Google Inc.Google, Inc.Google LLC
Google's diversity report states that 31 percent of its workforce are women and 69 percent are men, with the ethnicity of its workforce being predominantly white (56%) and Asian (35%). Within tech roles, however, 20 percent were women; and 25 percent of leadership roles were held by women. Google's employees are hired based on a hierarchical system. Employees are split into six hierarchies based on experience and can range "from entry-level data center workers at level one to managers and experienced engineers at level six."

Google Fiber

Google Fiber TVexperimental fiber-optic networkFiber
The following are chronological announcements of service in the Kansas City metropolitan area. Neighborhoods are said to be selected based on demand: Google placed deployment in Overland Park, Kansas, on indefinite hold in October 2013, following delays by the City Council over concerns about whether an indemnification clause that Google required might force the city to repair any damage caused by the project. As of July 2014, Overland Park's City Council had voted on a deal that would allow for Google Fiber. Soon after, the city appeared on Google Fiber's website. * Provo, Utah – On April 17, 2013, it was announced that Provo would become the third Google Fiber City.

Niantic (company)

NianticNiantic LabsNiantic, Inc.
In February 2018, Niantic announced that it had acquired augmented reality company Escher Reality, a team focused on building persistent, cross platform, multi-user experiences. Hanke stated that Niantic planned to allow third-party developers to build AR games similar to Pokémon Go. In June 2018, Niantic announced the acquisition of computer vision and machine learning company Matrix Mill. The Matrix Mill team has spent years focusing on perfecting augmented reality occlusion by building deep neural networks that can infer 3D information about the surrounding world.


Microsoft CorporationMicrosoft Corp.MS
Under U.S. law, corporations don't pay income tax on overseas profits until the profits are brought into the United States. In November 2018, the company won a $480 million military contract with the U.S. government to bring augmented reality (AR) headset technology into the weapon repertoires of American soldiers. The two-year contract may result in follow-on orders of more than 100,000 headsets, according to documentation describing the bidding process.

Shift (business)

Shift is an online, peer-to-peer, marketplace for buying and selling used cars. Founded in 2014, Shift is an American company based in San Francisco’s Mission District., the company offers its services in San Francisco, Los Angeles, San Jose and San Diego, California as well as Portland, Oregon. The leadership team includes Co-CEOs George Arison and Toby Russell, also co-founders of Taxi Magic; Sean Foy chief operating officer; and Christian Ohler chief technology officer. Backed by Lithia Motors Inc., Goldman Sachs Investment Partners (GSIP), Draper Fisher Jurvetson (DFJ), Highland Capital Partners, SV Angel, Great Oaks Venture Capital, DCM Ventures and others.

Windows 10

10Windows HelloMicrosoft Windows 10
Windows Update can also use a peer to peer system for distributing updates; by default, users' bandwidth is used to distribute previously downloaded updates to other users, in combination with Microsoft servers. Users can instead choose to only use peer-to-peer updates within their local area network. The original RTM release of Windows10 ("Windows10, released in July 2015") receives mainstream support for five years after its original release, followed by five years of extended support, but this is subject to conditions.

Columbia University

ColumbiaColumbia CollegeUniversity of Columbia
Barnard students are also eligible to cross-register classes that are available through the Barnard Catalogue and alumnae can join the Columbia Alumni Association. Joint degree programs are available through Union Theological Seminary, the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, as well as through the Juilliard School. Teachers College and Barnard College are faculties of the university; both colleges' presidents are deans under the University governance structure.

Chief executive officer

CEOManaging DirectorChief Executive
The responsibilities of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure. They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are typically enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Typically, responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader, manager, and executor. The communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees; the decision-making role involves high-level decisions about policy and strategy.

BitTorrent (company)

BitTorrentBitTorrent, Inc.BitTorrent Inc.
Peer-to-peer web hosting. BitTorrent, a peer-to-peer file sharing protocol used for distributing data. μTorrent, a freeware closed source BitTorrent client by BitTorrent, Inc. BitTorrent, a freeware closed source BitTorrent client by BitTorrent, Inc. BitTorrent DNA, a "Delivery Network Accelerator". Comparison of BitTorrent clients.

Unicorn (finance)

unicornunicornsunicorn company
TripAdvisor, Yelp), and peer-to-peer or business-to-person selling platforms (i.e. Amazon, Alibaba). Three out of the top 5 most valuable unicorns are based in China. The other two unicorns are headquartered in San Francisco. Below are the three largest unicorns overall. Defining the sub-segment of the market (no company can target 100% market share, also known as monopolization). Top-Down market sizing. Bottom-Up analysis. Competitor analysis. Discounted Cash Flow Analysis. Market Comparable Method. Comparable Transactions. Number of Unicorns: 279. Total Combined Valuation of Unicorns: $1 Trillion. Total Amount of Capital Raised: $205.8 Billion.

John Hanke

Returning to his gaming roots, the company crafted an augmented reality location-based multiplayer game called Ingress. The game had a million players within a year of its 2013 release, and seven million by 2015. Hanke led Niantic's split from Google in late 2015 and raised $30 million from Google, Nintendo and Pokémon. He stayed as the company's chief executive and guided the firm through the release of the much-covered Pokémon Go in July 2016, which now generates more than $2 million in daily revenues. Interview at Where 2.0 2005. Why 'Pokémon Go' is Such a phenomenon - Business Insider, July 2016.

Sergey Brin

Sergei BrinBrinBrin Wojcicki Foundation
Project Glass is a research and development program by Google to develop an augmented reality head-mounted display (HMD). The intended purpose of Project Glass products would be the hands-free displaying of information currently available to most smartphone users, and allowing for interaction with the Internet via natural language voice commands. Brin was also involved in the Google driverless car project. In September 2012, at the signing of the California Driverless Vehicle Bill, Brin predicted that within five years, robotic cars will be available to the general public. In May 2007, Brin married biotech analyst and entrepreneur Anne Wojcicki in the Bahamas.

Mass media

mediapressmedia company
It is possible that the rise of peer-to-peer technologies may have begun the process of making the cost of bandwidth manageable. Although a vast amount of information, imagery, and commentary (i.e. "content") has been made available, it is often difficult to determine the authenticity and reliability of information contained in web pages (in many cases, self-published). The invention of the Internet has also allowed breaking news stories to reach around the globe within minutes. This rapid growth of instantaneous, decentralized communication is often deemed likely to change mass media and its relationship to society.

Massively multiplayer online role-playing game

MMORPGMMORPGsMassively multiplayer online role-playing
Although console-based MMORPGs are considered more difficult to produce, the platform is gaining more attention. With the popularization of Facebook and microtransactions has come a new wave of Flash and HTML5 based MMORPGs that use the free to play model. They require no download outside of a browser and usually have heavily integrated social media sharing features. An example of a browser-based MMORPG is Freewar. Smartphones with their GPS capabilities (amongst others) enable augmented reality in games such as Ingress and Pokémon Go. The games are enhanced by location and distance based tracking, bench marking goals or facilitating trade between players.

Social peer-to-peer processes

peer-to-peerP2P economic systemPeer-to-peer economy
Social peer-to-peer processes are interactions with a peer-to-peer dynamic. These peers can be humans or computers. Peer-to-peer (P2P) is a term that originated from the popular concept of the P2P distributed computer application architecture which partitions tasks or workloads between peers. This application structure was popularized by file sharing systems like Napster, the first of its kind in the late 1990s. The concept has inspired new structures and philosophies in many areas of human interaction. P2P human dynamic affords a critical look at current authoritarian and centralized social structures.

Virtual reality

Augmented reality (AR) is a type of virtual reality technology that blends what the user sees in their real surroundings with digital content generated by computer software. The additional software-generated images with the virtual scene typically enhance how the real surroundings look in some way. AR systems layer virtual information over a camera live feed into a headset or smartglasses or through a mobile device giving the user the ability to view three-dimensional images. Mixed reality (MR) is the merging of the real world and virtual worlds to produce new environments and visualizations where physical and digital objects co-exist and interact in real time.

Distributed computing

distributeddistributed systemsdistributed system
Most web applications are three-tier. n-tier: architectures that refer typically to web applications which further forward their requests to other enterprise services. This type of application is the one most responsible for the success of application servers. Peer-to-peer: architectures where there are no special machines that provide a service or manage the network resources. Instead all responsibilities are uniformly divided among all machines, known as peers. Peers can serve both as clients and as servers.

Mixed reality

Augmented virtualitymixedmixed realities
Mixed reality refers to a continuum that encompasses both virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR): In 1994, Paul Milgram and Fumio Kishino defined a mixed reality as "...anywhere between the extrema of the virtuality continuum" (VC), where the virtuality continuum extends from the completely real through to the completely virtual environment, with augmented reality and augmented virtuality ranging between. The first fully immersive mixed reality system was the Virtual Fixtures platform, which was developed in 1992 by Louis Rosenberg at the Armstrong Laboratories of the United States Air Force.

Optical head-mounted display

Epson Moverio BT-100 and BT-200helmet-mounted display technologyOHMD
At Maker Faire 2013, the startup company Technical Illusions unveiled castAR augmented reality glasses which are well equipped for an AR experience: infrared LEDs on the surface detect the motion of an interactive infrared wand, and a set of coils at its base are used to detect RFID chip loaded objects placed on top of it; it uses dual projectors at a framerate of 120 Hz and a retroreflective screen providing a 3D image that can be seen from all directions by the user; a camera sitting on top of the prototype glasses is incorporated for position detection, thus the virtual image changes accordingly as a user walks around the CastAR surface. Epiphany Eyewear. EyeTap. Golden-i.

File sharing

Common methods of storage, transmission and dispersion include manual sharing utilizing removable media, centralized servers on computer networks, World Wide Web-based hyperlinked documents, and the use of distributed peer-to-peer networking. Peer-to-peer file sharing is based on the peer-to-peer (P2P) application architecture. Shared files on the computers of other users are indexed on directory servers. P2P technology was used by popular services like Napster and LimeWire. The most popular protocol for P2P sharing is BitTorrent.

Meta (company)

MetaMeta 1
Jay Wright, who previously served as president and general manager of Qualcomm's augmented reality division, Vuforia, serves as CEO of Meta View. * Magic Leap *


Comparison of Gnutella softwaregnutella-svcGnutella1
Gnutella is a large peer-to-peer network. It was the first decentralized peer-to-peer network of its kind, leading to other, later networks adopting the model. It celebrated a decade of existence on March 14, 2010, and has a user base in the millions for peer-to-peer file sharing. In June 2005, Gnutella's population was 1.81 million computers increasing to over three million nodes by January 2006. In late 2007, it was the most popular file-sharing network on the Internet with an estimated market share of more than 40%.


However, as in SMTP email, Usenet post headers are easily falsified so as to obscure the true identity and location of the message source. In this manner, Usenet is significantly different from modern P2P services; most P2P users distributing content are typically immediately identifiable to all other users by their network address, but the origin information for a Usenet posting can be completely obscured and unobtainable once it has propagated past the original server. Also unlike modern P2P services, the identity of the downloaders is hidden from view. On P2P services a downloader is identifiable to all others by their network address.

Overlay network

overlaynetwork overlayoverlaid network
For example, distributed systems such as peer-to-peer networks and client-server applications are overlay networks because their nodes run on top of the Internet. The Internet was originally built as an overlay upon the telephone network, while today (through the advent of VoIP), the telephone network is increasingly turning into an overlay network built on top of the Internet. Overlay networks are used in telecommunication because of the availability of digital circuit switching equipment and optical fiber.

Pokémon Go

Pokemon Gocellphone appGoChat
PokéStops and Gyms are typically located at places of interest. These locations are re-purposed portals from Ingress, Niantic's previous augmented reality (AR) game. This has led to PokéStops and Pokémon Gyms being placed at dangerous or inconvenient locations, such as a now-deleted Gym at the Korean Demilitarized Zone. As players move within their real world surroundings, their avatars move within the game's map. Different Pokémon species reside in different areas of the world; for example, Water-type Pokémon are generally found near water. When a player encounters a Pokémon, it may be viewed either in AR mode or with a live rendered, generic background.