Volunteer computing

volunteervolunteer-basedPublic Resource Computing
List of distributed computing projects. Peer-to-peer. Swarm intelligence. Virtual volunteering. BOINC. Wanted: Your computer's spare time Physics.org, September 2009. The Strongest Supercomputer on Earth Still Needs Your Laptop to Cure Cancer Inverse.com, December 2015.

Comparison of BitTorrent clients

BitTorrent clienttorrent clientComparison of BitTorrent software
The following is a general comparison of BitTorrent clients, which are computer programs designed for peer-to-peer file sharing using the BitTorrent protocol. The BitTorrent protocol coordinates segmented file transfer among peers connected in a swarm. A BitTorrent client enables a user to exchange data as a peer in one or more swarms. Because BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer communications protocol that does not need a server, the BitTorrent definition of client differs from the conventional meaning expressed in the client–server model. Bram Cohen, author of the BitTorrent protocol, made the first BitTorrent client, which he also called BitTorrent, and published it in July 2001.


Spotify.comPlay.Spotify.comSpotify Singles
In April 2014, Spotify moved away from the peer-to-peer (P2P) system they had used to distribute music to users. Previously, a desktop user would listen to music from one of three sources: a cached file on the computer, one of Spotify's servers, or from other subscribers through the P2P system. P2P, a well-established Internet distribution system, served as an alternative that reduced Spotify's server resources and costs. However, Spotify ended the P2P setup in 2014, with Spotify's Alison Bonny telling TorrentFreak: "We’re gradually phasing out the use of our desktop P2P technology which has helped our users enjoy their music both speedily and seamlessly.


FAROO is a universal web search engine based on peer-to-peer technology. It uses a distributed crawler that stores search data on users' computers instead of a central server. Whenever a user visits a website, it is automatically indexed and distributed to the network. Ranking is done by comparing usage statistics of users, such as web pages visited, amount of time spent on each page, and whether the pages were bookmarked or printed. * FAROO takes user behavior into account when calculating a website's rank, resulting in more relevant search results than traditional search engines can provide (see filter bubble).

Digital currency

electronic moneydigital currenciesdigital cash
A cryptocurrency is a type of digital asset that relies on cryptography for chaining together digital signatures of asset transfers, peer-to-peer networking and decentralization. In some cases a proof-of-work or proof-of-stake scheme is used to create and manage the currency. Cryptocurrencies allow electronic money systems to be decentralized. The first and most popular system is bitcoin, a peer-to-peer electronic monetary system based on cryptography.

Redox (operating system)

RedoxRedox OS
Redox is a Unix-like microkernel operating system written in the programming language Rust, a language with a strong focus on safety, stability, and high performance. Redox aims to be secure, usable, and free. Redox is inspired by prior kernels and operating systems, such as SeL4, MINIX, Plan 9, and BSD. It is similar to the GNU or BSD ecosystem, but in a memory-safe language and with modern technology. It is free and open-source software distributed under an MIT License.


Server-side languages like PHP are not supported, although ZeroNet can achieve user signup/login on MySQL databases, that are also distributed via P2P. With plugins and the ZeroFrame API, sites can communicate with ZeroNet calling Python by JavaScript. * * Bitcoin. Ethereum. Cooperative storage cloud. Coral Content Distribution Network. Decentralized computing. Distributed data store. Distributed hash table. Filecoin. Freenet. I2P. InterPlanetary File System. Kademlia. Namecoin. OpenBazaar. Peer-to-peer web hosting. Self-certifying File System.


downloadsdownloadingDigital Download
Digital distribution. HADOPI law. Music download. Peer-to-peer. Sideloading.

Theoretical computer science

theoretical computer scientisttheoreticalcomputer science
Distributed computing studies distributed systems. A distributed system is a software system in which components located on networked computers communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages. The components interact with each other in order to achieve a common goal. Three significant characteristics of distributed systems are: concurrency of components, lack of a global clock, and independent failure of components. Examples of distributed systems vary from SOA-based systems to massively multiplayer online games to peer-to-peer applications, and blockchain networks like Bitcoin.

Initial coin offering

ICOinitial coin offeringsInitial Coin Offerings (ICOs)
Cryptocurrencies are based on distributed ledger technologies which enable anyone to purchase or transfer their cryptocurrency holdings to any other person without the need for an intermediary (such as an exchange) or to update a central record of ownership. Cryptocurrencies can be transferred easily across national and jurisdictional boundaries. This makes it difficult for central authorities to control and monitor the ownership and movement of holdings of cryptocurrencies. Countries have different approaches to how they regulate cryptocurrencies. This can depend on the nature of the cryptocurrency itself.

Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing

BOINCBerkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC)BOINC Account Manager
Online distributed computing is almost entirely a volunteer endeavor. For this reason, projects are dependent on a complicated and variable mix of new users, long-term users, and retiring users. BOINC client–server technology. BOSSA. Citizen Cyberscience Centre. Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search. grid.org. List of distributed computing projects. distributed.net. BOINC developer Rom Walton's Blog. The Big BOINC! Projects and Chronology Page written by BOINC User John Koulouris, (Esq.). Web resources for BOINC participants.

Darknet market

darknet marketsdarknet drug marketsAbraxas (market)
Following repeated problems associated with centralised infrastructure, a number of decentralised marketplace software alternatives have arisen using blockchain or peer-to-peer technologies, including OpenBazaar and Bitmarkets, To list on a market, a vendor may have undergone an application process via referral, proof of reputation from another market or given a cash deposit to the market. Many vendors list their wares on multiple markets, ensuring they retain their reputation even should a single market place close. Grams have launched "InfoDesk" to allow central content and identity management for vendors as well as PGP key distribution.


folding" projectsFolding@home v7.3.6
The project has pioneered the use of graphics processing units (GPUs), PlayStation 3s, Message Passing Interface (used for computing on multi-core processors), and some Sony Xperia smartphones for distributed computing and scientific research. The project uses statistical simulation methodology that is a paradigm shift from traditional computing methods. As part of the client–server model network architecture, the volunteered machines each receive pieces of a simulation (work units), complete them, and return them to the project's database servers, where the units are compiled into an overall simulation.


51% attackdouble spending51% attacks
If two transactions attempt to spend the same tokens, each server will consider the first transaction it sees to be valid, and the other invalid. Once the servers disagree, there is no way to determine true balances, as each server's observations are considered equally valid. Most decentralized systems solve this with a consensus (computer science) algorithm, a way to bring the servers back in sync. Two notable types of consensus mechanisms are proof-of-work and proof-of-stake. By 2007, a number of distributed systems for the prevention of double-spending had been proposed. The cryptocurrency bitcoin implemented a solution in early 2009.

Power Ledger

The project is expected to be Power Ledger's first examination of the potential of blockchain technology in integrating distributed energy and water systems. Seven additional project partners contributed a combined value of $5.68 million for the project for a total funding of $8 million. The project was the second largest recipient of the 2017 Smart Cities and Suburbs Program award, a $50 million grant from the Australian government supporting innovative smart city projects. In December 2018, the company was criticized for paying spruikers. * P2P energy trading *


MetaOCamlOCaml Package ManagerOPAM
Mldonkey, a peer-to-peer file sharing application based on the EDonkey network. Ocsigen, an OCaml web framework. Opa, a free and open-source programming language for web development. pyre-check, a type checker for Python created at Facebook. Tezos, a self-amending smart contract platform using XTZ as a native currency. Unison, a file synchronization program to synchronize files between two directories. The reference interpreter for WebAssembly, a low-level bytecode intended for execution inside web browsers. Xen Cloud Platform (XCP), a turnkey virtualization solution for the Xen hypervisor. Bloomberg L.P., which created BuckleScript, an OCaml compiler backend targeting JavaScript.


Namecoin was also mentioned by ICANN in a public draft report as the most well-known example of distributing control and privacy in DNS. A 2015 study found that of the 120,000 domain names registered on Namecoin, only 28 were in use. Blockstack co-founder Muneeb Ali on 12 September 2015 at the Blockstack Summit 2015 stated that the Namecoin network is not decentralized and the mining group Discus Fish controls 60-70% of its hashing power. * Alternative DNS root. Zooko's triangle.

Bandwidth throttling

throttledthrottlingspeed throttling
ISPs in Singapore that throttle bandwidth: In 2007, Comcast was caught interfering with peer-to-peer traffic. Specifically, it falsified packets of data that fooled users and their peer-to-peer programs into thinking they were transferring files. Comcast initially denied that it interfered with its subscribers' uploads, but later admitted it. The FCC held a hearing and concluded that Comcast violated the principles of the Internet Policy Statement because Comcast's "discriminatory and arbitrary practice unduly squelched the dynamic benefits of an open and accessible Internet and did not constitute reasonable network management."

Comparison of programming languages

Programming languages are used for controlling the behavior of a machine (often a computer). Like natural languages, programming languages conform to rules for syntax and semantics.

David A. Marcus

David Marcus
Marcus is credited with the introduction of Messenger's P2P payment platform which was released in the United States in June 2015. Marcus would later help implement business payments on the platform. In December 2017, Marcus was appointed to the Board of Directors of the cryptocurrency exchange, Coinbase. According to the announcement, he was chosen based on his experience with digital payments at both PayPal and Facebook and his knowledge of cryptocurrency. He is also considered an early promoter of cryptocurrency. On May 8, 2018, Marcus revealed that he is stepping down from his current role to lead the experimental blockchain group at Facebook.

Erlang (programming language)

ErlangErlang programming languageErlang/OTP
Erlang, together with libraries and the real-time distributed database Mnesia, forms the OTP collection of libraries. Ericsson and a few other companies support Erlang commercially. Since the open source release, Erlang has been used by several firms worldwide, including Nortel and T-Mobile. Although Erlang was designed to fill a niche and has remained an obscure language for most of its existence, its popularity is growing due to demand for concurrent services. Erlang has found some use in fielding massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) servers. * * Distributed. Fault-tolerant. Soft real-time. Highly available, non-stop applications.

Standard ML

Alice: an interpreter for Standard ML by Saarland University adding features for lazy evaluation, concurrency (multithreading and distributed computing via remote procedure calls) and constraint programming. SOSML is an implementation of SML written in TypeScript that directly runs in a web browser. It implements most of the SML language and select parts of the SML Basis Library. Alice. ML. Concurrent ML. Dependent ML. F#. OCaml. Ur/Web. Standard ML Family GitHub Project. Standard ML language Mads Tofte, Scholarpedia, 4(2):7515. doi:10.4249/scholarpedia.7515. What is SML?. What is SML '97?.

Computer program

programprogramscomputer programs
Examples include databases, email servers, and network servers. Information worker software are designed for workers at the departmental level. Examples include time management, resource management, analytical, collaborative and documentation tools. Word processors, spreadsheets, email and blog clients, personal information system, and individual media editors may aid in multiple information worker tasks. Media development software generates print and electronic media for others to consume, most often in a commercial or educational setting. These produce graphics, publications, animations, and videos.

Message transfer agent

mail transfer agentmail serverMTA
The terms mail server, mail exchanger, and MX host are also used in some contexts. Messages exchanged across networks are passed between mail servers, including any attached data files (such as images, multimedia or documents). These servers also often keep mailboxes for email. Access to this email by end users is typically either via webmail or an email client. A message transfer agent receives mail from either another MTA, a mail submission agent (MSA), or a mail user agent (MUA). The transmission details are specified by the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). When a recipient mailbox of a message is not hosted locally, the message is relayed, that is, forwarded to another MTA.

Process (computing)

In computing, a process is the instance of a computer program that is being executed by one or many threads. It contains the program code and its activity. Depending on the operating system (OS), a process may be made up of multiple threads of execution that execute instructions concurrently.