Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
The resulting stresses almost caused the disintegration of the French kingdom during the early years of the war. In the early 15th century, France again came close to dissolving, but in the late 1420s the military successes of Joan of Arc (d. 1431) led to the victory of the French and the capture of the last English possessions in southern France in 1453. The price was high, as the population of France at the end of the Wars was likely half what it had been at the start of the conflict. Conversely, the Wars had a positive effect on English national identity, doing much to fuse the various local identities into a national English ideal.

Medieval cuisine

Middle Agesmedievalmedieval cooking
Though less prominent than in the north, beer was consumed in northern France and the Italian mainland. Perhaps as a consequence of the Norman conquest and the travelling of nobles between France and England, one French variant described in the 14th-century cookbook Le Menagier de Paris was called godale (most likely a direct borrowing from the English "good ale") and was made from barley and spelt, but without hops. In England there were also the variants poset ale, made from hot milk and cold ale, and brakot or braggot, a spiced ale prepared much like hypocras.


Nouvelle cuisine (New cuisine) is an approach to cooking and food presentation in French cuisine that was popularized in the 1960s by the food critics Henri Gault, who invented the phrase, and his colleagues André Gayot and Christian Millau in a new restaurant guide, the Gault-Millau, or Le Nouveau Guide. Molecular cuisine, is a modern style of cooking which takes advantage of many technical innovations from the scientific disciplines (molecular cooking). The term was coined in 1999 by the French INRA chemist Hervé This because he wanted to distinguish it from the name Molecular cuisine that was previously introduced by him and the late Oxford physicist Nicholas Kurti.


Entremets (from Old French, literally meaning "between servings") in French cuisine historically referred to small dishes served between courses but in modern times more commonly refers to a type of dessert. Originally it was an elaborate form of entertainment dish common among the nobility and upper middle class in Europe during the later part of the Middle Ages and the early modern period.

François Pierre La Varenne

La VarenneFrançois Pierre de la VarenneLe cuisinier françois
François Pierre de la Varenne (1615–1678 in Dijon), Burgundian by birth, was the author of Le Cuisinier françois (1651), one of the most influential cookbooks in early modern French cuisine. La Varenne broke with the Italian traditions that had revolutionised medieval and Renaissance French cookery in the 16th century and early 17th century. La Varenne was the foremost member of a group of French chefs, writing for a professional audience, who codified French cuisine in the age of King Louis XIV.


pheasant familyphasianidpheasant
Polyplectron Temminck 1807 (peacock-pheasants). Gallus Brisson 1760 (junglefowls). Ithaginis Wagler 1832. Tragopan Cuvier 1829 non Gray 1841 (horned pheasants). Lophophorus Temminck 1813 non Agassiz 1846 (monals). Rheinardia Maingonnat 1882. Argusianus Rafinesque 1815. Afropavo Chapin 1936 (Congo peacocks). Pavo Linnaeus 1758 (peacocks). Syrmaticus Wagler 1832 (long-tailed pheasants). Phasianus Linnaeus 1758 (typical pheasants). Chrysolophus Gray 1834 (ruffed pheasants). Lophura Fleming 1822 non Gray 1827 non Walker 1856. Catreus Cabanis 1851. Crossoptilon Hodgson 1838 (eared pheasants). Subfamily Tetraoninae (grouse). †Cynchramus Zelenkov Bonaparte 1828.

Guillaume Tirel

He wrote Le Viandier, a famous book on cookery and cookery technique, thought to be one of the first professional treatises written in France and upon which the French gastronomic tradition was founded. It had an inestimable influence on subsequent books on French cuisine and is important to food historians as a detailed source on the medieval cuisine of northern France. During the reign of Philip VI Taillevent was a major influence in the rise of imperial favor for the strong red wines being produced in the south of France as well as those coming out of Burgundy. Actually, he now stands in The Library of Congress.

Haute cuisine

cuisine classiqueclassic French cuisinehaute
For the film of the same name, see Haute Cuisine (film) Haute cuisine (French: literally "high cooking", ) or grande cuisine is the cuisine of "high-level" establishments, gourmet restaurants and luxury hotels. Haute cuisine is characterized by the meticulous preparation and careful presentation of food at a high price. Haute cuisine developed out of political and social changes in France. The "high" cuisine represented a hierarchy in 17th century France as only the privileged could eat it.

Animal coloration

colorationcolourationcolor pattering
In some species, such as the peafowl, the male has strong patterns, conspicuous colors and is iridescent, while the female is far less visible. There are several separate reasons why animals have evolved colors. Camouflage enables an animal to remain hidden from view. Animals use color to advertise services such as cleaning to animals of other species; to signal their sexual status to other members of the same species; and in mimicry, taking advantage of the warning coloration of another species. Some animals use flashes of color to divert attacks by startling predators. Zebras may possibly use motion dazzle, confusing a predator's attack by moving a bold pattern rapidly.

Congo peafowl

Congo peacockAfropavoAfropavo congensis
Both sexes resemble immature Asian peafowl, with early stuffed birds being erroneously classified as such before they were officially designated as members of a unique species. Like members of the genus Pavo, the Congo peafowl are omnivores with a diet consisting mainly of fruits and insects. In Salonga National Park, its diet is taxonomically narrower in secondary forest than in primary forest. The male has a similar display to that of other species of peafowl, though the Congo peacock actually fans its tail feathers while other peacocks fan their upper tail covert feathers. The Congo peafowl is monogamous, though detailed mating information from the wild is still needed.

Pavo (genus)

PavoPavo'' (genus)
The two species, along with the Congo peacock, are known as peafowl. In the Pliocene on the Balkan peninsula peafowl (Bravard's peafowl) coexisted with ptarmigans (Lagopus) Peafowl were widely spread on the Balkan peninsula and the Southeast Europe until the end of the Pliocene. Pavo bravardi (Early – Late Pliocene) – Gallus moldovicus, sometimes misspelt moldavicus, may be a junior synonym. Gallus aesculapii, a Late Miocene – Early Pliocene "junglefowl" of Greece, may also have been a peafowl. Stidham, Thomas A. The first fossil of the Congo peafowl (Galliformes: Afropavo). S. Afr. j. sci. [online]. 2008, vol.104, n.11-12, pp. 511–512. ISSN 0038-2353. Louchart A. (2003).

Sexual selection

sexually selectedmale-male competitionintrasexual selection
Sexual selection can lead males to extreme efforts to demonstrate their fitness to be chosen by females, producing sexual dimorphism in secondary sexual characteristics, such as the ornate plumage of birds such as birds of paradise and peafowl, or the antlers of deer, or the manes of lions, caused by a positive feedback mechanism known as a Fisherian runaway, where the passing-on of the desire for a trait in one sex is as important as having the trait in the other sex in producing the runaway effect. Although the sexy son hypothesis indicates that females would prefer male offspring, Fisher's principle explains why the sex ratio is 1:1 almost without exception.

Structural coloration

structural colorstructural colourstructural
National Geographic News: Peacock Plumage Secrets Uncovered. Iridescent plumage in satin bowerbirds: Doucet et al, 2005. Causes of Color: Peacock feathers.

Nouvelle cuisine

newNouvelleEuro-French cuisine
Nouvelle cuisine (French, "new cuisine") is an approach to cooking and food presentation in French cuisine. In contrast to cuisine classique, an older form of haute cuisine, nouvelle cuisine is characterized by lighter, more delicate dishes and an increased emphasis on presentation. It was popularized in the 1960s by the food critic Henri Gault, who invented the phrase, and his colleagues André Gayot and Christian Millau in a new restaurant guide, the Gault-Millau, or LNouveau Guide. The term "nouvelle cuisine" has been used several times in the history of French cuisine, to mark a clean break with the past.

Paul Bocuse

Institut Paul BocuseInstitut Paul Bocuse Worldwide AllianceRestaurant Bocuse
Paul Bocuse's son, Jérôme, manages the "Les Chefs de France" restaurant which the elder Bocuse co-founded with Roger Verge and Gaston Lenôtre and is located inside the French pavilion at Walt Disney World's EPCOT. Bocuse was considered an ambassador of modern French cuisine. He was honoured in 1961 with the title Meilleur Ouvrier de France. He had been apprenticed to Fernand Point, a master of classic French cuisine. Bocuse dedicated his first book to him. In 2004 the Institut Paul Bocuse Worldwide Alliance was created. In 2014 the Alliance brought together students of 14 nationalities for a course in Lyon school and university.

Velouté sauce

veloutéveloutésveal velouté
It is one of the five "mother sauces" of French cuisine listed by Auguste Escoffier in the 19th century, along with espagnole, tomato, béchamel and hollandaise. The term velouté is the French word for velvety. In preparing a velouté sauce, a light stock (one in which the bones used have not been previously roasted), such as chicken or fish stock, is thickened with a blond roux. Thus the ingredients of a velouté are equal parts (by mass) of butter and flour to form the roux and a light chicken or fish stock, with some salt and pepper to season as needed.


panaderoux icing
The fat is most often butter in French cuisine, but may be lard or vegetable oil in other cuisines. The roux is used in three of the five mother sauces of classical French cooking: béchamel sauce, velouté sauce, and espagnole sauce. In Cajun cuisine, roux is made with bacon fat or oil instead of butter and cooked to a medium or dark brown color, which lends much richness of flavor, but makes it thinner.

Espagnole sauce

espagnolesauce espagnoleSpanish sauce
Espagnole is the French word for "Spanish", but the sauce's origin story is argued by French cooks. According to Louis Diat, the creator of vichyssoise and the author of the classic Gourmet's Basic French Cookbook: "There is a story that explains why the most important basic brown sauce in French cuisine is called sauce espagnole, or Spanish sauce. According to the story, the Spanish cooks of Louis XIII's bride, Anne, helped to prepare their wedding feast, and insisted upon improving the rich brown sauce of France with Spanish tomatoes. This new sauce was an instant success, and was gratefully named in honor of its creators."

German cuisine

GermanGermanyCuisine of Germany
., Germany had the fourth-highest number of Michelin three-star restaurants in the world, after Japan, France, and the United States. The average annual meat consumption is per person. The most common varieties are pork, poultry and beef. Other varieties of meat are widely available, but do not play an important role. Source: Statista.com, 2017 Meat is usually braised; fried dishes also exist, but these recipes usually originate from France and Austria. Several cooking methods used to soften tough cuts have evolved into national specialties, including Sauerbraten (sour roast), involving marinating beef, horse meat or venison in a vinegar or wine vinegar mixture over several days.

Béchamel sauce

white saucebéchamelbechamel
It has been considered, since the seventeenth century, one of the mother sauces of French cuisine. It is used as the base for other sauces (such as Mornay sauce, which is Béchamel with cheese). Balsamell or Besciamella is the Italian equivalent of the French Béchamel: a very simple white sauce of flour, butter and milk. The sauce was originally from Renaissance Tuscany and was known as "Salsa Colla or Colletta" ("glue sauce") because of the gluey consistency of the sauce, and was brought to France by the chefs of Catherina de' Medici in 1533. Louis de Béchamel, Marquis de Nointel, was a financier who held the honorary post of chief steward to King Louis XIV.

Auguste Escoffier

EscoffierGeorges Auguste EscoffierAugust Escoffier
Georges Auguste Escoffier (28 October 1846 – 12 February 1935) was a French chef, restaurateur and culinary writer who popularized and updated traditional French cooking methods. Much of Escoffier's technique was based on that of Marie-Antoine Carême, one of the codifiers of French haute cuisine, but Escoffier's achievement was to simplify and modernize Carême's elaborate and ornate style. In particular, he codified the recipes for the five mother sauces.

UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists

Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of HumanityUNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritageintangible cultural heritage
UNESCO established its Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage with the aim of ensuring better protection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide and the awareness of their significance. This list is published by the Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage, the members of which are elected by State Parties meeting in a General Assembly. Through a compendium of the different oral and intangible treasures of humankind worldwide, the programme aims to draw attention to the importance of safeguarding intangible heritage, which UNESCO has identified as an essential component and as a repository of cultural diversity and of creative expression.


Quiche LorraineQuiche florentinequiches
Saint-Ange: the original companion for French home cooking. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. Nathan, J. (2010). Quiches, Kugels, and Couscous: my search for Jewish cooking in France. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Le guide culinaire

Guide CulinaireCulinary Guide
France: Flammarion, 1921 (renewed 1993). Escoffier, Georges Auguste, Trans. anon., The Escoffier Cookbook. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1969. Online text of Le Guide Cuilnaire (Escoffier, 1903, in French) from Google Books. Online text of A Guide to Modern Cookery (Escoffier, 1907, in English) from archive.org.

Eyespot (mimicry)

Male birds of some species, such as the peacock, have conspicuous eyespots in their plumage, used to signal their quality to sexually selecting females. The number of eyespots in a peacock's train predicts his mating success; when a peacock's train is experimentally pruned, females lose interest. Several species of pygmy owl bear false eyes on the back of the head, misleading predators into reacting as though they were the subject of an aggressive stare. Some fish have eyespots. The foureye butterflyfish gets its name from a large and conspicuous eyespot on each side of the body near the tail. A black vertical bar on the head runs through the true eye, making it hard to see.