Nandi Hills, India

Nandi HillsNandiNandi Hill
In traditional belief, the hills are the origin of the Arkavathy river, Ponnaiyar River, Palar River, Papagni and Penna River. Watching the sunrise at Nandi Hills is popular with tourists. There are many stories about the origin of the name Nandi Hills. During the Chola period, Nandi Hills was called Anandagiri meaning The Hill of Happiness. It is also perhaps called Nandi Hills because the hills resemble a sleeping bull. Another theory holds that the hill gets its name from an ancient, 1300-year-old Dravidian-style Nandi temple situated on this hill.


The state of Tamil Nadu operates frequent buses to locations including Chennai, Salem, Bangalore, Tiruvallur, Vellore, Arakkonam, Chittoor, Chengalpet, Kanchipuram, Thiruvannamalai, Tiruvelpur alais Athimanjeripet, Pothatturpettai, Pallipattu and Tirupati. Southern Railway also operates frequent passenger services to and from Chennai.Many electric trains are operated and some express trains which pass through this station stops here. The first local train from Chennai Central is 4:00 am and last train is at 8:15 pm. According to the 2011 census, Tiruttani had a population of 44,781 with a sex ratio of 1,003 females for every 1,000 males, well above the national average of 929.


Along with the three Saiva nayanmars, they influenced the ruling Pallava kings, creating a Bhakti movement that resulted in changing the religious geography from Buddhism and Jainism to these two sects of Hinduism in the region. Some modern scholars suggest that they lived during 5th - 9th century CE, "on the basis of a few historical evidences", although no "clear" evidence exists to fit them between 5th to 9th century CE. The Encyclopædia Britannica says that Alvars lived between 7th-10th century CE. Professor of Religion and Asian Studies, James G.


ancient Tamil countryTamil countryTamilakkam
In this region of cool waters were the four great cities of: Madurai with its towers; Uraiyur which was famous; tumultuous Kanchi; and Puhar with the roaring waters [of the Kaveri and the ocean]. While these ancient texts do not clearly define the eastern and western boundaries of the Tamilakam, scholars assume that these boundaries were the seas, which may explain their omission from the ancient definition. The ancient Tamilakam thus included the present-day Kerala. However, it excluded the present-day Tamil-inhabited territory in the Jaffna Peninsula of Sri Lanka.

Aditya I

Aditya CholaAditya Chola IAdithya Chola I
During 903 CE, the 32nd year of his reign, Aditya I Chola, not satisfied with his subordinate position, planned and carried out an attack on his erstwhile overlord, the Pallava king Aparajita. In the battle that ensued, Aditya pounced upon Aparajita when he was mounted on an elephant and killed him. That spelt the end of the Pallava rule in Tondaimandalam (north Tamil Nadu) and the whole of the Pallava kingdom became Chola territory. This marked the effective end of the once great Pallava empire in the history of South India.

Mahendravarman I

MahendravarmanMahendra Varman IMahendra Pallava
Mahendra varma I (600–630 CE) was a Pallava king who ruled the Southern portion of present day Andhra region and Northern regions of what forms present-day Tamil Nadu in India in the early 7th century. He was a scholar, painter, architect, musician. He was the son of Simhavishnu, who defeated the Kalabhras and re-established the Pallava kingdom. During his reign, the Chalukya king Pulakeshin II attacked the Pallava kingdom. The Pallavas fought a series of wars in the northern Vengi region, before Mahendravarma decimated his chief enemies at Pullalur (according to Pallava grants at Kuram, kasakudi and tadantottam).

Guntur district

Guntur was successively ruled by famous dynasties such as the Satavahanas, Andhra Ikshvakus, Pallavas, Ananda Gotrikas, Vishnukundina, Kota Vamsa, Chalukyas, Cholas, Kakatiyas, Musunuris, Reddys, Vijayanagara and Qutb Shahis during ancient and medieval times. The famous battle of Palnadu which is enshrined in legend and literature as Palnati Yuddham was fought in Guntur district in 1180 CE. During the 16th century, Guntur was ruled by the Suryadevara Nayaks. Guntur became part of the Mughal empire in 1687 CE when the emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Qutb Shahi sultanate of Golconda, of which Guntur was then a part.

Prakasam district

PrakasamPrakasham districtPrakasham
Prakasam district was originally constituted on 2 February 1970, carved out of Guntur, Nellore and Kurnool districts of Andhra Pradesh. It was carved out of three taluks of Guntur District, i.e. Addanki, Chirala, and Ongole, four taluks of Nellore district, i.e. Kandukur, Kanigiri, Darsi and Podili and three taluks of Kurnool district i.e. Markapur, Yarragondapalem and Giddaluru. It is one of the nine districts in the Coastal Andhra region of Andhra Pradesh. Prakasam District is a part of the Red Corridor. Prakasam district occupies an area of 17626 km2, comparatively equivalent to Indonesia's Seram Island. The only Municipal Corporation in Prakasam is Ongole.

Maurya Empire

Mauryan EmpireMauryanMaurya
Ranging from as far west as Afghanistan and as far south as Andhra (Nellore District), Ashoka's edicts state his policies and accomplishments. Although predominantly written in Prakrit, two of them were written in Greek, and one in both Greek and Aramaic. Ashoka's edicts refer to the Greeks, Kambojas, and Gandharas as peoples forming a frontier region of his empire. They also attest to Ashoka's having sent envoys to the Greek rulers in the West as far as the Mediterranean.

Kadapa district

KadapaCuddapah districtCudappah
Gandikota fort located on the bank of the Penna River was the citadel of Pemmasani Nayaks, commanders of Vijayanagar army and who won the battles of Raichur and Gulbarga for the Vijayanagar kings. The old records of the district reveal that Kadapa previously called Gadapa which means in Telugu language threshold. The ancient village of Kadapa with its large tank and temple of Lord Venkateswara at Devuni Kadapa was convenient camping place for the myriads of pilgrims travelling to the holy shrine of Tirupathi.


The poem provides a detailed description of the five tinai (landscapes) of Kanchi territory: mountainous (kurinci), forested (palai), pastoral (mullai), farmlands (marutam), coastal (neytal). The capital city of Kanchipuram is described as a city of ancient might, fame, prosperity and abounding in religious festivals. The poem is a source of cultural and sociological information about ancient Kanchipuram and nearby regions, along with the government and economic systems under Tamil chieftains.


Sanskrit languageClassical SanskritSkt.
Centres in Varanasi, Paithan, Pune and Kanchipuram were centers of classical Sanskrit learning and public debates until the arrival of the colonial era. According to Étienne Lamotte—an Indologist and Buddhism scholar, Sanskrit became the dominant literary and inscriptional language because of its precision in communication. It was, states Lamotte, an ideal instrument for presenting ideas and as knowledge in Sanskrit multiplied so did its spread and influence. Sanskrit was adopted voluntarily as a vehicle of high culture, arts, and profound ideas.


Tirusulam is in Chengalpattu district. Census figures from 2018 indicate a population of 36,580 (approximately). The Tirusulam Hills have been witness to the shooting of many Tamil movies and TV soap operas. Some of the movies that have been filmed here are "Bhairavi", "Oor Kaavalan", "Indu Poi Naalai Vaa", "SRI", "Gentleman", "Theeradha Vilayattu Pillai" and "Sethu". Also a central governments tower testing centre on the hill. This is the tallest hill in e city and has many places of worship. There is a Mosque at the top of the hill. On one side of the hill, there is a "Murugan Temple" - a temple to the Hindu God, Murugan. On another side of the hill is a Church.

Sangam, Nellore district

Sangam is a village on the bank of Penna River and a Mandal in Nellore district in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. The village of Chennavarappadu is nearby to the north.

Aparajita Varman

Aparajita Varman (fl. c. 885-903 CE) was a king of the Pallava dynasty. The last ruling member of his house he was killed in c. 897 CE in a battle against Aditya I. The Pallava dynasty rule at Tondaimandalam came to an end. In 880 CE Aparajita had defeated and killed Varagunavarman II. A depiction of Somaskanda on the rear wall of the sanctum of a temple commissioned by him in Tiruttani is regarded as the last known use of that stylistic tradition. In 885 he transferred the rule of Thanjavur to his ally and vassal Aditya I as a reward for his contribution to the victory at Thirupurambiyam.

Sri Lanka

CeylonCeyloneseDemocratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
During its two and a half millennia of existence, the Sinhala Kingdom was invaded at least eight times by neighbouring South Asian dynasties such as the Chola, Pandya, Chera, and Pallava. These invaders were all subsequently driven back. There also were incursions by the kingdoms of Kalinga (modern Odisha) and from the Malay Peninsula as well. The Fourth Buddhist council of Theravada Buddhism was held at the Anuradhapura Maha Viharaya in Sri Lanka under the patronage of Valagamba of Anuradhapura in 25 BC. The council was held in response to a year in which the harvests in Sri Lanka were particularly poor and many Buddhist monks subsequently died of starvation.


It is regarded as one of seven holy cities (Sapta Puri) which can provide Moksha; Ayodhya, Mathura, Haridwar, Kashi, Kanchi, Avanti, and Dvārakā are the seven cities known as the givers of liberation. Excavations in 2014 led to the discovery of artefacts dating back to 800 BCE. Further excavations at Aktha and Ramnagar, two sites in the vicinity of the city, unearthed artefacts dating back to 1800 BCE, supporting the view that the area was inhabited by this time. Varanasi grew as an important industrial centre, famous for its muslin and silk fabrics, perfumes, ivory works, and sculpture. During the time of Gautama Buddha, Varanasi was part of the Kingdom of Kashi.

Vijayanagara Empire

Vijayanagar EmpireVijayanagarVijayanagara
The Vijayanagara temples of Kolar, Kanakagiri, Sringeri and other towns of Karnataka; the temples of Tadpatri, Lepakshi, Ahobilam, Tirumala Venkateswara Temple and Srikalahasti in Andhra Pradesh; and the temples of Vellore, Kumbakonam, Kanchi and Srirangam in Tamil Nadu are examples of this style. Vijayanagara art includes wall-paintings such as the Dashavatara and Girijakalyana (marriage of Parvati, Shiva's consort) in the Virupaksha Temple at Hampi, the Shivapurana murals (tales of Shiva) at the Virabhadra temple at Lepakshi, and those at the Kamaakshi and Varadaraja temples at Kanchi.

Nandivarman II

Nandhivarman IINandi Varman IINandivarman
Accordingly, he was brought and then installed on the throne of the Pallava kingdom.

Paramesvaravarman II

Paramesvaravarman II (died 731) was a Pallava king who ruled from 728 to 731. He was killed by the Chalukya king Vikramaditya II. Paramesvaravarman succeeded his father Narasimhavarman II in 728 and ruled till 731. During his reign, Kanchi was invaded by the Chalukyas and Paramesvaravarman had to surrender and accept humiliating conditions. To avenge this humiliation, Paramesvaravarman attacked the Chalukya kingdom but was defeated and killed. Following Paramesvaravarman's death in 731, the Simhavishnu line of Pallavas became extinct.

Kanchi Kailasanathar Temple

Kailasanathar TempleKailasanthar templeKailasa temple at Kanchi
Temple construction is credited to the Pallava dynasty, who had established their kingdom with Kanchipuram (also known as "Kanchi" or "Shiva Vishnu Kanchi") as the capital city, considered one of the seven sacred cities under Hinduism. In Kanchi, after the Pallavas expanded their territories to the north, west and south both within Tamil, Andhra and Kannada territories under Emperor Narasimhavarman I, they started expanding their capital city of Kanchipuram and built many temples of great magnificence.

Tiru Parameswara Vinnagaram

Vaikunta Perumal TempleThiru Parameswara VinnagaramThiruparameshwara Vinnagaram - Sri Vaikunda Perumal Temple
The temple is one of the fourteen Divyadesams in Kanchipuram and is part of Vishnu Kanchi, the place where most of the Vishnu temples in Kanchipuram are located. The temple is also revered in the verses of Divyakavi Pillai Perumal Iyengar. The temple is declared as a heritage monument and administered by the Archaeological Survey of India as a protected monument. *

Ekambareswarar Temple (Kanchipuram)

Ekambareswarar TempleEkambaranathar TempleEkambareswarar
Initially temple was built by Pallavas. The Vedantist Kachiyapper served as a priest at the temple. The existing structure then, was pulled down and rebuilt by the later Chola Kings. Adi Sankara, the 10th-century saint got Kanchipuram remodelled along with expansion of this temple along with Kamakshi Amman temple and Varadaraja Perumal Temple with the help of local rulers. There are inscriptions dated 1532 CE (record 544 of 1919) indicating the gift of number of villages made by Achutaraya.

Kamakshi Amman Temple

Kamakshi of KanchipuramKanchipuramKamakshi Amman
Photos of Kamakshi temple of Kanchipuram, 1280x960.


Cuddalore O.TCuddalore portGondelour
Water supply is provided to the town by the Cuddalore municipality from three sources, namely Pennaiyar River, borewells from Caper Hills and Thirvanthipuram. The water from the sources is stored in ten overhead tanks located in various parts of the town. During the period 2000–01, a total of 6.065 million litres of water was supplied every day to households in the town. About 103 tonnes of solid waste are collected from Cuddalore every day by door-to-door collection. Subsequently, the sanitary department of the Cuddalore municipality carries out the source segregation and dumping. The coverage of solid waste management had an efficiency of 100 per cent as of 2001.