Vastus medialis

medialismedialis musclesVastus internus
Characteristics of the vastus medialis, including its angle of insertion, correlate with presence of knee joint pain (patellofemoral pain syndrome). However, this syndrome is complex and definitive evidence of causality has not yet been published. Misfiring and fatiguing of the VMO causes mal-tracking of the patella and subsequent damage to surrounding structures creating increased force on the knees, often resulting in injuries such as patellofemoral pain syndrome, anterior cruciate ligament rupture, chondromalacia, and tendinitis.

Knee pain

kneeKnee Inflammation
Bipartite patella (two-part kneecap). Genu varum (bow legs). Genu valgum (knock-knees). Genu recurvatum (Knee hyperextension). Knee flexion deformity. Patellofemoral pain syndrome. Plica syndrome. Iliotibial band syndrome. Hoffa's syndrome. Patella dislocation. Knee joint dislocation (Tibiofemoral joint dislocation). Ligamentous laxity. Fat pad impingement. Knee effusion. Deep vein thrombosis. Peripheral vascular disease. Exostosis.

Femur

femorathigh bonefemoral
Its front part is named the patellar surface and articulates with the patella; it presents a median groove which extends downward to the intercondyloid fossa and two convexities, the lateral of which is broader, more prominent, and extends farther upward than the medial. Each condyle is surmounted by an elevation, the epicondyle. The medial epicondyle is a large convex eminence to which the tibial collateral ligament of the knee-joint is attached. At its upper part is the adductor tubercle and behind it is a rough impression which gives origin to the medial head of the gastrocnemius.

Quadriceps femoris muscle

quadricepsquadriceps musclequadriceps femoris
It is subdivided into four separate portions or 'heads', which have received distinctive names: All four parts of the quadriceps muscle ultimately insert into the tuberosity of the tibia via the patella, where the quadriceps tendon becomes the patellar ligament. There is a fifth muscle of the quadriceps complex that is often forgotten and rarely taught called articularis genus. In addition, recent cadaver studies have confirmed the presence of a sixth muscle, the tensor vastus intermedius.

Knee

knee injuryknee jointknee-joint
Chondromalacia patellae. Fibular collateral ligament. Geniculum. Genuflection. Knee arthritis. Knee cartilage replacement therapy. Knee examination. Kneecapping. Kneeling. Knésetja. Medial collateral ligament. Partial knee replacement unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Posterolateral corner injuries. Reflex hammer. Animation of bones and ligament in the knee. MRI anatomy of a normal knee.

Quadriceps tendon

quadricepsquadquadriceps femoris tendon
Often, when the tendon is completely torn, part of the kneecap bone will break off with the tendon as well. It can rupture resulting in quadriceps tendon rupture. It has been studied in the analysis of patellofemoral pain syndrome.

Osteoarthritis

arthrosisdegenerative joint diseaseosteoarthritic
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone. The most common symptoms are joint pain and stiffness. Initially, symptoms may occur only following exercise, but over time may become constant. Other symptoms may include joint swelling, decreased range of motion, and, when the back is affected, weakness or numbness of the arms and legs. The most commonly involved joints are those near the ends of the fingers, at the base of the thumb, neck, lower back, knee, and hips. Joints on one side of the body are often more affected than those on the other. Usually the symptoms come on over years.

Sesamoid bone

sesamoidsesamoid bonesulnar sesamoid
The kneecap is the largest sesamoid bone in the body. Sesamoids act like pulleys, providing a smooth surface for tendons to slide over, increasing the tendon's ability to transmit muscular forces. The sesamoid is a small nodular bone most often present embedded in tendons in the region of the thumb. Calcification of sesamoid bone is one of the important features of pubertal growth spurt, which is earlier in females than in males. Absence of sesamoid bone indicates delay in reaching puberty.

Patellar ligament

patellar tendonpatella tendonkneecap ligament
The patellar ligament is the distal portion of the common tendon of the quadriceps femoris, which is continued from the patella to the tibial tuberosity. It is also sometimes called the patellar tendon as it is a continuation of the quadriceps tendon. The patellar ligament is a strong, flat, ligament, which originates on the apex of the patella distally and adjoining margins of the patella and the rough depression on its posterior surface; below, it inserts on the tuberosity of the tibia; its superficial fibers are continuous over the front of the patella with those of the tendon of the quadriceps femoris. It is about 4.5 cm long in adults (range from 3 to 6 cm).

Patella fracture

broken kneecapfractures of the patellapatellar fracture
Patellectomy (in cases of comminuted fracture) is removal of the entire patella, whereas a partial patellectomy is removal of only a portion of the patella, while any ligaments or tendons that had been connected to the removed portion are connected to the remaining portion. The fracture may require tension band wiring (in case of two part fracture) to unite the fractured bones. With advancement of fixation technique comminuted fracture of the patella are being reconstructed (patella saving operations).

Plica syndrome

plica (or naturally occurring folds in the knee joint lining)
Patellofemoral pain syndrome. Iliotibial band syndrome.

Tendon

tendonssinewtendinous
In this process, osteocytes infiltrate the tendon and lay down bone as they would in sesamoid bone such as the patella. In birds, tendon ossification primarily occurs in the hindlimb, while in ornithischian dinosaurs, ossified axial muscle tendons form a latticework along the neural and haemal spines on the tail, presumably for support. Aponeurosis. Cartilage. Chordae tendineae. List of muscles of the human body. Tendon sheath.

Vastus intermedius muscle

vastus intermediusintermediusvastus intermedialis
The vastus medialis and vastus intermedius appear to be inseparably united, but when the rectus femoris has been reflected during dissection a narrow interval will be observed extending upward from the medial border of the patella between the two muscles, and the separation may be continued as far as the lower part of the intertrochanteric line, where, however, the two muscles are frequently continuous. Due to being the deeper middle-most of the quadriceps muscle group, the intermedius is the most difficult to stretch once maximum knee flexion is attained.

Physical therapy

physiotherapyphysiotherapistphysical therapist
Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function. Physical therapy is used to improve a patient's quality of life through examination, diagnosis, prognosis, physical intervention, and patient education. It is performed by physical therapists (known as physiotherapists in many countries).

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugNSAIDsnonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation. Side effects depend on the specific drug, but largely include an increased risk of gastrointestinal ulcers and bleeds, heart attack and kidney disease.

Orthopedic surgery

orthopedicsorthopedicorthopedic surgeon
Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedics, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, spine diseases, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital disorders.

Patellar tendinitis

jumper's kneepatellar tendinopathypatellar tendonitis
It is a repetitive strain injury to the tendon connecting the patella, or kneecap, with the shinbone. Jumper's knee commonly occurs in athletes who are involved in jumping sports such as basketball and volleyball, but can affect any athlete. Patients report anterior knee pain, often with an aching quality. The symptom onset is insidious. Rarely is a discrete injury described. Usually, the problem is below the kneecap but it may also be above.

Prepatellar bursitis

housemaid's knee
The prepatellar bursa is one of several bursae of the knee joint, and is located between the patella and the skin. Prepatellar bursitis is an inflammation of this bursa. Bursae are readily inflamed when irritated, as their walls are very thin. Along with the pes anserine bursa, the prepatellar bursa is one of the most common bursae to cause knee pain when inflamed. Prepatellar bursitis is caused by either a single instance of acute trauma to the knee, or repeated minor trauma to the knee. The trauma can cause extravasation of nearby fluids into the bursa, which stimulates an inflammatory response.