Assisted reproductive technology

assisted reproductionfertility treatmentassisted reproductive technologies
With ART, the process of sexual intercourse is bypassed and fertilization of the oocytes occurs in the laboratory environment (i.e., in vitro fertilization). In the US, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)—which —defines ART to include "all fertility treatments in which both eggs and sperm are handled. In general, ART procedures involve surgically removing eggs from a woman's ovaries, combining them with sperm in the laboratory, and returning them to the woman's body or donating them to another woman."

Human penis

penispenisesdick
The behaviours associated with semen displacement, namely thrusting (number of thrusts and depth of thrusts), and duration of sexual intercourse, have been shown to vary according to whether a male perceives the risk of partner infidelity to be high or not. Males and females report greater semen displacement behaviours following allegations of infidelity. In particular, following allegations of infidelity, males and females report deeper and quicker thrusting during sexual intercourse. Circumcision has been suggested to affect semen displacement. Circumcision causes the coronal ridge to be more pronounced, and it has been hypothesised that this could enhance semen displacement.

Ejaculation

ejaculateejaculatedejaculates
During copulation, each side of a short-beaked echidna's penis is used alternately, with the other half being shut down between ejaculations. In stallions, ejaculation is accompanied by a motion of the tail known as "tail flagging". When a male wolf ejaculates, his final pelvic thrust may be slightly prolonged. A male rhesus monkey usually ejaculates less than 15 seconds after sexual penetration. The first report and footage of spontaneous ejaculation in an aquatic mammal was recorded in a wild Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin near Mikura Island, Japan in 2012.

Sexually transmitted infection

venereal diseasesexually transmitted diseasesexually transmitted diseases
While usually spread by sex, some STIs can be spread by non-sexual contact with donor tissue, blood, breastfeeding, or during childbirth. STI diagnostic tests are usually easily available in the developed world, but this is often not the case in the developing world. The most effective way of preventing STIs is by not having sex. Some vaccinations may also decrease the risk of certain infections including hepatitis B and some types of HPV. Safer sex practices such as use of condoms, having a smaller number of sexual partners, and being in a relationship where each person only has sex with the other also decreases the risk.

Insemination

inseminateinseminateddonor insemination
In most cultures, insemination by a male through sexual intercourse, whether the woman's husband, normal sex partner or not, is subject to social and sexual inhibitions and taboos, and has legal, moral and interpersonal implications. The term is also used in the context of third-party insemination, where a male who is not the woman's usual sexual partner (i.e., a sperm donor) fathers a child for the woman by providing his sperm through sexual intercourse rather than by providing his sperm for it to be used to produce a pregnancy in the woman by artificial means.

Religion and sexuality

Christianity and sexualityreligioussexual relations
Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, forbids extramarital sexual intercourse in his book of laws, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. The Baha'i consideration of sex is that chastity should be practised by both sexes before marriage because it is commendable ethically and leads to a happy and successful marital life. The Bahá'í Faith recognizes the value of the sex impulse, but judges that its proper expressioin is within the institution of marriage: Baha'is do not believe in suppression of the sex impulse but in its regulation and control.

Clitoris

clitoralclitoral glansglans clitoridis
The general difficulty of achieving orgasms vaginally, which is a predicament that is likely due to nature easing the process of child bearing by drastically reducing the number of vaginal nerve endings, challenge arguments that vaginal orgasms help encourage sexual intercourse in order to facilitate reproduction.

Teenage pregnancy

teen pregnancyteenage pregnanciesadolescent pregnancy
In some countries, sexual intercourse between a minor and an adult is not considered consensual under the law because a minor is believed to lack the maturity and competence to make an informed decision to engage in fully consensual sex with an adult. In those countries, sex with a minor is therefore considered statutory rape. In most European countries, by contrast, once an adolescent has reached the age of consent, he or she can legally have sexual relations with adults because it is held that in general (although certain limitations may still apply), reaching the age of consent enables a juvenile to consent to sex with any partner who has also reached that age.

Intimate relationship

relationshipintimacysexual relationship
The emotional connection of "falling in love", however, has both a biochemical dimension driven through reactions in the body stimulated by sexual attraction (PEA, phenylethylamine), and a social dimension driven by "talk" that follows from regular physical closeness or sexual union. Love is an important factor in emotional intimacy. It is qualitatively and quantitatively different from liking, and the difference is not merely in the presence or absence of sexual attraction. There are three types of love in a relationship: passionate love, companionate love, and sacrificial love. Sacrificial love reflects the subsumption of the individual self will within a union.

Sex toy

sex toysadult toysadult toy
Artificial vaginas, also known as "pocket pussies", "male masturbators", or "strokers", are tubes made of soft material to simulate sexual intercourse. The material and often textured inner canal are designed to stimulate the penis and induce orgasm. The male masturbators come in many shapes and styles; they can be shaped like vulvas, anuses, mouths, or as non-descriptive holes. Some male masturbators are disposable and some can be washed and used repeatedly. Some are equipped with sex-machine options that work similar to milking machines. A cock harness is a more elaborate harness designed to be worn around the penis and scrotum. Its function is similar to that of a cock ring.

Sexual addiction

sex addictionsex addictsex
Sexual addiction, also known as sex addiction, is a state characterized by compulsive participation or engagement in sexual activity, particularly sexual intercourse, despite negative consequences. Proponents of a diagnostic model for sexual addiction consider it to be one of several sex-related disorders within hypersexual disorder. The term sexual dependence is also used to refer to people who report being unable to control their sexual urges, behaviors, or thoughts. Related or synonymous models of pathological sexual behavior include hypersexuality (nymphomania and satyriasis), erotomania, Don Juanism (or Don Juanitaism), and paraphilia-related disorders.

Hepatitis B

Bchronic hepatitis Bhepatitis B virus
In areas where the disease is rare, intravenous drug use and sexual intercourse are the most frequent routes of infection. Other risk factors include working in healthcare, blood transfusions, dialysis, living with an infected person, travel in countries where the infection rate is high, and living in an institution. Tattooing and acupuncture led to a significant number of cases in the 1980s; however, this has become less common with improved sterilization. The hepatitis B viruses cannot be spread by holding hands, sharing eating utensils, kissing, hugging, coughing, sneezing, or breastfeeding. The infection can be diagnosed 30 to 60 days after exposure.

Chlamydia

chlamydia infectionchlamydialChlamydial infection
Signs and symptoms may include abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge, abdominal pain, painful sexual intercourse, fever, painful urination or the urge to urinate more often than usual (urinary urgency). For sexually active women who are not pregnant, screening is recommended in those under 25 and others at risk of infection. Risk factors include a history of chlamydial or other sexually transmitted infection, new or multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use. Guidelines recommend all women attending for emergency contraceptive are offered Chlamydia testing, with studies showing up to 9% of women aged

Sexual abstinence

abstinenceabstainnot having sex
Other studies have found that abstinence-only education does little to affect the "age of sexual initiation; number of sexual partners; and rates of sexual abstinence, condom use,vaginal sex, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs)" Recently, the United States Congress also found similar results in a study conducted by Mathematica Policy Research on abstinence. Currently, there are also issues as to what abstinence means: is it an abstinence from sexual intercourse, or from sexual behavior?

Dyspareunia

pain during sexual intercoursepain with sexpainful intercourse
The previous Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the [[Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders#DSM-IV - the current version|DSM-IV]], stated that the diagnosis of dyspareunia is made when the patient complains of recurrent or persistent genital pain before, during, or after sexual intercourse that is not caused exclusively by lack of lubrication or by vaginal spasm (vaginismus). After the text revision of the fourth edition of the DSM, a debate arose, with arguments to recategorize dyspareunia as a pain disorder instead of a sex disorder, with Charles Allen Moser, a physician, arguing for the removal of dyspareunia from the manual altogether.

Sperm competition

competecompete with spermcompetition
Specifically, the shape of the coronal ridge may promote displacement of seminal fluid from a previous mating via thrusting action during sexual intercourse. A 2003 study by Gordon G. Gallup and colleagues concluded that one evolutionary purpose of the thrusting motion characteristic of intense intercourse is for the penis to “upsuck” another man's semen before depositing its own. Evolution to increase ejaculate volume in the presence of sperm competition has a consequence on testis size. Large testes can produce more sperm required for larger ejaculates, and can be found across the animal kingdom when sperm competition occurs.

Vaginismus

he cannot get his penis invagina
A 1990 study of people presenting to sex therapy clinics found reported vaginismus rates of between 12% and 17%, while a random sampling and structured interview survey conducted in 1994 by National Health and Sexual Life Survey documented a 10%-15% rate of painful sexual intercourse in the past six months, but did not differentiate between vaginismus and dyspareunia. The most recent study-based estimates of vaginismus cases range from 5% to 47% of those presenting for sex therapy or complaining of sexual problems, with significant differences across cultures.

Fertilisation

fertilizationconceptionfertilized
Mammals internally fertilise through copulation. After a male ejaculates, many sperm move to the upper vagina (via contractions from the vagina) through the cervix and across the length of the uterus to meet the ovum. In cases where fertilisation occurs, the female usually ovulates during a period that extends from hours before copulation to a few days after; therefore, in most mammals it is more common for ejaculation to precede ovulation than vice versa. When sperm cells are deposited into the anterior vagina, they are not capable of fertilization (i.e., non-capacitated) and are characterized by slow linear motility patters.

Prostitution

prostituteprostituteswhore
Sex workers, in turn, often use online forums of their own to exchange information on clients, particularly to warn others about dangerous clients. Sex tourism is travel for sexual intercourse with prostitutes or to engage in other sexual activity. The World Tourism Organization, a specialized agency of the United Nations defines sex tourism as "trips organized from within the tourism sector, or from outside this sector but using its structures and networks, with the primary purpose of effecting a commercial sexual relationship by the tourist with residents at the destination".

Reproductive health

sexual healthsexual and reproductive healthsexual
Services regarding HIV/AIDS, breast cancer, infertility, delivery, hormone therapy, sex reassignment therapy, and abortion should be made available. Active discouragement of female genital mutilation (FGM). Contraceptive prevalence rates. Adolescent birth rate. Antenatal care coverage. Unmet need for family planning. Sexual intercourse#Health effects. Abortion debate. Demography. List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota. ICPD: International Conference on Population and Development. POPLINE: world's largest reproductive health database. The INFO Project. Reproductive justice. Obstetric transition. Comprehensive sex education (CSE). Organizations:.

Premature ejaculation

ejaculatio praecoxprematurelyejaculates prematurely
Other self-treatments include thrusting more slowly, withdrawing the penis altogether, purposefully ejaculating before sexual intercourse, and using more than one condom. Using more than one condom is not recommended as the friction will often lead to breakage. Some men report these to have been helpful. By the 21st century, most men with premature ejaculation could cure themselves, either on their own or with a partner, using self-help resources, and only those with unusually severe problems had to consult sex therapists, who cured 75 to 80 percent. Freudian theory postulated that rapid ejaculation was a symptom of underlying neurosis.

Coital alignment technique

The coital alignment technique (CAT) sex position, known colloquially as grinding the corn, is used primarily as a variant of the missionary position and is designed to maximize clitoral stimulation during sexual intercourse (coitus). This is achieved by combining the "riding high" variation of the missionary position with pressure-counterpressure movements performed by each partner in rhythm with coitus.

Orgasm

sexual gratificationfemale orgasmclimax
Tantric sex, which is not the same as Buddhist tantra (Vajrayana), is the ancient Indian spiritual tradition of sexual practices. It attributes a different value to orgasm than traditional cultural approaches to sexuality. Some practitioners of tantric sex aim to eliminate orgasm from sexual intercourse by remaining for a long time in the pre-orgasmic and non-emission state. Advocates of this, such as Rajneesh, claim that it eventually causes orgasmic feelings to spread out to all of one's conscious experience.

Spermatozoon

spermatozoaspermsperm cells
In mammals, the sex of the offspring is determined by the sperm cell: a spermatozoon bearing a X chromosome will lead to a female (XX) offspring, while one bearing a Y chromosome will lead to a male (XY) offspring. Sperm cells were first observed in Antonie van Leeuwenhoek's laboratory in 1677. The human sperm cell is the reproductive cell in males and will only survive in warm environments; once it leaves the male body the sperm's survival likelihood is reduced and it may die, thereby decreasing the total sperm quality. Sperm cells come in two types, "female" and "male".