyan must have subdued the mudhiras, the original inhabitants of the region and established his rule over Tondaimandalam. The modern city of "Chennai" arose from the British settlement of Fort St. George and its subsequent expansion through merging numerous native villages and European settlements around Fort St.

List of districts of Tamil Nadu

DistrictDistricts of Tamil Nadu37 districts
and Perambalur districts split from Tiruchirappalli district. 1996: Theni district split from Madurai district. 1997: Namakkal district split from Salem district. 1997: Kanchipuram and Tiruvallur districts split from Chingleput district (District ceased to exist). 2004: Krishnagiri district split from Dharmapuri district. 2007: Ariyalur district split from Perambalur district. 2009: Tiruppur district split from Coimbatore and Erode districts. 2019: Kallakurichi district split from Viluppuram. 2019: Tenkasi district split from Tirunelveli district. 2019: Tirupattur and Ranipet districts split from Vellore district. 2019: Chengalpattu district split from Kanchipuram district.


Tondaimandalam was another of the core mandalams of the Cholas and was previously a territory of the Pallavas. When it passed into the hands of the Cholas c. 880, it was renamed Jayankondacholamandalam (literally "the land victoriously absorbed into the Chola country"; also spelt Jayangondacholamandalam). Tondaimandalam broadly covers the modern districts of Chingleput, South Arcot, and North Arcot in Tamil Nadu and portions of Chittoor and Nellore districts in Andhra Pradesh. When under the control of the Pallavas between the fifth and ninth centuries, Kanchipuram was their capital.

Index of Telangana-related articles

Nagar • Sri Bharati Tirtha • Sri Damodaram Sanjeevaiah Thermal Power Station • Sri Kalahastheeswara Institute of Technology • Sri Kantha Krishnamacharyulu • Srikanth Kidambi • Sri Kodandaramaswami Temple • Sri Kommineni • Sri Krishna Devaraya Andhra Bhasha Nilayam • Sri Krishna Rayabaram • Sri Krishnadevaraya University • Sri Kurmam • Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple, Antarvedi • Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple, Karimnagar district • Sri Lakshmi Prasanna Pictures • Sri Lankan Gypsy people • Sri Lankans in India • Sri M • Sri Mani • Sripada Yellampalli project • Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam • Sri Pavuluri Subbarao Public School • Sri Ponna • Sri Potti Sri Ramulu Nellore district