Google Inc.Google, Inc.Google LLC
In June 2014, Google announced Google Cardboard, a simple cardboard viewer that lets user place their smartphone in a special front compartment to view virtual reality (VR) media. G Suite is a monthly subscription offering for organizations and businesses to get access to a collection of Google's services, including Gmail, Google Drive and Google Docs, Google Sheets and Google Slides, with additional administrative tools, unique domain names, and 24/7 support.


Microsoft CorporationMicrosoft Corp.MS
Under U.S. law, corporations don't pay income tax on overseas profits until the profits are brought into the United States. In November 2018, the company won a $480 million military contract with the U.S. government to bring augmented reality (AR) headset technology into the weapon repertoires of American soldiers. The two-year contract may result in follow-on orders of more than 100,000 headsets, according to documentation describing the bidding process.


real worldrealreality-based
The area between the two extremes, where both the real and the virtual are mixed, is the so-called Mixed reality. This in turn is said to consist of both Augmented Reality, where the virtual augments the real, and Augmented virtuality, where the real augments the virtual. Cyberspace, the world's computer systems considered as an interconnected whole, can be thought of as a virtual reality; for instance, it is portrayed as such in the cyberpunk fiction of William Gibson and others. Second life and MMORPGs such as World of Warcraft are examples of artificial environments or virtual worlds (falling some way short of full virtual reality) in cyberspace.


onlinethe Internetweb
These range from MMORPG to first-person shooters, from role-playing video games to online gambling. While online gaming has been around since the 1970s, modern modes of online gaming began with subscription services such as GameSpy and MPlayer. Non-subscribers were limited to certain types of game play or certain games. Many people use the Internet to access and download music, movies and other works for their enjoyment and relaxation. Free and fee-based services exist for all of these activities, using centralized servers and distributed peer-to-peer technologies. Some of these sources exercise more care with respect to the original artists' copyrights than others.

Open-source software

open sourceopen-sourceopen source software
Some are home-grown, while others are modeled after mainstream FOSS licenses such as Berkeley Software Distribution ("BSD"), Apache, MIT-style (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), or GNU General Public License ("GPL"). In view of this, open-source practitioners are starting to use classification schemes in which FOSS licenses are grouped (typically based on the existence and obligations imposed by the copyleft provision; the strength of the copyleft provision).

Virtual world

virtual worldsMUVEonline world
Such early worlds began the MUD heritage that eventually led to massively multiplayer online role-playing games, more commonly known as MMORPGs, a genre of role-playing games in which a large number of players interact within a virtual world. Some prototype virtual worlds were WorldsAway, a two-dimensional chat environment where users designed their own avatars; Dreamscape, an interactive community featuring a virtual world by CompuServe; Cityspace, an educational networking and 3D computer graphics project for children; and The Palace, a 2-dimensional community driven virtual world.

Computer-mediated reality

mediated realitymediated-reality
Mediated reality is related to other concepts such as augmented reality (which is a special case of mediated reality), virtual reality, mixed reality, etc. Sensorial transposition. Simulated reality. Ubiquitous computing. Mediated Reality Research. Mediated Reality based on the VideoOrbits head tracker. Diminished Reality example to show something where Mediated Reality is definitely a proper superset of Augmented Reality.

Virtual reality in fiction

The French animated series Code Lyoko is based on the virtual world of Lyoko and the Internet. * In 2009, BBC Radio 7 broadcast Planet B, a science-fiction drama set in a virtual world. Planet B was the largest ever commission for an original drama programme. Augmented reality - Digital information overlaid or consolidated on the actual world of reality and vice versa. Virtual reality - Full digital render/ representation of the real world; our reality. Mixed reality - A combination of virtual reality and reality. Augmented reality - Superimposes mixed realities to join, forming possible scenarios that behave as if real, while still maintaining virtual element(s).

List of highest-funded crowdfunding projects

List of highest funded crowdfunding projectshighest funded film campaign on Indiegogohighest-funded crowdfunding projects
This is an incomplete list of the highest-funded crowdfunding projects (including projects which failed to achieve funding).

Client–server model

Both client-server and master-slave are regarded as sub-categories of distributed peer-to-peer systems. • Front and back ends • Modular programming • Observer pattern • Publish–subscribe pattern • Pull technology • Push technology • Remote procedure call

Louis B. Rosenberg

Louis RosenbergRosenbergUpgrade
His doctoral work focused on robotics, virtual reality, augmented reality, and human-computer interaction. Rosenberg's work at Stanford University in the early 90s offered the first proof that virtual overlays, when registered and presented over a user's direct view of the real physical world, could significantly enhance human performance. In 1992, Rosenberg worked as a researcher at NASA (Ames Research Center) and at the Air Force Research Laboratory (formally Armstrong Labs) creating the Virtual Fixtures system, the first functional Augmented Reality system built and tested.


smartphonessmart phonesmart phones
Major technologies that began to trend in 2016 included a focus on virtual reality and augmented reality experiences catered towards smartphones, the newly introduced USB-C connector, and improving LTE technologies. In 2018, the first smartphones featuring fingerprint readers embedded within OLED displays were announced, followed in 2019 by an implementation using an ultrasonic sensor on the Samsung Galaxy S10. Smartphones have central processing units (CPUs), similar to those in computers, but optimised to operate in low power environments. The performance of mobile CPU depends not only on the clock rate (generally given in multiples of hertz) but also on the memory hierarchy.

Virtual fixture

Virtual Fixtures
A virtual fixture is an overlay of augmented sensory information upon a user's perception of a real environment in order to improve human performance in both direct and remotely manipulated tasks. Developed in the early 1990s by Louis Rosenberg at the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Virtual Fixtures was a pioneering platform in virtual reality and augmented reality technologies. Virtual Fixtures was first developed by Louis Rosenberg in 1992 at the USAF Armstrong Labs, resulting in the first immersive augmented reality system ever built.

Simulated reality

Simulismsimulationsimulation argument
It could contain conscious minds which may or may not be fully aware that they are living inside a simulation. This is quite different from the current, technologically achievable concept of virtual reality. Virtual reality is easily distinguished from the experience of actuality; participants are never in doubt about the nature of what they experience. Simulated reality, by contrast, would be hard or impossible to separate from "true" reality. There has been much debate over this topic, ranging from philosophical discourse to practical applications in computing.

Head-mounted display

Head Mounted Displayhead-mounted displaysHMD
The Oculus Rift is a virtual reality (VR) head-mounted display created by Palmer Luckey that the company Oculus VR is developing for virtual reality simulations and video game]. The HTC Vive is a virtual reality head-mounted display. The headset is produced by a collaboration between Valve and HTC, with its defining feature being precision room-scale tracking, and high-precision motion controllers. The PlayStation VR is the only virtual reality headset for gaming consoles, dedicated for the PlayStation 4. Windows Mixed Reality is a platform developed by Microsoft which includes a wide range of headsets produced by HP, Samsung, and others and is capable of playing most HTC Vive games.


virtual eternity
Some key technologies for the realisation of those human-like models are based on virtual reality, augmented reality, and novel mixed realities. These realities are essential building blocks for any possibility of virternity. A virtual alternative could be used to support capturing and digital storage of human memories into accessible usable form, or shared memory models that can help knowledge sharing between different individuals and groups. The process would include memory coding from data received through vision, touch or voice. Examples of receiving sensors are a visual sensor network, neural network s and blockchain technology.

Extended reality

Extended reality (XR) is a term referring to all real-and-virtual combined environments and human-machine interactions generated by computer technology and wearables. It includes representative forms such as augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR) and virtual reality (VR) and the areas interpolated among them. The levels of virtuality range from partially sensory inputs to immersive virtuality, also called VR. XR is a superset which includes the entire spectrum from "the complete real" to "the complete virtual" in the concept of reality–virtuality continuum introduced by Paul Milgram.

Microsoft HoloLens

HoloLensHoloStudioProject Baraboo
When combined with mixed reality displays such as Hololens, this technology allows user to see, hear, and interact with remote participants in 3D as if they are actually present in the same physical space. Communicating and interacting with remote users becomes as natural as face-to-face communication. Augmented reality. Smartglasses. Virtual reality. Official site. Signer, Beat & Curtin, Timothy J. (2017). Tangible Holograms: Towards Mobile Physical Augmentation of Virtual Objects, Technical Report WISE Lab, WISE-2017-01, March 2017.


smart glassesa pair of glassesAR headset
Microsoft HoloLens - a pair of mixed reality smart glasses with high-definition 3D optical head-mounted display and spatial sound developed and manufactured by Microsoft, using the Windows Holographic platform. Pivothead SMART – "Simple Modular Application-Ready Technology", released in October 2014. SixthSense – wearable AR device. Spectacles - sunglasses with an embedded wearable camera by Snap Inc. Vuzix – Augmented reality glasses for 3D gaming, manufacturing training, and military applications.

Simultaneous localization and mapping

In navigation, robotic mapping and odometry for virtual reality or augmented reality, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is the computational problem of constructing or updating a map of an unknown environment while simultaneously keeping track of an agent's location within it. While this initially appears to be a chicken-and-egg problem there are several algorithms known for solving it, at least approximately, in tractable time for certain environments. Popular approximate solution methods include the particle filter, extended Kalman filter, Covariance intersection, and GraphSLAM.

Massively multiplayer online game

MMOmassively multiplayer onlineMMOG
There are several types of massively multiplayer online games. Massively multiplayer online role-playing games, known as MMORPGs, are the most common type of MMOG. Some MMORPGs are designed as a multiplayer browser game in order to reduce infrastructure costs and utilise a thin client that most users will already have installed. The acronym BBMMORPGs has sometimes been used to describe these as browser-based. A large number of games are categorized as MMOBBGs, Massively Multiplayer Online Bulletin Board Games, also called MMOBBRPGs. These particular types of games are primarily made up of text and descriptions, although images are often used to enhance the game.


blockchain technologyblockchainsBlockchain (database)
By storing data across its peer-to-peer network, the blockchain eliminates a number of risks that come with data being held centrally. The decentralized blockchain may use ad-hoc message passing and distributed networking. Peer-to-peer blockchain networks lack centralized points of vulnerability that computer crackers can exploit; likewise, it has no central point of failure. Blockchain security methods include the use of public-key cryptography. A public key (a long, random-looking string of numbers) is an address on the blockchain. Value tokens sent across the network are recorded as belonging to that address.

Science fiction

sci-fiscience-fictionSci Fi
Most such sites are relatively small, ephemeral, and/or narrowly focused, though sites like SF Site and SFcrowsnest offer a broad range of references and reviews. The first science fiction fanzine, The Comet, was published in 1930 by the Science Correspondence Club in Chicago, Illionois. Fanzine printing methods have changed over the decades, from the hectograph, the mimeograph, and the ditto machine, to modern photocopying. Distribution volumes rarely justify the cost of commercial printing. Contemporary fanzines are largely printed on computer printers or at local copy shops, or they may only be sent as email (termed "Ezines") or otherwise made available online (termed "webzines").

Video game

video gamesgamegaming
., virtual pets), pushed the boundaries of existing video gaming or in some cases add new possibilities in play (such as that seen with games specifically designed for devices like Sony's EyeToy). Some genres represent combinations of others, such as multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA), and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG). It is also common to see higher level genre terms that are collective in nature across all other genres such as with action, music/rhythm or horror-themed video games. Casual games derive their name from their ease of accessibility, simple to understand gameplay and quick to grasp rule sets.