Human physical appearance

appearancephysical appearancefigure
Beauty. Biometrics. Body image. Dress code. Common human variations. Eigenface. Face perception. Facial symmetry. Fashion. Female body shape. Hair coloring. Nudity. Sexual attraction. Sexual capital. Sexual selection. Social role of hair. Somatotype. Vanity.

Sexual selection

sexually selectedmale-male competitionsexual competition
A New Interpretation of Natural Beauty and Sexual Selection. Review of GF Miller's The Mating Mind. Why Sex Evolved. "The sexual propaganda theory". "Sexual Selection Theory and Human Reproductive Behaviour ".

Attractiveness

eye candyattractioneye-candy
Physical attractiveness is the perception of the physical traits of an individual human person as pleasing or beautiful. It can include various implications, such as sexual attractiveness, cuteness, similarity and physique. Physical attractiveness can also include the attraction of smell. Pheromones secreted by animals and humans alike can attract others, and this is viewed as being attracted to smell. Human sex pheromones may play a role in human attraction, although it is unclear how well humans can actually pick up on the pheromones of another.

Index of aesthetics articles

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and Sublime - On the Genealogy of Morality - Op art - Orientalism - Ornament (architecture) - Orphism (art) - Oscar Wilde - Outline of aesthetics - Painters Eleven - Panic Movement - Papunya Tula - Paradigm - Paragone - Passionism - Patrick Hebron - Paul de Man - Paul Häberlin - Paul Souriau - Pennsylvania Impressionism - Perception - Performing arts - Peter Lunenfeld - Philhellenism - Philistinism - Philosophy and Literature (journal) - Philosophy and literature - Philosophy in a New Key - Philosophy of design - Philosophy of film - Philosophy of music - Phonaesthetics - Phonestheme - Photogenic - Photorealism - Physical attractiveness - Plasticien - Poetics - Poetics (Aristotle) - Poetry -

Aesthetics

aestheticart theoryphilosophy of art
One example being that humans are argued to find beautiful and prefer landscapes which were good habitats in the ancestral environment. Another example is that body symmetry and proportion are important aspects of physical attractiveness which may be due to this indicating good health during body growth. Evolutionary explanations for aesthetical preferences are important parts of evolutionary musicology, Darwinian literary studies, and the study of the evolution of emotion. As well as being applied to art, aesthetics can also be applied to cultural objects, such as crosses or tools.

Averageness

averageaverage composite faceaveraging process
In physical attractiveness studies, averageness describes the physical beauty that results from averaging the facial features of people of the same gender and approximately the same age. The majority of averageness studies have focused on photographic overlay studies of human faces, in which images are morphed together. The term "average" is used strictly to denote the technical definition of the mathematical mean. An averaged face is not unremarkable, but is, in fact, quite good looking.

Sexual attraction

sex appealsexual attractivenesssexual interest
Reunions Set Off Sex Urges, Article on sexual attraction among birth relatives sparked by reunion. www.lookism.info deconstruction of attraction and beauty standards.

Waist–hip ratio

waist-hip ratiowaist-to-hip ratiowaist to hip ratio
Physical attractiveness. Sexual attraction. Wasp waist. "Waist-hip ratio should replace body mass index as indicator of mortality risk in older people" – EurekAlert August 8, 2006. Waist-hip ratio on-line calculator.

Golden ratio

golden sectiongolden meanφ
In connection with his scheme for golden-ratio-based human body proportions, Zeising wrote in 1854 of a universal law "in which is contained the ground-principle of all formative striving for beauty and completeness in the realms of both nature and art, and which permeates, as a paramount spiritual ideal, all structures, forms and proportions, whether cosmic or individual, organic or inorganic, acoustic or optical; which finds its fullest realization, however, in the human form." In 2010, the journal Science reported that the golden ratio is present at the atomic scale in the magnetic resonance of spins in cobalt niobate crystals.

Unattractiveness

uglyuglinessunattractive
Among several species the relative unattractiveness of a mate increases depending on the recentness of their last instances of copulation, including in red-sided garter snakes and in the pieridae classification of butterfly. * Lookism

Facial symmetry

facial asymmetrysymmetricalsymmetrical face
Beauty. Symmetry in nature. Patterns in nature. Physical attractiveness. Oral diagnosis 402 by Dr.Gihane Gharib Madkour, Lecturer of Oral Medicine, Oral Diagnosis & Periodontology, Cairo University. Symmetric Shape Deformation Considering Facial Features and Attractiveness Improvement by Kim Jung-Sik, Shin Il-Kyu, Soo-Mi Choi, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Vol.16 No.2 P.29~37 Sejong University. Chunyu L, Changshui Z, Fang W, Pingfan Y. Principle component analysis based symmetry detection. Acta Electronica Sinica 1999;27(5):25–8. Enquist M, Arak A. Symmetry, beauty and evolution.

Culture

culturalculturesculturally
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Cultural universals are found in all human societies; these include expressive forms like art, music, dance, ritual, religion, and technologies like tool usage, cooking, shelter, and clothing.

Orbitofrontal cortex

orbitofrontalorbitofrontal cortex (OFC)orbito-frontal cortex
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes of the brain which is involved in the cognitive process of decision-making. In non-human primates it consists of the association cortex areas Brodmann area 11, 12 and 13; in humans it consists of Brodmann area 10, 11 and 47.

Health

human healthwellnessphysical health
Health, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy, as it may have limited value for implementation. Health may be defined as the ability to adapt and manage physical, mental and social challenges throughout life.

Intelligence

intelligenthuman intelligenceintellect
Intelligence has been defined in many ways, including: the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving. More generally, it can be described as the ability to perceive or infer information, and to retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment or context.

Mathematics

mathematicalmathmathematician
Many mathematicians talk about the elegance of mathematics, its intrinsic aesthetics and inner beauty. Simplicity and generality are valued. There is beauty in a simple and elegant proof, such as Euclid's proof that there are infinitely many prime numbers, and in an elegant numerical method that speeds calculation, such as the fast Fourier transform. G. H. Hardy in A Mathematician's Apology expressed the belief that these aesthetic considerations are, in themselves, sufficient to justify the study of pure mathematics. He identified criteria such as significance, unexpectedness, inevitability, and economy as factors that contribute to a mathematical aesthetic.

Discrimination based on skin color

colorismcoloristdiscrimination
A light complexion is equated with feminine beauty, racial superiority, and power, and continues to have strong influences on marital prospects, employment, status, and income. Globalized East Asia still retains these biases, but they are compounded by the influence of Westernized beauty ideals and media that equate whiteness with modern and urban wealth and success. The legacies of European colonialism in India and Pakistan also influence the modern relations between light skin and power.

Femininity

femininef.feminine experience
One of the most common criticisms of Barbie is that she promotes an unrealistic and unattainable idea of feminine beauty and fits the weight criteria for anorexia. In China, female consumers rejected Barbie's ideal of feminine beauty and its image for women as extraneously sexy. In Iran, the feminine ideals and independent lifestyle represented by Barbie are considered a threat to Iranian values, "more harmful than an American missile." In Saudi Arabia, Barbie was banned for the same reason, by the religious police as a moral threat to Islam.

Skin whitening

skin bleachingskin lighteningskin-lightening
Skin whitening is the use of substances, mixtures, or physical treatments to lighten skin color, also known as "lightening", "brightening", "depigmentation", and "bleaching". Skin whitening treatments work by reducing the skin's melanin content. Many agents have been shown to be effective in skin whitening. Some agents have beneficial side effects, including supplying antioxidants or nutrients or reducing the risk of some types of cancer. Other agents are a significant risk to health, such as mercury-based methods.

Evolutionary psychology

evolutionary psychologistsevolutionary psychologistevolutionary
They report successful tests of theoretical predictions related to such topics as infanticide, intelligence, marriage patterns, promiscuity, perception of beauty, bride price, and parental investment. The theories and findings of evolutionary psychology have applications in many fields, including economics, environment, health, law, management, psychiatry, politics, and literature.

Prejudice

bigotrybigotbigoted
The word is often used to refer to preconceived, usually unfavorable, feelings towards people or a person because of their political affiliation, sex, gender, beliefs, values, social class, age, disability, religion, sexuality, race/ethnicity, language, nationality, beauty, occupation, education, criminality, sport team affiliation or other personal characteristics. In this case, it refers to a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on that person's perceived group membership. Prejudice can also refer to unfounded or pigeonholed beliefs and it may include "any unreasonable attitude that is unusually resistant to rational influence".

Social psychology

social psychologistsocialsocial psychological
Physical attractiveness is an important element of romantic relationships, particularly in the early stages characterized by high levels of passion. Later on, similarity and other compatibility factors become more important, and the type of love people experience shifts from passionate to companionate. Robert Sternberg has suggested that there are actually three components of love: intimacy, passion, and commitment. When two (or more) people experience all three, they are said to be in a state of consummate love. According to social exchange theory, relationships are based on rational choice and cost-benefit analysis.

Bias

biasesunbiasedbiased
The halo effect and the horn effect are when an observer's overall impression of a person, organization, brand, or product influences their feelings about specifics of that entity's character or properties. The name halo effect is based on the concept of the saint's halo, and is a specific type of confirmation bias, wherein positive sentiments in one area cause questionable or unknown characteristics to be seen positively. If the observer likes one aspect of something, they will have a positive predisposition toward everything about it. A person's appearance has been found to produce a halo effect.

Stereotype

stereotypicalstereotypesstereotyping
Male undergraduate students were asked to talk to female undergraduates, whom they believed to be physically attractive or unattractive, on the phone. The conversations were taped and analysis showed that men who thought that they were talking to an attractive woman communicated in a more positive and friendlier manner than men who believed that they were talking to unattractive women. This altered the women's behavior: Female subjects who, unknowingly to them, were perceived to be physically attractive behaved in a friendly, likeable, and sociable manner in comparison with subjects who were regarded as unattractive. A 2005 study by J. Thomas Kellow and Brett D.

Koinophilia

common or familiar featuresprefer mates with the least number of unusual or minority featuresabsence of genetic or acquired defects
This work into averageness supports koinophilia as an explanation of what constitutes a beautiful face. Biologists from Darwin onwards have puzzled over how evolution produces species whose adult members look extraordinarily alike, and distinctively different from the members of other species. Lions and leopards are, for instance, both large carnivores that inhabit the same general environment, and hunt much the same prey, but look quite different. The question is why intermediates do not exist.